Final Report: Feasibility of Monitoring Heavy Metal Emissions From a Coal-Fired Thermal Hazardous Waste Incinerator Using a Multi-Metal Continuous Emissions MonitorEPA Contract Number: EPD07026
Title: Feasibility of Monitoring Heavy Metal Emissions From a Coal-Fired Thermal Hazardous Waste Incinerator Using a Multi-Metal Continuous Emissions Monitor
Investigators: Cooper, John A
Small Business: Cooper Environmental Services, LLC
EPA Contact: Manager, SBIR Program
Project Period: March 1, 2007 through August 31, 2007
Project Amount: $69,949
RFA: Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) - Phase I (2007) RFA Text | Recipients Lists
Research Category: SBIR - Monitoring , Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)
Several criteria were used to help evaluate whether the Xact can accurately measure the concentration of each element at a coal-fire incinerator. These criteria included:
- Linearity: The Xact concentrations were plotted against the QAG™ reference aerosol concentration and a least squares linear fit was generated. The slope of this line and the correlation coefficient (r) are indicators of the Xact’s accuracy over the experimental concentration range. If the slope of this line is between 0.85 and 1.15 and the correlation coefficient is greater than 0.90, than the measurements made by the Xact are accurate over a concentration range that includes the emission limit on a coal-fired incinerator.
- Ratio of Xact to a reference: The ratio of the Xact measured concentrations to the QAG™ reference concentrations was determined for each data point. Ratios between 0.80 and 1.20 indicate that the accuracy of the Xact’s measurements is not impacted by the chemistry or physical nature of the stack effluent.
- Flue gas to ambient air comparison: The ratio of the Xact measured concentrations to the QAG™ reference concentrations was determined when sampling both stack gas and ambient air. If ratios determined for flue gas sampling are not significantly different from ratios determined for ambient air sampling, than the measurements made by the Xact are not impacted by the chemical characteristics of the coal-fired flue gas.
A summary of the results are presented in Table 1. All experimental criteria were met.
Table 1. Results Summary
CES concludes that chemical and physical characteristics of the stack gas from a coal-fired facility do not impact the Xact’s measurements, and the Xact can accurately measure metals over a concentration range that includes the emission limit. Furthermore, the validation techniques used previously on a gas-fired hazardous waste incinerator were successful on a coal-fired furnace. It is, therefore, feasible to use the Xact instrument to measure metal emissions from coal-fired sources including:
- Hazardous waste incinerators
- Coal-fired power plants
- Municipal waste incinerators
- Medical waste incinerators
- Industrial furnaces and boilers
- Primary and secondary metal smelters
Currently, there are no other CEMs capable of measuring multiple metals at area sources. An investigation of potential markets for the Xact multi-metals monitor during Phase I of this project has revealed several markets for this instrument: the mercury monitoring market, the multi-metal CEM market, and the multi-metal ambient monitoring market. At the time of this study, the most significant market for the Xact CEMS™ is the mercury monitoring market; therefore, CES has elected to focus the majority of its commercialization efforts on this market. Although the multi-metal CEM market is still emerging, CES continues to receive interest in the Xact CEMS™ and filled two orders for this instrument in 2007.