Final Report: Atlantic Coast Environmental Indicators Consortium

EPA Grant Number: R828677
Center: EAGLES - Atlantic Coast Environmental Indicators Consortium
Center Director: Paerl, Hans
Title: Atlantic Coast Environmental Indicators Consortium
Investigators: Paerl, Hans , Boicourt, William C. , Fonseca, Mark , Harding Jr., Lawrence W. , Hopkinson, Charles S , Houde, Edward D. , Kenworthy, Judson , Luettich Jr., Richard A. , Morris, James T. , Roman, Michael R. , Torres, Raymond
Institution: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Ecosystem Management Research Institute , Texas A & M University , University of Maryland , University of South Carolina at Columbia
EPA Project Officer: Hiscock, Michael
Project Period: February 26, 2001 through February 25, 2005
Project Amount: $5,812,315
RFA: Environmental Indicators in the Estuarine Environment Research Program (2000) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Ecological Indicators/Assessment/Restoration , Water , Ecosystems

Objective:

The objectives of this research project were to:  (1) develop and evaluate indicators of estuarine and coastal water quality and ecosystem health that can be used to assess present status and long-term trends; (2) test the applicability of indicators in estuaries that encompass a range of primary producer bases, biogeographic provinces, chemistry, circulation, hydrology, and geomorphic characteristics; (3) resolve effects of climatic forcing on indicators to differentiate effects of anthropogenic and natural stresses on ecosystem function; (4) use remote sensing and observing systems to augment monitoring data and provide a regional to coast-wide context for indicators; and (5) provide indicators to managers leading to their use for specific applications, including setting numerical water quality criteria.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

The Atlantic Coast Ecological Indicators Consortium, (ACE INC) a component of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Science To Achieve Results (STAR) Estuarine and Great Lakes Indicator Program (EaGLe), developed and tested broadly applicable, integrative indicators of ecological condition, integrity, and sustainability in four representative estuaries on the U.S. Atlantic Coast.  These estuaries encompass a range of hydrologic forcing and habitat types.  Each has been impacted by human perturbations.  All are highly sensitive to weather events and climatic variability. Included are the nation’s two largest estuaries, the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland/Virginia and the Albemarle-Pamlico Sound, North Carolina.  Also included are a relatively small suburban estuary in New England, the Parker River, site of a National Science Foundation Long-Term Ecosystem Research program, and a river-dominated estuary in the southeast Atlantic Bight, the North River Inlet, South Carolina.  These sites are distinguished by three dominant types of primary producers that typify U.S. estuaries:  intertidal marsh—Plum Island and North Inlet; plankton dominated—Chesapeake Bay and Pamlico Sound; and seagrass-dominated—portions of the Chesapeake Bay and Pamlico Sound.

ACE INC developed indicators based on geomorphological, hydrodynamic, and biooptical attributes; biological community structure; ecological and trophodynamic processes; and ecosystem structure to address our research objectives.  

We developed indicators based on analysis and modeling of extensive archival and newly collected data, guided by the belief that understanding how strong climate forcing imparts variability to temperate estuarine ecosystems is required for development of indicators that are useful and broadly applicable.  This view was supported strongly in evaluating plankton and fish indicators for the two large estuaries, Pamlico Sound and the Chesapeake Bay, where variability imposed by climate can, at times, obscure and complicate changes traceable to human activities and stresses.  Specific plankton/fish indicators we developed include: 

  • Phytoplankton biomass chlorophyll-a (chl-a), primary productivity, and community composition.
  • Microbial pathogens.
  • Zooplankton abundance/distribution (and climatology).
  • Biomass size spectra (BSS)—phytoplankton to fish.
  • Residence time.
  • Dissolved oxygen.

Phytoplankton biomass, primary productivity, and community composition reflect nutrient loading in land-margin ecosystems exemplified by the Chesapeake Bay and Albemarle Pamlico Sound.  We developed indicators of these expressions of phytoplankton based on in situ and remotely sensed observations spanning two decades. Statistical models were developed to quantitatively separate trends from variability. These models are the key to recognizing chl-a as a sentinel indicator for nutrient overenrichment.  Substantive progress was made to develop chl-a as a water-quality indicator in the Chesapeake Bay, the Neuse River Estuary, and Pamlico Sound.  The chl-a criteria have been expanded by ACE INC scientists to support specific, numerical targets of acceptable concentrations (e.g., total maximum daily loads).  A product of ACE INC was extension of the time-series of aircraft observations of chl-a and sea surface temperature in the Chesapeake Bay to nearly two decades, providing highly resolved data to evaluate trends and responses to regulatory compliance.

Analyses of primary producers extended beyond chl-a to development of indicators that are major taxonomic groups based on concentrations of diagnostic photopigments in the Neuse River, Pamlico Sound, and Chesapeake Bay.  High performance liquid chromatography quantified photopigment concentrations, and the computer program, CHEMTAX, was applied to reconstruct taxonomic composition from these concentrations.  Indicators consisted of the proportions of total biomass (chl-a) represented by major taxonomic groups, expressed as time-series and related to environmental variables for each system.  Cell counts from monitoring confirmed the abundances of major taxa estimated using this method.  We collected essential baseline data on photopigment indicators during ACE INC for a range of hydrologic conditions, supporting conclusions drawn from statistical analyses that climate was responsible for coincident forcing of biomass and composition.

