Final Report: Exposure to Vehicular Pollutants and Respiratory Health

EPA Grant Number: R827352C007
Subproject: this is subproject number 007 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R827352
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Southern California Particle Center and Supersite
Center Director: Froines, John R.
Title: Exposure to Vehicular Pollutants and Respiratory Health
Investigators: McConnell, Rob Scot , Avol, Edward L. , Gauderman, William , Lurmann, Fred
Institution: University of Southern California
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: June 1, 1999 through May 31, 2005 (Extended to May 31, 2006)
RFA: Airborne Particulate Matter (PM) Centers (1999) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Particulate Matter , Air

Objective:

Topic B: Studies of Emission Sources and Related Adverse Health Effects

Project Hypotheses

This project tested the hypothesis that exposure to vehicular pollutants is associated with respiratory health outcomes in children. We have examined this hypothesis using data from the Children’s Health Study (CHS), a longitudinal evaluation originally designed to evaluate the effect of average community pollutant exposures on average community respiratory health outcomes. Pollution has been well characterized at central site monitors in 16 Southern California communities involving participants from two sets of school based cohorts. In the Southern California Particle Center and Supersite (SCPCS) we characterized within-community variation in traffic related particulate pollutant exposure and related traffic pollutants. These new pollutant metrics have allowed us to examine the relationship of individual level exposures to the CHS outcomes:

  1. We developed modeled metrics of exposure and tested these against measured pollutants.
  2. We evaluated the association of these metrics and of measured indicator pollutants to:
    1. Prevalence and severity of asthma at entry
    2. Incidence of asthma during follow-up
    3. Lung function at study entry and its growth during follow-up
    4. School absence.
  3. We evaluated the association of chronic asthma exacerbation with chronic temporal variation from yearly variation in exposure to oxidant pollutants among asthmatics.

Project Objectives

Our approach was to geo-code addresses of residences and schools and then to assign traffic exposures to these addresses, based on traffic estimates available from the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans). We used ambient air quality measurements at 12 locations to evaluate these models. Using modifications of statistical modeling strategies developed for the CHS, we examined the effect of exposure to traffic related pollutants on asthma prevalence, and we found relationships not previously reported in this growing literature. In addition, we examined outcomes for which there has been little previous study of the effects of traffic modeled pollutants: asthma severity, asthma incidence, lung function and lung function growth, and school absence.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

Some of the key findings of this project were:

  1. Proximity to high traffic corridors and intra-community variability in traffic-related pollutants were associated with lifetime asthma in cross sectional analyses and with incident asthma during follow-up of the CHS cohorts.
  2. Lung function and lung function growth were associated with traffic related air pollution estimated both at the home and at the central site monitor.
  3. School absence was associated with traffic related air pollution at home and school among children with asthma.
  4. Yearly variations in organic carbon and other particulate pollutants were strongly associated with bronchitis among children with asthma; these effects were modified by a dog in the home, an indicator of endotoxin exposure.

Technical Report:

Full Final Technical Report (PDF, 11pp., 54KB, about PDF)


