2002 Progress Report: The Role of Quinones, Aldehydes, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and other Atmospheric Transformation Products on Chronic Health Effects in Children

EPA Grant Number: R827352C009
Subproject: this is subproject number 009 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R827352
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Southern California Particle Center and Supersite
Center Director: Froines, John R.
Title: The Role of Quinones, Aldehydes, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and other Atmospheric Transformation Products on Chronic Health Effects in Children
Investigators: Avol, Edward L. , Cho, Arthur K. , Froines, John R. , Miguel, Antonio
Institution: University of California - Los Angeles , Michigan State University , University of California - Irvine , University of Southern California
Current Institution: University of Southern California , University of California - Los Angeles
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: June 1, 1999 through May 31, 2005 (Extended to May 31, 2006)
Project Period Covered by this Report: June 1, 2001 through May 31, 2002
RFA: Airborne Particulate Matter (PM) Centers (1999) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Particulate Matter , Air

Objective:

The objective of this research project is to focus on the central hypothesis of the Southern California Particle Center and Supersite, which is that organic constituents associated with particulate matter—including quinones, other organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], nitro-PAHs, and aldehydes/ketones), and metals—are capable of generating reactive oxygen species and acting as electrophilic agents. They have a central role in allergic airway disease such as asthma and cardiovascular effects through their ability to generate oxidative stress, inflammation, and immunomodulating effects in the lungs and airways.

The specific objective of this research project involves a multidisciplinary collaboration to obtain information about the levels and seasonal variability of selected PAHs, aldehydes, and quinones across 12 southern California communities participating in the Children's Health Study (CHS). The collected data will be used to explore the associations between ambient pollutant exposure and long-term respiratory health in the ongoing longitudinal investigation.

Progress Summary:

Seasonal sampling data have been developed for 6 of the 12 CHS communities. Improved methods for collection and analysis of ambient PAHs, aldehydes, and quinones have been a valuable byproduct of the investigation. During the course of field operations and subsequent laboratory analyses, it became apparent that vapor-phase species may not have been captured fully with the original sampling matrix. The sampling cartridge was revised, and we noted that levels of vapor-phase quinones have increased dramatically, with an observed tenfold increase in detected levels of 1,2-naphthaquinone and an almost 50-fold increase in 1,4-naphthaquinone. Continued laboratory assessment currently is underway to confirm the trends in these analyses. Manuscripts describing the measurements of the target species are in final preparation.

Seasonal values for the target compounds have been established for 6 of the 12 CHS sites. In general, we have observed naphthalene levels to consistently be one or two orders of magnitude higher in concentration than other monitored PAHs, and have collected data suggestive of a cross-basin rise and fall in reactive quinone levels. Vapor-phase naphthalene levels dominated all other PAHs and typically varied tenfold over the communities monitored (from ~ 60 ng/m3 in Lompoc to ~ 580 ng/m3 in Riverside). During several episodic ambient events, observed 24-hour average ambient naphthalene levels rose to more than 5,000 ng/m3 in metropolitan areas east of Los Angeles (San Dimas and Riverside), and more than 2,000 ng/m3 in a community (Atascadero) located hundreds of kilometers northwest. Benzo[ghi]perylene, a marker for light-duty vehicular exhaust, was the principal contributor of particulate-phase PAHs measured. An analysis of the 2002/2003 field samples, as well as laboratory refinement and publication of analytic approaches to identify four ambient quinones, has been the focus of Year 4 of the project. A manuscript was prepared, reviewed, and accepted for publication describing the quantitative methodology in use for the determination of ambient quinones (Cho, 2003).

Future Activities:

We will continue field sampling in the assessment of intercommunity variability of ambient PAHs, quinones, and carbonyls across the 12 CHS communities. Sampling for the second set of six CHS communities was completed in December 2003. This will provide a data set for comparative analyses and seasonal trends across the CHS communities, and will be integrated into ongoing health analyses of the more than 6,000 subjects participating in the CHS health investigation. The analysis and interpretation of data will continue into spring 2004, with results scheduled for presentation in May 2004.

Journal Articles:

No journal articles submitted with this report: View all 5 publications for this subproject

Supplemental Keywords:

Children's health, particulate matter, quinones, PAHs, aldehydes, ketones, metals, allergic airway disease, seasonal variability, longitudinal study, naphthalene, human health risk, asthma, diesel exhaust particles, ultrafine particle concentration, California,, RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, Air, Geographic Area, HUMAN HEALTH, particulate matter, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Air Pollutants, State, Risk Assessments, mobile sources, Environmental Monitoring, Health Effects, ambient aerosol, asthma, engine exhaust, children's health, epidemiology, human health effects, motor vehicle emissions, quinones, particulate emissions, automotive emissions, air pollution, automobiles, automotive exhaust, children, PAH, human exposure, indoor air quality, California (CA), allergens, PM characteristics, aerosols, atmospheric chemistry

Relevant Websites:

http://www.scpcs.ucla.edu/ exit EPA

Progress and Final Reports:

Original Abstract
  • 1999
  • 2000
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • 2004 Progress Report
  • Final Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R827352    Southern California Particle Center and Supersite

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R827352C001 The Chemical Toxicology of Particulate Matter
    R827352C002 Pro-inflammatory and the Pro-oxidative Effects of Diesel Exhaust Particulate in Vivo and in Vitro
    R827352C003 Measurement of the “Effective” Surface Area of Ultrafine and Accumulation Mode PM (Pilot Project)
    R827352C004 Effect of Exposure to Freeways with Heavy Diesel Traffic and Gasoline Traffic on Asthma Mouse Model
    R827352C005 Effects of Exposure to Fine and Ultrafine Concentrated Ambient Particles near a Heavily Trafficked Freeway in Geriatric Rats (Pilot Project)
    R827352C006 Relationship Between Ultrafine Particle Size Distribution and Distance From Highways
    R827352C007 Exposure to Vehicular Pollutants and Respiratory Health
    R827352C008 Traffic Density and Human Reproductive Health
    R827352C009 The Role of Quinones, Aldehydes, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and other Atmospheric Transformation Products on Chronic Health Effects in Children
    R827352C010 Novel Method for Measurement of Acrolein in Aerosols
    R827352C011 Off-Line Sampling of Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Respiratory Health Surveys
    R827352C012 Controlled Human Exposure Studies with Concentrated PM
    R827352C013 Particle Size Distributions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the LAB
    R827352C014 Physical and Chemical Characteristics of PM in the LAB (Source Receptor Study)
    R827352C015 Exposure Assessment and Airshed Modeling Applications in Support of SCPC and CHS Projects
    R827352C016 Particle Dosimetry
    R827352C017 Conduct Research and Monitoring That Contributes to a Better Understanding of the Measurement, Sources, Size Distribution, Chemical Composition, Physical State, Spatial and Temporal Variability, and Health Effects of Suspended PM in the Los Angeles Basin (LAB)