We developed indicators of heterotrophic bacteria and viruses that are potential pathogens, such as Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli, in ACE INC.  Outbreaks of these forms often are associated with storm water runoff, sewage effluent, animal operations, and agriculture.  The focus was on factors that influence the delivery, growth, fate, and transport of these species and others.  Of particular interest were bacteria of the genus Vibrio spp. as they are native to estuaries and include Vibrio vulnificus, which is highly pathogenic.  Virus probes were developed as indicators of pathogenic bacterioplankton and bloom-forming phytoplankton species in the Neuse River Estuary.  We used these indicators to assess ecosystem condition and to identify the occurrence of species with a potential to disrupt estuarine ecosystems.

We discovered that zooplankton populations and taxa were sensitive indicators of climate-forcing in the Chesapeake Bay.  Abundance and distribution of two key species of estuarine copepods, Acartia tonsa and Eurytemora affinis, which are major prey of fish and consumers of phytoplankton, were indicators of contrasting climate conditions manifested as “wet” and “dry” years (Eurytemora and Acartia years, respectively).  Interannual variability in freshwater flow is predictive of abundance and spatiotemporal distributions of these indicator species.  Statistical models evaluating effects of environmental factors and predominant weather patterns on zooplankton abundance developed by ACE INC have broad applicability to other estuaries where these common species reside.

BSS indicators spanning trophic levels from phytoplankton to fish delineate the abundance and distribution of organisms by size class and are broadly indicative of ecosystem structure and food-web relationships.  We quantified BSS across trophic levels, developed statistical models of the spectra, and evaluated statistical properties as indicators of the structure and health of biological communities.  Overall, BSS for the Chesapeake Bay resembled those expected in unstressed aquatic communities, but specific regional-seasonal analysis indicated departures from spectral properties of a healthy ecosystem.  Spectral properties were particularly effective in characterizing stressed conditions in mid-Chesapeake Bay during summer, corresponding to the season and region where deleterious water quality conditions (e.g., hypoxia and anoxia) prevail.  Application of BSS may be useful mostly as decadal-scale indicators of the status and trends of estuarine biological communities.

Large-scale relationships between nitrogen export and residence-time guided development of physical indicators to capture flushing characteristics of estuaries.  We combined computational and modeling approaches to estimate residence-times in several tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay and the Neuse River Estuary that encompass a range of geometries.  Flushing times are sensitive to highly variable physical attributes of the systems including stratification, vertical exchange, and horizontal advection.  Residence-time is responsive to climate forcing on annual to interannual time-scales and is driven largely by freshwater flow.  This indicator also is applicable to other estuaries, provided appropriate data are collected to drive models.  We also explored high-frequency variations in dissolved oxygen during Hurricane Isabel in September 2003.  Isabel de-stratified the Bay leading to rapid ventilation of the lower layer and injecting significant nutrients into the surface layer, resulting in an unprecedented fall bloom.  This event accentuated the need for highly resolved, continuous measurements to augment relatively infrequent monitoring of dissolved oxygen if it is to be used as an indicator.

Indicators were developed to evaluate and describe the status of seagrass communities and productivity for U.S. Atlantic Coast estuaries.  Two primary indicators were developed; the first focused on habitat suitability, and the second on plant responses: 

  • Biooptical model.
  • Light-limitation stress.

 The biooptical model, developed in a 2-year collaboration with the EPA EaGLe Atlantic Slope Consortium, uses water-quality data on biooptically active constituents, including chl-a, total suspended solids, and chromophoric dissolved organic matter, to compute the habitat suitability for seagrass based on the availability of light at a target depth.  This tool is being developed into a software application for researchers and managers to determine causes of seagrass decline and to define strategies to improve water quality.  It has been adopted as one of several water quality criteria in the Chesapeake Bay focused on restoration of submerged aquatic vegetation.  A separate set of indicators was developed to quantify light-limitation stress wherein plant responses were characterized using morphological, physiological, and remote-sensing metrics.  Application of these indicators to other sites would require quantification of regional differences of biooptical properties that would affect calibration of the biooptical model.  The methodology appears robust, and implementation of this indicator in the Chesapeake Bay may lead to its broader use at the national level.  Useful indicators of light-limitation stress were developed for both a temperate species and a tropical species of seagrass and proved applicable to both.

Coastal wetland indicators focused on development of geomorphological metrics at a scale suitable for remote sensing (i.e., landscapes) and on physiological indicators at the scale of whole plants and single leaves.  These indicators included: 

  • Marsh elevation relative to tidal elevation.
  • Bioassays of optimal elevation.

