2001 Progress Report: Atlantic Coast Environmental Indicators Consortium

EPA Grant Number: R828677
Center: EAGLES - Atlantic Coast Environmental Indicators Consortium
Center Director: Paerl, Hans
Title: Atlantic Coast Environmental Indicators Consortium
Investigators: Paerl, Hans , Boicourt, William C. , Field, Donald , Fonseca, Mark , Harding Jr., Lawrence W. , Hopkinson, Charles S , Houde, Edward D. , Kenworthy, Judson , Luettich Jr., Richard A. , Morris, James T. , Pinckney, James L. , Roman, Michael R. , Torres, Raymond
Current Investigators: Paerl, Hans , Boicourt, William C. , Fonseca, Mark , Harding Jr., Lawrence W. , Hopkinson, Charles S , Houde, Edward D. , Kenworthy, Judson , Luettich Jr., Richard A. , Morris, James T. , Roman, Michael R. , Torres, Raymond
Institution: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) , University of Maryland , University of South Carolina at Columbia
Current Institution: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Ecosystem Management Research Institute , Texas A & M University , University of Maryland , University of South Carolina at Columbia
EPA Project Officer: Hiscock, Michael
Project Period: February 26, 2001 through February 25, 2005
Project Period Covered by this Report: February 26, 2001 through February 25, 2002
Project Amount: $5,812,315
RFA: Environmental Indicators in the Estuarine Environment Research Program (2000) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Ecological Indicators/Assessment/Restoration , Water , Ecosystems

Objective:

The goal is to develop broadly applicable, integrative indicators of ecological condition, integrity, and sustainability across four distinct and representative estuarine systems on the Atlantic Coast of the United States. These include the Nation's two largest estuarine complexes, Chesapeake Bay, (MD/VA) and Albemarle-Pamlico Sound (NC). The two remaining systems include a small estuary, the Parker River, situated in the Plum Island National Science Foundation (NSF) Long-Term Ecosystem Research (LTER) site in MA, and a river-dominated system in the southeast Atlantic Bight, the North River Inlet (SC). These sites are representative of three primary producer bases (intertidal marsh-Plum Island and North Inlet; plankton dominated-Chesapeake Bay and Pamlico Sound; seagrass dominated-portions of the Chesapeake Bay and Pamlico Sound). They also have ongoing, long-term water quality/habitat monitoring programs in place, serving as the databases for indicator development and testing. These systems contain both pristine and anthropogenically impacted waters. Our primary objectives include:

· Enhancing the archive of existing data for these systems with remotely sensed and time-series information on key variables.

· Exploiting detailed knowledge of ecosystem structure and function to synthesize this archive and develop candidate indicators.

· Testing the ability of these indicators to gauge ecosystem health and unambiguously detect trends resulting from both natural variability and anthropogenic stresses in multiple estuaries.

Our research plan includes the development of:

· Indicators of microalgal and macrophyte functional groups controlling much of estuarine and coastal primary production.

· Indicators capable of determining plankton and fish community structure (organization) and function, specifically indices that relate to trophic transfer and sustainable higher trophic levels.

· Coupling these biological indicators to physical-chemical and remote sensing assessments of ecosystem function, trophic state, and change.

· Developing and applying indicators and assessments within a national coastal indicator framework (EPA-EaGLe Program).

These indicators form the backbone of ecosystem monitoring and modeling efforts. These indicators will serve to calibrate data from aircraft and satellite remote sensing of estuarine and coastal resources. Specifically, plant photopigment-based bioindicators will be coupled with high-resolution remote sensing spectral analysis of plant community structure, function, and physiological and ecological health. Photopigment indicators already have proven to be highly sensitive, diagnostic indicators of seasonal and interannual changes in hydrologic and nutrient inputs to these systems (Pinckney, et al., 2001, 2002; Paerl, et al., 2001; Paerl, et al., in preparation). These phytoplankton, marsh, and seagrass proxies will be linked with metrics of trophic structure to provide status of living resources indicators.

