2002 Progress Report: Particle DosimetryEPA Grant Number: R827352C016
Subproject: this is subproject number 016 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R827352
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
Center: Southern California Particle Center and Supersite
Center Director: Froines, John R.
Title: Particle Dosimetry
Investigators: Phalen, Robert , Oldham, Michael J.
Institution: University of California - Los Angeles , Michigan State University , University of California - Irvine , University of Southern California
Current Institution: University of California - Irvine
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: June 1, 1999 through May 31, 2005 (Extended to May 31, 2006)
Project Period Covered by this Report: June 1, 2001 through May 31, 2002
RFA: Airborne Particulate Matter (PM) Centers (1999) RFA Text | Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Particulate Matter , Air
The objective of this research project is to focus on the central hypothesis of the Southern California Particle Center and Supersite, which is that organic constituents associated with particulate matter (PM)—including quinones, other organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]), nitro-PAHs, and aldehydes/ketones), and metals—are capable of generating reactive oxygen species and acting as electrophilic agents. They have a central role in allergic airway disease such as asthma and cardiovascular effects through their ability to generate oxidative stress, inflammation, and immunomodulating effects in the lungs and airways.
Two major aspects of dosimetry are to determine: (1) the initial amount of pollutants deposited on specific sites within the respiratory tract; and (2) the fate of deposited materials with respect to retention, movement, and bioavailability. We initiate original research to improve relevant dosimetry models, and we collaborate with other investigators on the grant to improve the design, interpretation, and impact of their research.
In the support area, we heavily contributed to the freeway study, including helping with logistics, conducting exposures, performing bioassays, and characterizing the exposure system's delivery of air pollutants to the mice. Support was provided to Dr. Harkema's group by helping with lung casting of the Brown Norway rat. We also aided Dr. Campbell of the University of California at Irvine to get neurotoxicity data on mice exposed in the freeway study (Campbell, 2003). With respect to research, we published a paper describing how differing mouse strains significantly can affect the deposition of inhaled particles. We submitted abstracts describing our measurement of the mouse exposures inside custom-designed cages at the freeway. We also submitted an abstract reporting on particle dosage use in in vitro studies that relate to in vivo exposures. In addition, the Director published a book (Phalen, 2002) and obtained a National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences conference grant for the April-May 2003 PM Conference in Pittsburgh, PA.
We will support all of the Center investigators on an as-needed basis, and we will be involved in three specific tasks. First, two posters accepted at the American Association for Aerosol Research–PM Conference (Pittsburgh, April 1-4, 2003) will be written as papers and submitted to peer-reviewed journals. The tentative titles for these papers are: "Selecting Realistic PM Doses for In Vitro Studies" and "Performance of a New Mobile Whole Body Mouse Exposure System." Second, work on casting and analyzing the lung structure of compromised-rodent models will continue, with an emphasis on the Brown Norway rat used by Dr. Harkema. After performing morphometric measurements on the Brown Norway rat, dosimetric calculations for inhaled particles can be performed. The results will be useful for understanding the responses of this model and how such responses can be extrapolated to humans. Third, we will be assessing the state of the art in PM dosimetry, identifying the most important research questions, and designing research to address such questions.
Journal Articles:No journal articles submitted with this report: View all 6 publications for this subproject
Supplemental Keywords:Particulate matter, quinones, PAHs, aldehydes, ketones, metals, human health risk, asthma, cardiovascular effects, stress, mobile sources, diesel exhaust particles, carbon monoxide, carbon black, ultrafine particle concentration model, California, freeway study, bioavailability, respiratory tract, dosimetry implications,, RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, Air, particulate matter, Environmental Chemistry, Air Pollutants, Risk Assessments, Biochemistry, Atmospheric Sciences, ambient aerosol, particulates, human health effects, toxicology, ambient measurement methods, air pollution, PAH, human exposure, toxicity, particulate exposure, aerosol composition, allergens, aerosols, atmospheric chemistry, human health risk, particle transport, particle concentrator, particle size measurement
Progress and Final Reports:Original Abstract
Main Center Abstract and Reports:R827352 Southern California Particle Center and Supersite
Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
R827352C001 The Chemical Toxicology of Particulate Matter
R827352C002 Pro-inflammatory and the Pro-oxidative Effects of Diesel Exhaust Particulate in Vivo and in Vitro
R827352C003 Measurement of the “Effective” Surface Area of Ultrafine and Accumulation Mode PM (Pilot Project)
R827352C004 Effect of Exposure to Freeways with Heavy Diesel Traffic and Gasoline Traffic on Asthma Mouse Model
R827352C005 Effects of Exposure to Fine and Ultrafine Concentrated Ambient Particles near a Heavily Trafficked Freeway in Geriatric Rats (Pilot Project)
R827352C006 Relationship Between Ultrafine Particle Size Distribution and Distance From Highways
R827352C007 Exposure to Vehicular Pollutants and Respiratory Health
R827352C008 Traffic Density and Human Reproductive Health
R827352C009 The Role of Quinones, Aldehydes, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and other Atmospheric Transformation Products on Chronic Health Effects in Children
R827352C010 Novel Method for Measurement of Acrolein in Aerosols
R827352C011 Off-Line Sampling of Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Respiratory Health Surveys
R827352C012 Controlled Human Exposure Studies with Concentrated PM
R827352C013 Particle Size Distributions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the LAB
R827352C014 Physical and Chemical Characteristics of PM in the LAB (Source Receptor Study)
R827352C015 Exposure Assessment and Airshed Modeling Applications in Support of SCPC and CHS Projects
R827352C016 Particle Dosimetry
R827352C017 Conduct Research and Monitoring That Contributes to a Better Understanding of the Measurement, Sources, Size Distribution, Chemical Composition, Physical State, Spatial and Temporal Variability, and Health Effects of Suspended PM in the Los Angeles Basin (LAB)