In coastal wetlands, vertical elevation relative to tidal amplitude is a critical measure affecting productivity and resiliency to storms and rising sea level.  ACE INC results supported the novel concept that resiliency or stability can be quantified by computing the frequency distribution of marsh elevation relative to tidal elevations.  The distributions are of three types:  (1) skewed against the lower vertical limit of the vegetation, which is characteristic of an ecosystem with little or no resiliency; (2) skewed against the upper vertical limit, signifying greatest resiliency; or (3) normally distributed in the middle of the species’ range, indicating a system with moderate resilience, possibly in transition. This indicator of resilience can be obtained over large regions using remotely sensed Light Detection and Ranging data paired with classified, high-spatial resolution imagery, such as Airborne Data Acquisition and Registration, to define plant community boundaries.  We took this approach in the North Inlet salt marsh in South Carolina dominated by Spartina alterniflora using imagery classified and artificial neural network methods.  The distribution of elevations of this salt marsh was statistically normal, which suggests that the marshes in this site have not kept up with sea-level rise during the last two decades.  This indicator is applicable to any region to identify areas at risk of massive loss of wetlands, indicating where preemptive management could prevent losses caused by erosion and rising sea level.

Indicators of the maximum, minimum, and optimum elevations of marsh vegetation were developed in ACE INC using in situ bioassays.  These bioassays consisted of a series of PVC pipes arranged vertically in rows in a terraced pattern, filled with sediment, and planted with the appropriate plant species.  Growth and physiological properties of the plants responded to differences in hydroperiod.  Sensitivity of plants to differences in relative elevation and changes in sea level depended on tidal amplitude.  The marsh vegetation of microtidal estuaries exemplified by the U.S. Gulf Coast provedparticularly sensitive to small changes in mean sea level.  We also found above-ground and below-ground plant biomass responded differently to hydroperiod.  Below-ground biomass was greatest when plants grew near the top of the tidal frame (near high tide), whereas above-ground biomass was greatest when the plants were lower in the tidal frame.  This new indicator can be used to establish conditions for growth of vegetation in coastal wetlands in any region and complements the remote sensing application directed at elevation.

In summary, ACE INC has developed and applied quantitative indicators that are broadly applicable to the nation’s estuaries.  We have addressed how climate forcing imposes high variability on candidate indicators.  Quantitative analyses of ecosystem responses to climate are essential to distinguish change from variability, an essential step before instituting management measures.  A wide range of candidate indicators was developed ranging from physical characterizations of large ecosystems using residence-time to explain differences among systems, biotic indicators including bulk properties, taxonomic properties, rates, size spectra, coupled biooptical and physiological indicators of seagrass communities, and salt marsh indicators responsive to sea level change. Remote sensing was an integral part of ACE INC indicator development to scale up to ecosystem- and regional-level assessments of key biotic resources (e.g., phytoplankton, marsh vegetation, and seagrass).  Our indicators are readily applied in other estuaries and potentially address both research and management needs.  We have fostered collaborations with resource managers who are using our indicators in developing numerical criteria to promote joint development, evaluation, and implementation of specific indicators, particularly those to characterize and evaluate water quality. Predictive capabilities developed in ACE INC to characterize ecosystem responses to climate forcing have enhanced significantly our understanding of land-margin ecosystems and their sensitivity to dominant meteorological patterns.  This new understanding is especially relevant as we are experiencing a period of elevated hurricane activity in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coastal regions.