Progress Summary:

The ACE INC, "Phytoplankton Community Structure as an Indicator of Coastal Ecosystem Health," has been operational since April 2001. The work plan's collaborative water quality and habitat monitoring programs on the Neuse River Estuary (NRE) have been collecting data on nutrients, photopigment (chlorophylls and carotenoid), productivity, and water optical property turbidity; all necessary to characterize the structure, function, and environmental controls of indicator phytoplankton communities comprising the base of the estuarine food web. We also have been collecting in situ hydrographic, dissolved oxygen, and water velocity data to allow calculation of the residence time in the system.

Vertical migration has an important role in the quantification of phytoplankton biomass simply based on surface readings. We will be incorporating these findings in modeling efforts aimed at improving predictive phytoplankton responses to physical-chemical forcing features in this and other estuarine systems. The spatiotemporal relationships between phytoplankton community structure, function, and bacterial (heterotrophic) production dynamics in the estuary are being examined. In particular, potential linkages are being examined between changes in phytoplankton community composition (i.e., blooms) and potential microbial shifts playing key roles in nutrient and oxygen cycling (i.e., hypoxia/anoxia) in these waters.

The ACE INC Chesapeake Bay component has been active since August 2001. Indicators are being developed primarily from existing data and information in Chesapeake Bay Program databases and from programs supported previously by EPA, NSF, NOAA, and state agencies. Although limited in scope, new field programs will be instituted to collect integrative data on dissolved oxygen, primary production, zooplankton dynamics, and fish communities. Proposed field work in FY 2001 was deferred until FY 2002 because of delayed funds.

The utility of dissolved oxygen as an indicator of estuarine health is being explored in both the Chesapeake Bay and the NRE, then over a broad range of estuarine types. In the Chesapeake Bay, this effort involves a retrospective analysis, the development of a predictor model, and a field program examining high-frequency variability and adapting new sensor technology to the hostile environment of biofouling and anoxia. In addition to oxygen, residence time formulations are being explored as component variables in estuarine indicators.

In the Chesapeake Bay's ACE INC effort, both analytical and field efforts focus on developing relationships between short-term wind mixing and high-frequency oxygen variability. Analytical efforts are directed toward constructing an indicator of wind mixing. We are using known background stratification as an input. We intend to develop a reliable predictor of wind mixing with this observed stratification. Autonomous sensors are being prepared for deployment on Chesapeake Bay Observing System (CBOS) moorings to monitor these variations during the seasonal oxygen decline. In addition to employing YSI Model 600 electrodes, we are evaluating new sensor technology that promises to reduce the degrading effects of biofouling and anoxia on measurements. We have deployed the Stephens-Greenspan diffusion-rod sensor at two locations in the Bay and plan to acquire a test model of the new Aanderaa Oxygen Optode optical detection system. We also are entering a partnership of manufacturers, scientists, engineers, and managers called the Alliance for Coastal Technologies (ACT), that is seeking to develop and adapt sensors for coastal waters. We are developing autonomous profiling capability for examining details of the vertical structure of oxygen and stratification in the mainstem Chesapeake Bay. Full profiles will help improve the wind mixing model, and also will aid comparison of the wind mixing processes being measured in the Neuse River Estuary during the ACE INC studies.

We have made significant progress in the past year developing phytoplankton primary productivity as an indicator of ecosystem function in the Chesapeake Bay. Our efforts have focused on the analysis of a multi-year data set derived from cruises (1982-1998, n = 455) to develop a set of predictive models. Mean net 14C-PP is 1,055 mg C m-2 d-1 in the mainstem Bay for all seasons and regions, and phytoplankton dynamics are dominated by a spring biomass maximum, expressed as euphotic-layer chlorophyll (chl-a), and a summer maximum of net 14C-PP displaced by approximately 4 months from the biomass maximum. An integrative indicator of Bay function on annual to inter-annual time scales is the annual integral of production (AIP). We used the large empirical data set on primary productivity to estimate AIP of 282 to 538 g C m-2 yr-1 (net) and 347 to 662 g C m-2 yr-1 (gross). We are using several recently developed PP models based on the vertically generalized productivity model (VGPM) of Behrenfeld and Falkowski (1997). These models estimate net and gross PP for Chesapeake Bay with high accuracy, calibrated and validated with independent data sets (Harding, et al., 2002). We have applied the models to input data from remote sensing to generate time-series of PP for more than 320 airborne surveys of ocean color in the Bay, spanning 1989-2002.

