2003 Progress Report: The Role of Quinones, Aldehydes, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and other Atmospheric Transformation Products on Chronic Health Effects in Children

EPA Grant Number: R827352C009
Subproject: this is subproject number 009 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R827352
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Southern California Particle Center and Supersite
Center Director: Froines, John R.
Title: The Role of Quinones, Aldehydes, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and other Atmospheric Transformation Products on Chronic Health Effects in Children
Investigators: Avol, Edward L. , Cho, Arthur K. , Froines, John R. , Miguel, Antonio
Institution: University of California - Los Angeles , University of Southern California
Current Institution: University of Southern California , University of California - Los Angeles
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: June 1, 1999 through May 31, 2005 (Extended to May 31, 2006)
Project Period Covered by this Report: June 1, 2002 through May 31, 2003
RFA: Airborne Particulate Matter (PM) Centers (1999) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Particulate Matter , Air

Objective:

This report summarizes the project efforts to assess the intercommunity variability of ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), quinones, and carbonyls. Two primary objectives guided the sampling study: (1) develop an informed estimate of seasonal variability and annual levels of specific ambient air organic species in the 12 Children’s Health Study (CHS) communities (Atascadero, Santa Maria, Lompoc, Lancaster, Long Beach, San Dimas, Upland, Mira Loma, Riverside, Lake Arrowhead, Lake Elsinore, and Alpine); and (2) assess the possible association of those annual estimates with observed health outcomes, as measured by lung function and health status.

This is one of the projects of the Southern California Particle Center and Supersite (SCPCS). The progress for the other projects is reported separately (see reports for R827352, R827352C001 through R827352C015, and R827352C017 through R827352C021).

Progress Summary:

Field operations were performed at sampling locations in 12 southern California communities participating in the California Air Resources Board-sponsored CHS. Field sampling was completed in October 2003. Post sampling parallel sampler calibration conducted in October 2003, provided the necessary statistical data for the continuing analyses with observed health outcomes in the CHS. Chemical analyses were released in May 2004, and statistical analyses are underway.

Three sets of vapor- and particle-phase samplers were available for field operations. Samplers were deployed for alternating 2-month periods beginning in mid-2001 in three CHS communities at a time. Samples were collected over a 24-hour continuous period once every 8 days during each sampling period, beginning at midnight. Upon completion of 7 sampling days, samplers were relocated to a second set of three study communities. Sampling was performed there in an analogous fashion (e.g., the once-in-8-day schedule), after which the samplers are recalibrated and returned to the former three sampling sites for a repetition of the once-in-8-day, 2-month sampling protocol. In this manner, the 3 sets of samplers were used to collect speciated chemical data across 6 sampling sites each year; data were collected at the 12 sampling locations.

In each sampling location, two types of samplers were deployed: a Tisch Environmental Model 1202 semivolatile organic compound sampling system was used to collect PAHs and quinones, oxidative compounds of potential research interest (see Table 1 for a listing of analytes of study interest). In addition to the Tisch sampler, an inhouse carbonyl sampler was fabricated to collect ambient carbonyls. (Target carbonyls of study interest are listed in Table 1.) Sampling was performed over a continuous 24-hour period (midnight to midnight) and was initiated by an electronic timer. Sampling matrices, transported to and from the site in insulated coolers, were deployed the day prior to sampling and collected the morning following sampling. Additional sampling details have been reported in earlier documents and in the standard operating protocols developed for the research project.

Table 1. Target Analytes of the Organics Sampling Study

Target Analytes of the Organics Sampling Study

Data analysis currently is underway, but several observations are worth noting at this time. First, the field collection and stabilization of ambient quinones has proven to be a challenging undertaking. Improvements in the sampling matrix over the course of the field collection effort resulted in improved collection of the vapor-phase quinones component and may have resulted in an artificial step change in the observed ambient values. Handling of this subtlety in the review and interpretation of the data is a focus of ongoing discussion. With regard to aspects of the PAH data, recent analyses of the data set have underscored the importance of surface inversions (and warmer ambient temperatures) in observed particle-phase PAH levels, which were 15- and 20-fold higher during colder periods of the first and the second cycle, respectively. In contrast, naphthalene, acenaphthene, anthracene, and phenanthrene levels varied with season by a factor of approximately two. At all sites, measured concentrations of benzo [ghi]perylene—a tracer of gasoline exhaust emissions—suggest that gasoline engine exhaust is an important contribution. An abstract describing these results has been prepared and submitted for presentation at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for Aerosol Research in Atlanta, GA, in October 2004.