Journal Articles: 88 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other center views: All 383 publications 99 publications in selected types All 88 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Acker JG, Harding LW, Leptoukh G, Zhu T, Shen S. Remotely-sensed chl a at the Chesapeake Bay mouth is correlated with annual freshwater flow to Chesapeake Bay. Geophysical Research Letters 2005;32(5):L05601, doi:10.1029/2004GL021852. R828677 (Final)
R828677C002 (Final)
  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Adolf JE, Stoecker DK, Harding Jr. LW. The balance of autotrophy and heterotrophy during mixotrophic growth of Karlodinium micrum (Dinophyceae). Journal of Plankton Research 2006;28(8):737-751. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (Final)
  • Full-text: Oxford Journals-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Oxford Journals-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Oxford Journals-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Adolf JE, Yeager CL, Miller WD, Mallonee ME, Harding Jr. LW. Environmental forcing of phytoplankton floral composition, biomass, and primary productivity in Chesapeake Bay, USA. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 2006;67(1-2):108-122. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (2002)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Arhonditsis GB, Paerl HW, Valdes-Weaver LM, Stow CA, Steinberg LJ, Reckhow KH. Application of Bayesian structural equation modeling for examining phytoplankton dynamics in the Neuse River Estuary (North Carolina, USA). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2007;72(1-2):63-80. R828677 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Arhonditsis GB, Stow CA, Paerl HW, Valdes-Weaver LM, Steinberg LJ, Reckhow KH. Delineation of the role of nutrient dynamics and hydrologic forcing on phytoplankton patterns along a freshwater-marine continuum. Ecological Modelling 2007;208(2-4):230-246. R828677 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Biber PD, Harwell MA, Cropper, Jr. WP. Modeling the dynamics of three functional groups of macroalgae in tropical seagrass habitats. Ecological Modeling (accepted, 2003). R828677C004 (2003)
    R827453 (2002)
    R827453 (Final)
    not available
    Journal Article Biber PD, Snedaker SC. Measuring the effects of salinity stress in the Red Mangrove, Rhizophora Mangle L. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology (submitted, 2005). R828677C004 (2004)
    not available
    Journal Article Biber PD. Hydroponic versus rooted growth of Zostera marina L. (Eelgrass). Hydrobiologia 2006;568(1):489-492. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C004 (2004)
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Biber PD, Irlandi EA. Temporal and spatial dynamics of macroalgal communities along an anthropogenic salinity gradient in Biscayne Bay. Aquatic Botany 2006;85(1):65-77. R828677C004 (Final)
    not available
    Journal Article Biber PD, Gallegos CL, Kenworthy WJ. Calibration of a bio-optical model in the North River, North Carolina (Albemarle-Pamlico Sound): a tool to evaluate water quality impacts on seagrasses. Estuaries and Coasts 2008;31(1):177-191. R828677 (Final)
  • Full-text: University of Southern Mississippi-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Biber PD, Kenworthy WJ, Paerl HW. Experimental analysis of the response and recovery of Zostera marina (L.) and Halodule wrightii (Ascher.) to repeated light-limitation stress. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 2009;369(2):110-117. R828677 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Buzzelli CP, Luettich Jr. RA, Powers SP, Peterson CH, McNinch JE, Pinckney JL, Paerl HW. Estimating the spatial extent of bottom-water hypoxia and habitat degradation in a shallow estuary. Marine Ecology Progress Series 2002;230:103-112. R828677 (2001)
    R828677C001 (Final)
    R826938 (2000)
    R826938 (Final)
    R827957 (Final)
  • Full-text: MEPS-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: MEPS-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Buzzelli CP, Ramus JR, Paerl HW. Ferry-based monitoring of surface water quality in North Carolina estuaries. Estuaries and Coasts 2003;26(4):975-984. R828677C001 (Final)
  • Abstract: SpringerLink
    Exit
  • Journal Article Cavatorta JR, Johnston M, Hopkinson C, Valentine V. Patterns of sedimentation in a salt marsh-dominated estuary. Biological Bulletin 2003;205(2):239-241. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C003 (2003)
    R828677C003 (Final)
  • Full-text: Biological Bulletin-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Other: Biological Bulletin-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Conley DJ, Paerl HW, Howarth RW, Boesch DF, Seitzinger SP, Havens KE, Lancelot C, Likens GE. Ecology. Controlling eutrophication: nitrogen and phosphorus. Science 2009;323(5917):1014-1015. R828677 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Cision-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Science-Article Summary
    Exit
  • Journal Article Farber S, Costanza R, Childers DL, Erikson J, Gross K, Grove M, Hopkinson CS, Kahn J, Pincetl S, Troy A, Warren P, Wilson M. Linking ecology and economics for ecosystem management. BioScience 2006;56(2):121-133. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C003 (Final)
  • Abstract: BioScience-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Duke University-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Fear J, Gallo T, Hall N, Loftin J, Paerl H. Predicting benthic microalgal oxygen and nutrient flux responses to a nutrient reduction management strategy for the eutrophic Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, USA. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2004;61(3):491-506. R828677C001 (2004)
    not available
    Journal Article Gallegos CL, Biber PD. Diagnostic tool help set water quality targets for restoring submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay. Ecological Restoration 2004;22(4):1441-1451 R828677C004 (2004)
    R828684C002 (2004)
    not available
    Journal Article Groffman PM, Baron JS, Blett T, Gold AJ, Goodman I, Gunderson LH, Levinson BM, Palmer MA, Paerl HW, Peterson GD, Poff NL, Rejeski DW, Reynolds JF, Turner MG, Weathers KC, Wiens J. Ecological thresholds: the key to successful environmental management or an important concept with no practical application? Ecosystems 2006;9(1):1-13. R828677C001 (Final)
    R828012 (Final)
    R832441 (Final)
    R832445 (Final)