Using Chesapeake Bay Program data, long-term time series of zooplankton abundance and water quality parameters have been analyzed to establish predictive relationships. These relationships are used to develop statistical models to predict zooplankton abundance for various regions of the northern Chesapeake Bay. Once developed, these models will be used to assess the potential effects of human impacts. Strong correlations between zooplankton species and water quality parameters were noted to identify potential indicator species. Long-term trends and changes in species composition were evaluated in the context of inter-annual variation in freshwater flow.

Biomass size spectra, including phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fish are being developed as integrative indicators of estuarine status. The slopes, elevations, and modes within the spectral domain are hypothesized to be indicative of the status of biological communities and an indicator of anthropogenic or natural stress. Physical forcing, freshwater input, dissolved oxygen, stratification, anthropogenic nutrient, contaminant inputs, and fishing will be evaluated with respect to spectra.

Initial efforts toward relating dissolved oxygen in the Chesapeake Bay to freshwater flow in the post-1985 era have shown that stratification in the Deep Trough region (where summer oxygen depletion occurs) of the Bay is controlled by freshwater inflow over long-time scales and wind mixing over scales of days to weeks. We have identified a third, intermediate scale of weeks to a month, related to the inflow of salt water from the adjacent ocean. There is strong evidence that stratification in mid-Bay is ultimately controlled by the freshwater inflow, but the discovery of hydraulic regulatory processes helps explain why the relationship is highly nonlinear. An intercomparison deployment of three sensors (YSI 600, Aanderaa Optode, Stephens-Greeenspan) is planned during the spring oxygen decline.

A significant relationship between zooplankton abundance and inter-annual variation in freshwater flow has been found in the northern Chesapeake Bay. Freshwater flow causes variation in zooplankton abundance and species composition. This relationship varies both temporally and spatially with the magnitude of freshwater input. Freshwater flow correlates with many water quality parameters; thus, it was possible to use principal component (PC) analysis to graphically explain these relationships and reduce the number of predictor variables for model development. Overall, findings to date suggest that certain species of zooplankton may be reliable indicators of changes in freshwater flow. Further evaluation of these interactions in biomass size spectra will be useful in identifying how zooplankton trends and shifts in species composition relate to the spectra and to shifts in biomass and productivity of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fish.

In FY 2001, spectra for fish, but not other trophic levels, were constructed and analyzed for the Chesapeake Bay. Spectra for fish in the Chesapeake Bay are not "flat," but are typically bimodal or multimodal. The spectra, based on data consolidated from 6 years (1995-2000) of midwater trawl collections by the NSF-sponsored TIES Program, are regionally similar throughout the Bay, although not composed of the same species, especially for taxa in the larger mode. The spectra do indicate similar trophic structure among the upper, middle, and lower regions of the Chesapeake Bay, although the mechanism that generates the clear bimodal character is conjectural at this point in time. The biomass of larger fish (second mode) in the middle Bay is considerably reduced relative to the upper and lower Bay regions, possibly a reflection of stress from hypoxic conditions that are common in the middle Bay but not in the other regions. The small, pelagic bay anchovy, anchoa mitchilli, the most abundant fish in the Chesapeake Bay, dominates the first mode of the spectra.

