The Chemical Toxicology of Particulate Matter

EPA Grant Number: R827352C001
Subproject: this is subproject number 001 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R827352
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Southern California Particle Center and Supersite
Center Director: Froines, John R.
Title: The Chemical Toxicology of Particulate Matter
Investigators: Cho, Arthur K. , Froines, John R.
Institution: University of California - Los Angeles
EPA Project Officer: Hunt, Sherri
Project Period: June 1, 1999 through May 31, 2005 (Extended to May 31, 2006)
RFA: Airborne Particulate Matter (PM) Centers (1999) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Particulate Matter , Air

Objective:

The objective of this research project is to focus on the central hypothesis of the Southern California Particle Center and Supersite, which is that organic constituents associated with particulate matter (PM)—including quinones, other organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], nitro-PAHs, and aldehydes/ketones), and metals—are capable of generating reactive oxygen species and acting as electrophilic agents. They have a central role in allergic airway disease such as asthma and cardiovascular effects through their ability to generate oxidative stress, inflammation, and immunomodulating effects in the lungs and airways.

The hypothesis explored during Year 4 of the project is that certain organic functional groups and transition metals present in PM are capable of interacting with cellular systems and molecules to generate reactive intermediates that alter thiol functions in cells. These alterations could be either changes in redox state or covalent alterations that result in signaling changes and the precipitation of inflammatory or other toxic responses. The project is determining the redox activity of PM fractions, the concentration of quinones, a surrogate of the reactive species present in PM, and is developing probes for assessing electrophile-based toxicity. In addition, tissue studies are being conducted to develop a cellular toxicity assay that reflects the chemical interactions described above. Currently, we are focusing on the capsaicin receptor.

Publications and Presentations:

Publications have been submitted on this subproject: View all 10 publications for this subprojectView all 138 publications for this center

Journal Articles:

Journal Articles have been submitted on this subproject: View all 10 journal articles for this subprojectView all 137 journal articles for this center

Supplemental Keywords:

Particulate matter, quinones, PAHs, aldehydes, ketones, metals, allergic airway disease, human health risk, asthma, cardiovascular effects, oxidative stress, environmental monitoring, California, acrolein sampling, carbonyls, motor vehicle emissions, mobile sources, thiol function, redox activity, biochemical assays, diesel exhaust particles,, RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, Air, HUMAN HEALTH, particulate matter, Environmental Chemistry, Air Pollutants, Risk Assessments, Biochemistry, Health Effects, Biology, particulates, ambient aerosol, asthma, toxicology, quinones, human health effects, airway disease, allergic airway disease, air pollution, PAH, particulate exposure, human exposure, toxicity, breath samples, allergens, particle concentrator, airborne urban contaminants, human health risk, genetic susceptibility, aerosols, atmospheric chemistry, dosimetry

Progress and Final Reports:

  • 1999
  • 2000
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • 2004 Progress Report
  • Final Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R827352    Southern California Particle Center and Supersite

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R827352C001 The Chemical Toxicology of Particulate Matter
    R827352C002 Pro-inflammatory and the Pro-oxidative Effects of Diesel Exhaust Particulate in Vivo and in Vitro
    R827352C003 Measurement of the “Effective” Surface Area of Ultrafine and Accumulation Mode PM (Pilot Project)
    R827352C004 Effect of Exposure to Freeways with Heavy Diesel Traffic and Gasoline Traffic on Asthma Mouse Model
    R827352C005 Effects of Exposure to Fine and Ultrafine Concentrated Ambient Particles near a Heavily Trafficked Freeway in Geriatric Rats (Pilot Project)
    R827352C006 Relationship Between Ultrafine Particle Size Distribution and Distance From Highways
    R827352C007 Exposure to Vehicular Pollutants and Respiratory Health
    R827352C008 Traffic Density and Human Reproductive Health
    R827352C009 The Role of Quinones, Aldehydes, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and other Atmospheric Transformation Products on Chronic Health Effects in Children
    R827352C010 Novel Method for Measurement of Acrolein in Aerosols
    R827352C011 Off-Line Sampling of Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Respiratory Health Surveys
    R827352C012 Controlled Human Exposure Studies with Concentrated PM
    R827352C013 Particle Size Distributions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the LAB
    R827352C014 Physical and Chemical Characteristics of PM in the LAB (Source Receptor Study)
    R827352C015 Exposure Assessment and Airshed Modeling Applications in Support of SCPC and CHS Projects
    R827352C016 Particle Dosimetry
    R827352C017 Conduct Research and Monitoring That Contributes to a Better Understanding of the Measurement, Sources, Size Distribution, Chemical Composition, Physical State, Spatial and Temporal Variability, and Health Effects of Suspended PM in the Los Angeles Basin (LAB)