  • Full-text: UWisc-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Springer-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ResearchGate-Abstract & Full Text-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Hall NS, Litaker RW, Fensin E, Adolf JE, Bowers HA, Place AR, Paerl HW. Environmental factors contributing to the development and demise of a toxic dinoflagellate (Karlodinium veneficum) bloom in a shallow, eutrophic, lagoonal estuary. Estuaries and Coasts 2008;31(2):402-418. R828677 (Final)
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Harding Jr. LW, Mallonee ME, Perry ES. Toward a predictive understanding of primary productivity in a temperate, partially stratified estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2002;55(3):437-463. R828677 (2001)
    R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (2002)
    R828677C002 (Final)
    R826941 (Final)
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Harding Jr. LW, Magnuson A, Mallonee ME. SeaWiFS retrievals of chlorophyll in Chesapeake Bay and the mid-Atlantic bight. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2005;62(1-2):75-94. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Huang X, Morris JT. Trends in phosphatase activity along a successional gradient of tidal freshwater marshes on the Cooper River, South Carolina. Estuaries 2003;26(5):1281-1290. R828677C003 (2003)
    not available
    Journal Article Irlandi EA, Orlando BA, Biber PD. Drift algae-epiphyte-seagrass interactions in a subtropical Thalassia testudinum meadow. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 2004;279:81-91. R828677C004 (2004)
    R828677C004 (Final)
    not available
    Journal Article Jensen JR, Olsen G, Schill SR, Porter DE, Morris J. Remote sensing of biomass, leaf-area-index and chlorophyll a and b content in the ACE Basin and National Estuarine Research Reserve using sub-meter digital camera imagery. Geocarto International 2002;17(3):27-36. R828677C003 (2002)
    R828677C003 (2003)
    R826944 (2000)
    R826944 (Final)
  • Abstract: Taylor & Francis-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Johnston ME, Cavatorta JR, Hopkinson CS, Valentine V. Importance of metabolism in the development of salt marsh ponds. Biological Bulletin 2003;205(2):248-249. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C003 (2003)
    R828677C003 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Biological Bulletin-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Other: Biological Bulletin-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Jung S, Houde ED. Production of bay anchovy Anchoa mitchilli in Chesapeake Bay: application of size-based theory. Marine Ecology Progress Series 2004;281:217-232. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (Final)
  • Full-text: MEPS-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: MEPS-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Jung S, Houde ED. Fish biomass size spectra in Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries and Coasts 2005;28(2):226-240. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (2002)
    R828677C002 (Final)
  • Full-text: Springer PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: JSTOR-Article Preview
    Exit
  • Journal Article Kemp WM, Boynton WR, Adolf JE, Boesch DF, Boicourt WC, Brush G, Cornwell JC, Fisher TR, Glibert PM, Hagy JD, Harding LW, Houde ED, Kimmel DG, Miller WD, Newell RIE, Roman MR, Smith EM, Stevenson JC. Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay:historical trends and ecological interactions. Marine Ecology Progress Series 2005;303:1-29. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (Final)
  • Full-text: MEPS PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: MEPS-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Kimmel DG, Roman MR. Long-term trends in mesozooplankton abundance in Chesapeake Bay, USA:influence of freshwater input. Marine Ecology Progress Series 2004;267:71-83. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (2004)
    R828677C002 (Final)
  • Full-text: MEPS-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: MEPS-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Kimmel DG, Roman MR, Zhang X. Spatial and temporal variability in factors affecting mesozooplankton dynamics in Chesapeake Bay:evidence from biomass size spectra. Limnology and Oceanography 2005;51(1):131-141. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (Final)
  • Full-text: Limnology and Oceanography-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Limnology and Oceanography-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Kimmel DG, Miller WD, Roman MR. Regional scale climate forcing of mesozooplankton dynamics in Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries and Coasts 2006;29(3):375-387. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (Final)
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Kimmel DG, Miller WD, Harding Jr. LW, Houde ED, Roman MR. Estuarine ecosystem response captured using a synoptic climatology. Estuaries and Coasts 2009;32(3):403-409. R828677 (Final)
  • Full-text: SpringerLink-Full-Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: SpringerLink-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Leonard JA, Paerl HW. Zooplankton community structure, micro-zooplankton grazing impact, and seston energy content in the St. Johns River System, Florida as influenced by the toxic cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsisraciborskii. Hydrobiologia 2005;537(1-3):89-97. R828677 (Final)
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Luettich RA, Carr SD, Reynolds-Fleming JV, Fulcher CW, McNinch JE. Semi-diurnal seiching in a shallow, micro-tidal lagoonal estuary. Continental Shelf Research 2002;22(11-13):1669-1681. R828677C001 (2002)
    R828677C001 (2003)
    R826938 (2000)
    R826938 (2001)
    R826938 (Final)
    not available
    Journal Article Lunetta RS, Knight JF, Paerl HW, Streicher JJ, Peierls BL, Gallo T, Lyon JG, Mace TH, Buzzelli CP. Measurement of water colour using AVIRIS imagery to assess the potential for an operational monitoring capability in the Pamlico Sound Estuary, USA. International Journal of Remote Sensing 2009;30(13):3291-3314. R828677 (Final)
  • Full-text: Informaworld-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Informaworld-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Taylor Francis Online-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Magnuson A, Harding Jr. LW, Mallonee ME, Adolf JE. Bio-optical model for Chesapeake Bay and the Middle Atlantic Bight. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2004;61(3):403-424. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (2003)