ACE INC's, Coastal Wetland Indicators component has been active since August 2001. One set of indicators that we are developing is based on measurements of plant pigments. These will be correlated with the optical properties of single leaves and with whole canopies. They will be used to develop algorithms that will interpret remotely sensed data, and will derive indices of wetland plant productivity, stress, and change at the landscape-scale. Hypotheses that address the responses of leaf pigments and the optical properties to nutrients and salt stress will be tested using samples collected from experimentally manipulated test plots in the field. A second indicator of coastal wetlands that can be derived from remotely sensed data relies on interpreting the geomorphic pattern and fractal signature of coastal wetland drainage networks. The pattern of existing channel networks is a consequence of the existing geomorphic equilibrium, and conveys information about the stability of coastal wetlands. Proposed field work in FY 2001 was deferred until FY 2002 because of delayed funds to initiate the project.

Chlorophyll concentration provides information about condition, because its concentration in plant tissues varies with phenology and with nutrition. Moreover, because photosynthetic rate and chl-a concentration are directly related (Bokari, 1983), chl-a is actually a more sensitive indicator of the condition of higher plants than biomass and should be investigated as an index of stress. Accessory pigments, measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), provide even more information about the condition of plants. Furthermore, because chl-a is highly absorbent of radiation in the range of Landsat Thematic Mapper spectral band 3 (630-690 nm) and reflective in spectral band 4 (760-900 nm), it should be feasible to use remote sensing techniques to monitor the condition of vegetation and the density of pigments in the plant canopy.

Our experience has shown that hyperspectral data will be needed to make significant advances in the remote sensing of plant pigments. Thus far, we have had success in training neural networks to interpret remote data, and we expect that significant progress will be made using neural networks to interpret hyperspectral data.

Long-term research at North Inlet has documented a trend of increasing primary production in the salt marsh, related to anomalies in mean sea level. Where biomass density increased, sediment accretion increased due to the filtering effect of the vegetation. This is an example of one of the geomorphological indicators that are being developed. We also are examining landscape-scale geomorphological patterns, such as drainage density, to determine if changes or differences in pattern can signal that a coastal wetland is in equilibrium with sea level. Patterns at the landscape scale can be detected by remote technologies.

The indicators that we are developing will provide new tools for evaluating the condition of coastal wetlands. The actual products will be indicators that are based on measurements made in the field. However, all the indicators being developed have significant potential for being developed as applications that can be calibrated using remotely sensed data. Progress has been made using pigments and reflected light as indicators of the condition of vegetation. Neural networks have proved to be effective tools for classifying remote sensor data. Also, significant trends in the productivity of coastal wetlands have been observed, and we have documented that we are able to discern interannual changes in the relative elevation of the marsh surface.

Seagrass Component, Atlantic Coast Environmental Indicators Consortium

Most of the effort in the seagrass portion of the study has focused on planning and experimental design for field studies to be initiated in May 2002. Staff from Beaufort participated in the ACE workshop held in December 2001, at the University of North Carolina, IMS in Morehead City, NC. Following the workshop, Beaufort Laboratory personnel began working with Drew Pilant of the US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory to coordinate the AVIRIS over flight. It was determined that the original flight lines for the mission would pass just to the west of Cape Lookout, excluding several areas of seagrass coverage that have been the focus of extensive investigation over the past two decades. Inclusion of these areas will add a great deal of baseline data. It also will provide one of the endpoints along an optical water quality gradient extending from the local river basins to the inlets connecting the lagoon system to the coastal ocean. Beaufort staff proposed repositioning the flight lines to cover these areas.

Beaufort Laboratory personnel have helped to coordinate the ground truthing activities and acquisition of the equipment that will be needed for ground truthing the AVIRIS over flight. This coordination is ongoing and critical to the study. The study site covers an expansive area from Beaufort to Oregon Inlet, providing a logistical challenge to collect adequate environmental data on the day of the over flight. The Beaufort Laboratory will be providing a 41-foot research vessel, as well as other smaller craft to assist personnel in reaching sampling locations. The biggest challenge to date has been locating adequate numbers of instruments, such as spectral radiometers and YSIs, and trained personnel to operate them. To meet some of these needs, we presently are developing the specifications and prices for the purchase of an Ocean Optics portable field fiber optic spectrometer. This system can be used as a spectral radiometer, a reflectance sensor, and a portable spectrophotometer.