Field operations were completed in late October 2003. The final cycle of sampling and extraction of samplers from several of the field sites were hampered by concurrent fires that engulfed portions of southern California in October 2003. Laboratory analyses of field samples were performed in winter and spring 2004. Quinones data were circulated among investigators in May 2004, and the PAHs/carbonyls data set is expected in May 2004 as well. Following a review of the data set, investigators will meet to discuss analytical assignments and approaches to best exploit the collected data. Currently, it is anticipated that data analyses will be performed in June 2004, and several manuscripts will be prepared in mid-summer 2004.

Future Activities:

Chemical analyses were released in May 2004, and statistical analyses are underway. In addition, several manuscripts will be prepared in mid-summer 2004.

Journal Articles:

No journal articles submitted with this report: View all 5 publications for this subproject

Supplemental Keywords:

particulate matter, PM, quinones, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, aldehydes, ketones, metals, allergic airway disease, human exposure studies, asthma, cardiovascular effects, aerosol sampling, atmospheric aerosol, environmental monitoring, environmental statistics, California, CA, acute exposure, aerosols, air pollution, air quality, air toxics, airway disease, allergen, allergic response, ambient aerosol, assessment of exposure, asthma triggers, atmospheric chemistry, bioaerosols, biological response, childhood respiratory disease, children, dosimetry, environmental hazard exposures, environmental health hazard, environmental triggers, environmentally caused disease, epidemiology, exposure assessment, health effects, home, household, human exposure, human health effects, indoor air quality, inhaled particles, lead, outdoor air, particle concentrator, particle transport, particulate exposure, particulates, sensitive populations, toxicology, toxics,, RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, Air, Geographic Area, HUMAN HEALTH, particulate matter, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Air Pollutants, State, Risk Assessments, mobile sources, Environmental Monitoring, Health Effects, engine exhaust, ambient aerosol, asthma, children's health, motor vehicle emissions, epidemiology, human health effects, quinones, automotive emissions, particulate emissions, automobiles, automotive exhaust, air pollution, children, PAH, human exposure, PM characteristics, California (CA), allergens, indoor air quality, aerosols, atmospheric chemistry

Relevant Websites:

http://www.scpcs.ucla.edu Exit

Progress and Final Reports:

Original Abstract
  • 1999
  • 2000
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2004 Progress Report
  • Final Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R827352    Southern California Particle Center and Supersite

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R827352C001 The Chemical Toxicology of Particulate Matter
    R827352C002 Pro-inflammatory and the Pro-oxidative Effects of Diesel Exhaust Particulate in Vivo and in Vitro
    R827352C003 Measurement of the “Effective” Surface Area of Ultrafine and Accumulation Mode PM (Pilot Project)
    R827352C004 Effect of Exposure to Freeways with Heavy Diesel Traffic and Gasoline Traffic on Asthma Mouse Model
    R827352C005 Effects of Exposure to Fine and Ultrafine Concentrated Ambient Particles near a Heavily Trafficked Freeway in Geriatric Rats (Pilot Project)
    R827352C006 Relationship Between Ultrafine Particle Size Distribution and Distance From Highways
    R827352C007 Exposure to Vehicular Pollutants and Respiratory Health
    R827352C008 Traffic Density and Human Reproductive Health
    R827352C009 The Role of Quinones, Aldehydes, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and other Atmospheric Transformation Products on Chronic Health Effects in Children
    R827352C010 Novel Method for Measurement of Acrolein in Aerosols
    R827352C011 Off-Line Sampling of Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Respiratory Health Surveys
    R827352C012 Controlled Human Exposure Studies with Concentrated PM
    R827352C013 Particle Size Distributions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the LAB
    R827352C014 Physical and Chemical Characteristics of PM in the LAB (Source Receptor Study)
    R827352C015 Exposure Assessment and Airshed Modeling Applications in Support of SCPC and CHS Projects
    R827352C016 Particle Dosimetry
    R827352C017 Conduct Research and Monitoring That Contributes to a Better Understanding of the Measurement, Sources, Size Distribution, Chemical Composition, Physical State, Spatial and Temporal Variability, and Health Effects of Suspended PM in the Los Angeles Basin (LAB)