    R828677C002 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Miller WD, Kimmel DG. Synoptic climatology predictions of freshwater flow to Chesapeake Bay. Water Resources Research (in preparation, 2004). R828677C002 (2003)
    not available
    Journal Article Miller WD, Harding LW Jr. Synoptic-scale climatic forcing of spring phytoplankton biomass in Chesapeake Bay. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science (in preparation, 2004). R828677C002 (2003)
    not available
    Journal Article Miller WD, Kimmel DG, Harding Jr. LW. Predicting spring discharge of the Susquehanna River from a winter synoptic climatology for the eastern United States. Water Resources Research 2006;42(5):W05414, doi:10.1029/2005WR004270. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (Final)
  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Millie DF, Weckman GR, Paerl HW, Pinckney JL, Bendis BJ, Pigg RJ, Fahnenstiel GL. Neural net modeling of estuarine indicators: hindcasting phytoplankton biomass and net ecosystem production in the Neuse (North Carolina) and Trout (Florida) Rivers, USA. Ecological Indicators 2006;6(3):589-608. R828677C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect - Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect - Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Moisander PH, Piehler MF, Paerl HW. Diversity and activity of epiphytic nitrogen-fixers on standing dead stems of the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 2005;39(3):271-279. R828677 (Final)
  • Full-text: Aquatic Microbial Ecology-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Aquatic Microbial Ecology-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Montane JM, Torres R. Accuracy of LiDAR in a Salt Marsh Environment. Remote Sensing of the Environment (in review, 2005). R828677C003 (2004)
    not available
    Journal Article Montane JM, Torres R. Accuracy assessment of Lidar saltmarsh topographic data using RTK GPS. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 2006;72(8):961-967. R828677 (Final)
  • Full-text: ASPRS-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Morris JT, Sundareshwar PV, Nietch CT, Kjerfve B, Cahoon DR. Responses of coastal wetlands to rising sea level. Ecology 2002;83(10):2869-2877. R828677 (2001)
    R828677 (Final)
    R828677C003 (2003)
    R828677C003 (Final)
    R826944 (2000)
    R826944 (2001)
    R826944 (Final)
  • Full-text: ESA Ecology-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: ESA Ecology-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: South Dakota School of Mines-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Morris JT, Porter D, Neet M, Noble PA, Schmidt L, Lapine LA, Jensen JR. Integrating LIDAR elevation data, multi-spectral imagery and neural network modelling for marsh characterization. International Journal of Remote Sensing 2005;26(23):5221-5234. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C003 (2004)
    R828677C003 (Final)
    R829458 (2005)
    R829458C004 (2003)
    R829458C004 (2005)
  • Full-text: Washington University - Taylor & Francis Preview
    Exit
  • Abstract: Taylor & Francis - Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Morris JT. Scale-dependent responses of coastal wetlands to rising sea level. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science (submitted, 2005). R828677C003 (2004)
    not available
    Journal Article Mwamba MJ, Torres R. Rainfall effects on marsh sediment redistribution, North Inlet, SC. Marine Geology 2002;189(3-4):267-287. R828677C003 (2002)
    R828677C003 (2003)
    not available
    Journal Article Niemi G, Wardrop D, Brooks R, Anderson S, Brady V, Paerl H , Rakocinski C, Brouwer M, Levinson B, McDonald M. Rationale for a new generation of indicators for coastal waters. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(9):979-986. R828677C001 (Final)
    R828675 (2004)
    R828675 (Final)
    R828684 (Final)
    R829458C003 (2003)
    R829458C008 (2003)
    R829458C008 (2004)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: EHP - Full Text HTML
  • Abstract: EHP
  • Other: EHP - Full Text PDF
  • Journal Article Noble PA, Tymowski RG, Fletcher M, Morris JT, Lewitus AJ. Contrasting patterns of phytoplankton community pigment composition in two salt marsh estuaries in southeastern United States. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2003;69(7):4129-4143. R828677C003 (2003)
    R826944 (2000)
    R826944 (Final)
    R829458 (2005)
    R829458C004 (2003)
    R829458C004 (2005)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: Applied and Environmental Microbiology-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Applied and Environmental Microbiology-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Applied and Environmental Microbiology-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Novakowski KI, Torres R, Gardner LR. Geomorphic analysis of tidal creek networks. Water Resources Research 2004;40(5):W05401. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C003 (2004)
    R828677C003 (Final)
  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Paerl HW. Connecting atmospheric nitrogen deposition to coastal eutrophication. Environmental Science & Technology 2002;36(15):323A-326A. R828677C001 (2002)
    R828677C001 (2003)
    R828677C001 (Final)
    R826938 (Final)
    not available
    Journal Article Paerl HW, Dennis RL, Whitall DR. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen: implications for nutrient over-enrichment of coastal waters. Estuaries and Coasts 2002;25(4):677-693. R828677C001 (Final)
    R826938 (2001)
    R826938 (Final)
  • Abstract: SpringerLink
    Exit
  • Other: Prepublication paper
    Exit
  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Dyble J, Twomey L, Pinckney JL, Nelson J, Kerkhof L. Characterizing man-made and natural modifications of microbial diversity and activity in coastal ecosystems. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology 2002;81(1-4):487-507. R828677 (2001)
    R828677 (Final)
    R828677C001 (2002)
    R828677C001 (2003)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Dyble J, Moisander PH, Noble RT, Piehler MF, Pinckney JL, Steppe TF, Twomey LJ, Valdes LM. Microbial indicators of aquatic ecosystem change: current applications to eutrophication studies. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 2003;46(3):233-246. R828677C001 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Science Direct - Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Wiley Online