Since February 2002, we have begun to formalize discussions regarding appropriate bioindicator parameters for seagrasses and the analytical and experimental design for the seagrass phase of the project. Included for consideration are: (1) developing an optical water quality gradient transect along a river basin to inlet axis that would include a steep gradient in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR); and (2) correlating optical water quality with indicators of seagrass health to include plant fluorescence (photosynthetic efficiency), pigment composition, and leaf morphology. Determining whether the satellite sensors can detect water quality changes at a scale sensitive enough to correspond with a bioindicator in the plants is critical to the bioindicator question. Additional design considerations also include manipulating growing conditions in field and mesocosm experiments, and simultaneously examining indicator responses to calibrate the time and spatial scales needed for field observations.

Future Activities:

One of our main efforts in the next year is to take advantage of the improved spatial and temporal resolution of phytoplankton biomass and PP in Chesapeake Bay that is possible by combining shipboard remote sensing and modeling to support new predictive capabilities. We are now basing AIP computations on calibrated and validated models applied to biomass data from 20-30 aircraft over flights per year, vs. three seasonal cruises per year in shipboard programs (i.e., LMER, PROTEUS, and TIES). The combination of shipboard remote sensing and modeling also allows us to approach regional, seasonal, and inter-annual variability in the phytoplankton composition, with obvious trophic implications. Taxonomic composition of phytoplankton estimated by reconstructing pigment concentrations from HPLC reveals strong contrasts accompanied by distinct flow regimes. Concurrently collected data on bulk biomass as chl-a from remote sensing thereby provide a Bay-wide context in which detailed shipboard data can be placed. Similarly, application of the recently developed PP models to these input data extends the usefulness of both sources of data.

Research cruises in 2002 will focus on the development of zooplankton indicators using recently developed technologies. Hydroacoustic and optical measurements of zooplankton will be taken to aid in the construction of a biomass size spectra indicator for ecosystem "health." The refinement of these methods will lead to a more rapid and sensitive measure of zooplankton status throughout the Bay.