Journal Articles on this Report : 7 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 7 publications 7 publications in selected types All 7 journal articles
Other center views: All 150 publications 149 publications in selected types All 149 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Lurmann F, Kuenzli N, Gilliland F, Peters J, McConnell R. Childhood asthma and exposure to traffic and nitrogen dioxide. Epidemiology 2005;16(6):737-743. R827352 (Final)
R827352C007 (Final)
R827352C009 (Final)
R831861 (2004)
R831861 (2005)
R831861 (2006)
R831861 (Final)
R831861C001 (2005)
R831861C001 (2006)
R831861C001 (Final)
R831861C002 (Final)
R831861C003 (2006)
R831861C003 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Mothers for Clean Air Colorado-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Epidemiology-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Gauderman WJ, Vora H, McConnell R, Berhane K, Gilliland F, Thomas D, Lurmann F, Avol E, Kunzli N, Jerrett M, Peters J. Effect of exposure to traffic on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age: a cohort study. Lancet 2007;369(9561):571-577. R827352 (Final)
    R827352C007 (Final)
    R831861 (2005)
    R831861 (Final)
    R831861C001 (2007)
    R831861C001 (Final)
    R831861C002 (Final)
    R831861C003 (2007)
    R831861C003 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Lancet-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Lancet-Abstract & Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Journal Article McConnell R, Jones C, Milam J, Gonzalez P, Berhane K, Clement L, Richardson J, Hanley-Lopez J, Kwong K, Maalouf N, Galvan J, Platts-Mills T. Cockroach counts and house dust allergen concentrations after professional cockroach control and cleaning. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 2003;91(6):546-552. R827352 (2004)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C007 (Final)
    R831861 (2004)
    R831861 (2005)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: SemanticScholar-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
    Exit
  • Journal Article McConnell R, Berhane K, Gilliland F, Molitor J, Thomas D, Lurmann F, Avol E, Gauderman WJ, Peters JM. Prospective study of air pollution and bronchitic symptoms in children with asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2003;168(7):790-797. R827352 (2004)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C007 (Final)
    R827352C009 (Final)
    R826708 (2000)
    R826708 (2001)
    R826708 (2002)
    R826708 (Final)
    R826708C003 (Final)
    R831861 (2004)
    R831861 (2005)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: ATS Journals-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ATS Journals-Abstract
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  • Other: ATS Journals-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article McConnell R, Berhane K, Molitor J, Gilliland F, Kunzli N, Thorne PS, Thomas D, Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Lurmann F, Rappaport E, Jerrett M, Peters JM. Dog ownership enhances symptomatic responses to air pollution in children with asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(12):1910-1915. R827352 (Final)
    R827352C007 (Final)
    R826708 (Final)
    R831861 (2005)
    R831861 (Final)
    R831861C001 (Final)
    R831861C002 (Final)
    R831861C003 (2007)
    R831861C003 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article McConnell R, Berhane K, Yao L, Lurmann FW, Avol E, Peters JM. Predicting residential ozone deficits from nearby traffic. Science of the Total Environment 2006;363(1-3):166-174. R827352 (Final)
    R827352C007 (Final)
    R831861 (2004)
    R831861 (2005)
    R831861 (2006)
    R831861 (Final)
    R831861C001 (2005)
    R831861C001 (2006)
    R831861C001 (Final)
    R831861C002 (Final)
    R831861C003 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Science Direct-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Science Direct-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Science Direct-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article McConnell R, Berhane K, Yao L, Jerrett M, Lurmann F, Gilliland F, Kunzli N, Gauderman J, Avol E, Thomas D, Peters J. Traffic, susceptibility, and childhood asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(5):766-772. R827352 (Final)
    R827352C007 (Final)
    R826708 (Final)
    R831861 (2004)
    R831861 (2005)
    R831861 (2006)
    R831861 (Final)
    R831861C001 (2006)
    R831861C001 (Final)
    R831861C002 (Final)
    R831861C003 (2006)
    R831861C003 (2007)
    R831861C003 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    RFA, Scientific Discipline, Air, Geographic Area, HUMAN HEALTH, particulate matter, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Air Pollutants, State, mobile sources, Environmental Monitoring, Health Effects, engine exhaust, ambient aerosol, asthma, motor vehicle emissions, epidemiology, human health effects, quinones, automotive emissions, particulate emissions, automobiles, automotive exhaust, PAH, air pollution, children, human exposure, PM characteristics, California (CA), allergens, indoor air quality, aerosols, atmospheric chemistry

    Relevant Websites:

    Full Final Technical Report (PDF, 11pp., 54KB, about PDF)
    http://www.scpcs.ucla.edu Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 1999
  • 2000
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • 2004 Progress Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R827352    Southern California Particle Center and Supersite

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R827352C001 The Chemical Toxicology of Particulate Matter
    R827352C002 Pro-inflammatory and the Pro-oxidative Effects of Diesel Exhaust Particulate in Vivo and in Vitro
    R827352C003 Measurement of the “Effective” Surface Area of Ultrafine and Accumulation Mode PM (Pilot Project)
    R827352C004 Effect of Exposure to Freeways with Heavy Diesel Traffic and Gasoline Traffic on Asthma Mouse Model
    R827352C005 Effects of Exposure to Fine and Ultrafine Concentrated Ambient Particles near a Heavily Trafficked Freeway in Geriatric Rats (Pilot Project)
    R827352C006 Relationship Between Ultrafine Particle Size Distribution and Distance From Highways
    R827352C007 Exposure to Vehicular Pollutants and Respiratory Health
    R827352C008 Traffic Density and Human Reproductive Health
    R827352C009 The Role of Quinones, Aldehydes, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and other Atmospheric Transformation Products on Chronic Health Effects in Children
    R827352C010 Novel Method for Measurement of Acrolein in Aerosols
    R827352C011 Off-Line Sampling of Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Respiratory Health Surveys
    R827352C012 Controlled Human Exposure Studies with Concentrated PM
    R827352C013 Particle Size Distributions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the LAB
    R827352C014 Physical and Chemical Characteristics of PM in the LAB (Source Receptor Study)
    R827352C015 Exposure Assessment and Airshed Modeling Applications in Support of SCPC and CHS Projects
    R827352C016 Particle Dosimetry
    R827352C017 Conduct Research and Monitoring That Contributes to a Better Understanding of the Measurement, Sources, Size Distribution, Chemical Composition, Physical State, Spatial and Temporal Variability, and Health Effects of Suspended PM in the Los Angeles Basin (LAB)