    Exit
  • Other: Science Direct - Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Steppe TF, Buchan KC, Potts M. Hypersaline cyanobacterial mats as indicators of elevated tropical hurricane activity and associated climate change. Ambio 2003;32(2):87-90. R828677C001 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: BioOne
    Exit
  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Steppe TF. Scaling up: the next challenge in environmental microbiology. Environmental Microbiology 2003;5(11):1025-1038. R828677C001 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Wiley Online
    Exit
  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Valdes LM, Pinckney JL, Piehler MF, Dyble J, Moisander PH. Phytoplankton photopigments as indicators of estuarine and coastal eutrophication. BioScience 2003;53(10):953-964. R828677C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: University of Minnesota - PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: BioOne
    Exit
  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Valdes LM, Joyner AB, Piehler MF. Solving problems resulting from solutions: Evolution of a dual nutrient management strategy for the eutrophying Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(11):3068-3073. R828677C001 (2003)
    R828677C001 (2004)
    not available
    Journal Article Paerl HW, Valdes LM, Joyner AR, Peierls BL, Piehler MF, Riggs SR, Christian RR, Eby LA, Crowder LB, Ramus JS, Clesceri EJ, Buzzelli CP, Luettich RA. Ecological response to hurricane events in the Pamlico Sound system, North Carolina, and implications for assessment and management in a regime of increased frequency. Estuaries and Coasts 2006;29(6):1033-1045. R828677 (Final)
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Valdes LM, Peierls BL, Adolf JE, Harding Jr LW. Anthropogenic and climatic influences on the eutrophication of large estuarine ecosystems. Limnology and Oceanography 2006;51(1, Part 2):448-462. R828677C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: ASLO - Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: ASLO
    Exit
  • Other: Bowdoin College PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Paerl HW. Assessing and managing nutrient-enhanced eutrophication in estuarine and coastal waters: interactive effects of human and climatic perturbations. Ecological Engineering 2006;26(1):40-54. R828677C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: Science Direct - Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Science Direct
    Exit
  • Other: Science Direct - Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Valdes LM, Piehler MF, Stow CA. Assessing the effects of nutrient management in an estuary experiencing climatic change: the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina. Environmental Management 2006;37(3):422-436. R828677C001 (Final)
    R830652 (2004)
    R830652 (2005)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: SpringerLink Full Text
    Exit
  • Abstract: SpringerLink
    Exit
  • Other: SpringerLink Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Valdes-Weaver LM, Joyner AR, Winkelmann V. Phytoplankton indicators of ecological change in the eutrophying Pamlico Sound system, North Carolina. Ecological Applications 2007;17(Suppl 5):S88-S101. R828677 (Final)
  • Full-text: ESA-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: ESA-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ESA-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Paerl HW. Controlling eutrophication along the freshwater-marine continuum: dual nutrient (N and P) reductions are essential. Estuaries and Coasts 2009;32(4):593-601. R828677 (Final)
  • Full-text: Springer Full-text
    Exit
  • Abstract: Springer Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Springer Full-text pdf
    Exit
  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Rossignol KL, Guajardo R, Hall NS, Joyner AR, Peierls BL, Ramus JS. FerryMon: ferry-based monitoring and assessment of human and climatically driven environmental change in the Albemarle-Pamlico Sound system. Environmental Science & Technology 2009;43(20):7609-7613. R828677 (Final)
  • Full-text: ACS Publications-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Other: ACS Publications-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Rossignol KL, Hall SN, Peierls BL, Wetz MS. Phytoplankton community indicators of short-and long-term ecological change in the anthropogenically and climatically impacted Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, USA. Estuaries and Coasts 2010;33(2):485-497. R828677 (Final)
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Piehler MF, Valdes LM, Dyble J, Moisander PH, Pinckney JL, Steppe TF. Determining anthropogenic and climatically-induced change in aquatic ecosystems using microbial indicators: an integrative approach. Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinigung fur Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie 2005;29(1):89-133. R828677C001 (Final)
    R830652 (2005)
    not available
    Journal Article Peierls BL, Christian RR, Paerl HW. Water quality and phytoplankton as indicators of hurricane impacts on a large estuarine ecosystem. Estuaries and Coasts 2003;26(5):1329-1343. R828677C001 (Final)
  • Abstract: Springer
    Exit
  • Journal Article Piehler MF, Dyble J, Moisander PH, Pinckney JL, Paerl HW. Effects of modified nutrient concentrations and ratios on the structure and function of the native phytoplankton community in the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, USA. Aquatic Ecology 2002;36(3):371-385. R828677C001 (Final)
    R826938 (Final)
  • Abstract: SpringerLink
    Exit
  • Journal Article Piehler MF, Twomey LJ, Hall NS, Paerl HW. Impacts of inorganic nutrient enrichment on phytoplankton community structure and function in Pamlico Sound, NC, USA. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2004;61(2):197-209. R828677C001 (2003)
    R828677C001 (2004)
    R830652 (2004)
  • Full-text: EPA(only)
    Exit
  • Abstract:
    Exit
  • Other: EPA(only)
    Exit
  • Journal Article Piehler MF, Dyble J, Moisander PH, Chapman AD, Hendrickson J, Paerl HW. Interactions between nitrogen dynamics and the phytoplankton community in Lake George, Florida, USA. Lake and Reservoir Management 2009;25(1):1-14. R828677 (Final)
  • Abstract: Taylor & Francis Online-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Pinckney JL, Richardson TL, Millie DF, Paerl HW. Application of photopigment biomarkers for quantifying microalgal community composition and in situ growth rates. Organic Geochemistry 2001;32(4):585-595. R828677 (2001)