Journal Articles: 88 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other center views: All 383 publications 99 publications in selected types All 88 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Acker JG, Harding LW, Leptoukh G, Zhu T, Shen S. Remotely-sensed chl a at the Chesapeake Bay mouth is correlated with annual freshwater flow to Chesapeake Bay. Geophysical Research Letters 2005;32(5):L05601, doi:10.1029/2004GL021852. R828677 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Adolf JE, Stoecker DK, Harding Jr. LW. The balance of autotrophy and heterotrophy during mixotrophic growth of Karlodinium micrum (Dinophyceae). Journal of Plankton Research 2006;28(8):737-751. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Adolf JE, Yeager CL, Miller WD, Mallonee ME, Harding Jr. LW. Environmental forcing of phytoplankton floral composition, biomass, and primary productivity in Chesapeake Bay, USA. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 2006;67(1-2):108-122. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (2002)
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  • Journal Article Arhonditsis GB, Paerl HW, Valdes-Weaver LM, Stow CA, Steinberg LJ, Reckhow KH. Application of Bayesian structural equation modeling for examining phytoplankton dynamics in the Neuse River Estuary (North Carolina, USA). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2007;72(1-2):63-80. R828677 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Arhonditsis GB, Stow CA, Paerl HW, Valdes-Weaver LM, Steinberg LJ, Reckhow KH. Delineation of the role of nutrient dynamics and hydrologic forcing on phytoplankton patterns along a freshwater-marine continuum. Ecological Modelling 2007;208(2-4):230-246. R828677 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Biber PD, Harwell MA, Cropper, Jr. WP. Modeling the dynamics of three functional groups of macroalgae in tropical seagrass habitats. Ecological Modeling (accepted, 2003). R828677C004 (2003)
    R827453 (2002)
    R827453 (Final)
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    Journal Article Biber PD, Snedaker SC. Measuring the effects of salinity stress in the Red Mangrove, Rhizophora Mangle L. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology (submitted, 2005). R828677C004 (2004)
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    Journal Article Biber PD. Hydroponic versus rooted growth of Zostera marina L. (Eelgrass). Hydrobiologia 2006;568(1):489-492. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C004 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Biber PD, Irlandi EA. Temporal and spatial dynamics of macroalgal communities along an anthropogenic salinity gradient in Biscayne Bay. Aquatic Botany 2006;85(1):65-77. R828677C004 (Final)
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    Journal Article Biber PD, Gallegos CL, Kenworthy WJ. Calibration of a bio-optical model in the North River, North Carolina (Albemarle-Pamlico Sound): a tool to evaluate water quality impacts on seagrasses. Estuaries and Coasts 2008;31(1):177-191. R828677 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Biber PD, Kenworthy WJ, Paerl HW. Experimental analysis of the response and recovery of Zostera marina (L.) and Halodule wrightii (Ascher.) to repeated light-limitation stress. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 2009;369(2):110-117. R828677 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Buzzelli CP, Luettich Jr. RA, Powers SP, Peterson CH, McNinch JE, Pinckney JL, Paerl HW. Estimating the spatial extent of bottom-water hypoxia and habitat degradation in a shallow estuary. Marine Ecology Progress Series 2002;230:103-112. R828677 (2001)
    R828677C001 (Final)
    R826938 (2000)
    R826938 (Final)
    R827957 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Buzzelli CP, Ramus JR, Paerl HW. Ferry-based monitoring of surface water quality in North Carolina estuaries. Estuaries and Coasts 2003;26(4):975-984. R828677C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Cavatorta JR, Johnston M, Hopkinson C, Valentine V. Patterns of sedimentation in a salt marsh-dominated estuary. Biological Bulletin 2003;205(2):239-241. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C003 (2003)
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  • Journal Article Conley DJ, Paerl HW, Howarth RW, Boesch DF, Seitzinger SP, Havens KE, Lancelot C, Likens GE. Ecology. Controlling eutrophication: nitrogen and phosphorus. Science 2009;323(5917):1014-1015. R828677 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Farber S, Costanza R, Childers DL, Erikson J, Gross K, Grove M, Hopkinson CS, Kahn J, Pincetl S, Troy A, Warren P, Wilson M. Linking ecology and economics for ecosystem management. BioScience 2006;56(2):121-133. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C003 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Fear J, Gallo T, Hall N, Loftin J, Paerl H. Predicting benthic microalgal oxygen and nutrient flux responses to a nutrient reduction management strategy for the eutrophic Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, USA. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2004;61(3):491-506. R828677C001 (2004)
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    Journal Article Gallegos CL, Biber PD. Diagnostic tool help set water quality targets for restoring submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay. Ecological Restoration 2004;22(4):1441-1451 R828677C004 (2004)