    R826938 (Final)
    not available
    Journal Article Reynolds-Fleming JV, Fleming JG, Luettich RA. Portable autonomous vertical profiler for estuarine applications. Estuaries and Coasts 2002;25(1):142-147. R828677C001 (Final)
    R826938 (Final)
  • Full-text: SpringerLink - Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: SpringerLink
    Exit
  • Journal Article Reynolds-Fleming JV, Luettich Jr. RA. Wind-driven lateral variability in a partially mixed estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2004;60(3):395-407. R828677C001 (2003)
    R826938 (Final)
    R827957 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Reynolds-Fleming JV, Luettich RA. Simulation of lateral salinity variability in a shallow, wind-driven estuary affected by fish kills. Ocean Dynamics (in preparation, 2004). R828677C001 (2003)
    not available
    Journal Article Roman MR, Boicourt WC, Kimmel DG, Miller WD, Adolf JE, Bichy J, Harding Jr. LW, Houde ED, Jung S, Zhang JX. Stimulation of plankton and fish abundance in Chesapeake Bay by Hurricane Isabel. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 2005;86(28):261-265. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (Final)
  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Sundareshwar PV, Morris JT, Koepfler EK, Fornwalt B. Phosphorus limitation of coastal ecosystem processes. Science 2003;299(5606):563-565. R828677C003 (2003)
    not available
    Journal Article Torres R, Mwamba MJ, Goni MA. Properties of marsh sediment mobilized by low tide rainfall. Limnology and Oceanography 2003;48(3):1245-1253. R828677C003 (2002)
    not available
    Journal Article Torres R, Styles R. Effects of Salt Marsh topography on tidal asymmetry. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science (in review, 2005). R828677C003 (2004)
    not available
    Journal Article Tzortziou M, Herman JR, Gallegos CL, Neale PJ, Subramaniam A, Harding Jr. LW, Ahmad Z. Bio-optics of Chesapeake Bay from measurements and radiative transfer closure. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2006;68(1-2):348-362. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Vahatalo AV, Wetzel RG, Paerl HW. Light absorption by phytoplankton and chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the drainage basin and estuary of the Neuse River, North Carolina (U.S.A.). Freshwater Biology 2005;50(3):477-493. R828677C001 (Final)
  • Abstract: Wiley Online
    Exit
  • Journal Article Valdes-Weaver LM, Piehler MF, Pinckney JL, Howe KE, Rossignol K, Paerl HW. Long-term temporal and spatial trends in phytoplankton biomass and class-level taxonomic composition in the hydrologically variable Neuse-Pamlico estuarine continuum, North Carolina, USA. Limnology and Oceanography 2006;51(3):1410-1420. R828677C001 (Final)
    R830652 (2005)
  • Full-text: ASLO - Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: ASLO Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Valentine V, Hopkinson, Jr. C. Investigating drainage density and fractal dimension as geomorphometric indicators of tidal marsh condition using remotely sensed data and geographical information systems. International Journal of Remote Sensing (in submission, 2004). R828677C003 (2003)
    not available
    Journal Article Valentine V, Hopkinson Jr. CS, Millette TL, Hayward CD, et al. Formation of ponds in marshes of the Plum Island Sound estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science (submitted, 2005). R828677C003 (2004)
    not available
    Journal Article Wetz MS, Paerl HW. Estuarine phytoplankton responses to hurricanes and tropical storms with different characteristics (trajectory, rainfall, winds). Estuaries and Coasts 2008;31(2):419-429. R828677 (Final)
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Whipple AC, Luettich RA, Seim HE. Measurements of Reynolds stress in a wind-driven lagoonal estuary. Ocean Dynamics 2006;56(3-4):169-185. R828677C001 (Final)
  • Abstract: SpringerLink - Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Yeager CLJ, Harding Jr. LW, Mallonee ME. Phytoplankton production, biomass and community structure following a summer nutrient pulse in Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic Ecology 2005;39(2):135-149. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (Final)
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
    Exit
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    phytoplankton, macrophytes, submersed aquatic vegetation, zooplankton, fish, trophodynamics, water quality, size spectrum, coastal wetlands, habitat, biooptics & turbidity, remote sensing, primary production, HPLC, photopigments, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, hydrology, circulation, nutrient management, regional scale indicators, ecosystem and regional scale, climatology, hurricanes, TMDLs, modeling, ferry-based monitoring, RFA, Scientific Discipline, Air, Geographic Area, Waste, Water, Ecosystem Protection/Environmental Exposure & Risk, Bioavailability, Hydrology, Nutrients, exploratory research environmental biology, Ecosystem/Assessment/Indicators, Ecosystem Protection, climate change, State, Microbiology, Ecological Effects - Environmental Exposure & Risk, Ecological Risk Assessment, Biology, Geology, Ecological Indicators, anthropogenic stresses, bioindicator, coastal ecosystem, remote sensing, watershed analysis, Atlantic Coast Consortium, aquatic ecosystem, agriculturally impacted watershed, anthropogenic stress, environmental monitoring, hydrological stability, nutrient supply, nutrient transport, ecological exposure, risk assessment, CISNet, ecosystem assessment, Virginia (VA), watershed management, satellite imagery, ecosystem integrity, environmental stressor, hydrological, coastal environments, Coastal Intensive Site Network, biomonitoring, ecological assessment, ecosystem indicators, estuarine ecosystems, integrated assessment, Maryland (MD), plankton, sustainability, water quality, North Carolina (NC), environmental stressors, spatial and temporal patterns, Chesapeake Bay

    Relevant Websites:

    Atlantic Coast Environmental Indicators Consortiumexit EPA

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R828677C001 Phytoplankton Community Structure as an Indicator of Coastal Ecosystem Health
    R828677C002 Trophic Indicators of Ecosystem Health in Chesapeake Bay
    R828677C003 Coastal Wetland Indicators
    R828677C004 Environmental Indicators in the Estuarine Environment: Seagrass Photosynthetic Efficiency as an Indicator of Coastal Ecosystem Health