    R828684C002 (2004)
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    Journal Article Groffman PM, Baron JS, Blett T, Gold AJ, Goodman I, Gunderson LH, Levinson BM, Palmer MA, Paerl HW, Peterson GD, Poff NL, Rejeski DW, Reynolds JF, Turner MG, Weathers KC, Wiens J. Ecological thresholds: the key to successful environmental management or an important concept with no practical application? Ecosystems 2006;9(1):1-13. R828677C001 (Final)
    R828012 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Hall NS, Litaker RW, Fensin E, Adolf JE, Bowers HA, Place AR, Paerl HW. Environmental factors contributing to the development and demise of a toxic dinoflagellate (Karlodinium veneficum) bloom in a shallow, eutrophic, lagoonal estuary. Estuaries and Coasts 2008;31(2):402-418. R828677 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Harding Jr. LW, Mallonee ME, Perry ES. Toward a predictive understanding of primary productivity in a temperate, partially stratified estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2002;55(3):437-463. R828677 (2001)
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    R826941 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Harding Jr. LW, Magnuson A, Mallonee ME. SeaWiFS retrievals of chlorophyll in Chesapeake Bay and the mid-Atlantic bight. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2005;62(1-2):75-94. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Huang X, Morris JT. Trends in phosphatase activity along a successional gradient of tidal freshwater marshes on the Cooper River, South Carolina. Estuaries 2003;26(5):1281-1290. R828677C003 (2003)
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    Journal Article Irlandi EA, Orlando BA, Biber PD. Drift algae-epiphyte-seagrass interactions in a subtropical Thalassia testudinum meadow. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 2004;279:81-91. R828677C004 (2004)
    R828677C004 (Final)
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    Journal Article Jensen JR, Olsen G, Schill SR, Porter DE, Morris J. Remote sensing of biomass, leaf-area-index and chlorophyll a and b content in the ACE Basin and National Estuarine Research Reserve using sub-meter digital camera imagery. Geocarto International 2002;17(3):27-36. R828677C003 (2002)
    R828677C003 (2003)
    R826944 (2000)
    R826944 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Johnston ME, Cavatorta JR, Hopkinson CS, Valentine V. Importance of metabolism in the development of salt marsh ponds. Biological Bulletin 2003;205(2):248-249. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C003 (2003)
    R828677C003 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Jung S, Houde ED. Production of bay anchovy Anchoa mitchilli in Chesapeake Bay: application of size-based theory. Marine Ecology Progress Series 2004;281:217-232. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Jung S, Houde ED. Fish biomass size spectra in Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries and Coasts 2005;28(2):226-240. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (2002)
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  • Journal Article Kemp WM, Boynton WR, Adolf JE, Boesch DF, Boicourt WC, Brush G, Cornwell JC, Fisher TR, Glibert PM, Hagy JD, Harding LW, Houde ED, Kimmel DG, Miller WD, Newell RIE, Roman MR, Smith EM, Stevenson JC. Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay:historical trends and ecological interactions. Marine Ecology Progress Series 2005;303:1-29. R828677 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Kimmel DG, Roman MR. Long-term trends in mesozooplankton abundance in Chesapeake Bay, USA:influence of freshwater input. Marine Ecology Progress Series 2004;267:71-83. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Kimmel DG, Roman MR, Zhang X. Spatial and temporal variability in factors affecting mesozooplankton dynamics in Chesapeake Bay:evidence from biomass size spectra. Limnology and Oceanography 2005;51(1):131-141. R828677 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Kimmel DG, Miller WD, Roman MR. Regional scale climate forcing of mesozooplankton dynamics in Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries and Coasts 2006;29(3):375-387. R828677 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Kimmel DG, Miller WD, Harding Jr. LW, Houde ED, Roman MR. Estuarine ecosystem response captured using a synoptic climatology. Estuaries and Coasts 2009;32(3):403-409. R828677 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Leonard JA, Paerl HW. Zooplankton community structure, micro-zooplankton grazing impact, and seston energy content in the St. Johns River System, Florida as influenced by the toxic cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsisraciborskii. Hydrobiologia 2005;537(1-3):89-97. R828677 (Final)
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Luettich RA, Carr SD, Reynolds-Fleming JV, Fulcher CW, McNinch JE. Semi-diurnal seiching in a shallow, micro-tidal lagoonal estuary. Continental Shelf Research 2002;22(11-13):1669-1681. R828677C001 (2002)
    R828677C001 (2003)
    R826938 (2000)
    R826938 (2001)
    R826938 (Final)
    not available
    Journal Article Lunetta RS, Knight JF, Paerl HW, Streicher JJ, Peierls BL, Gallo T, Lyon JG, Mace TH, Buzzelli CP. Measurement of water colour using AVIRIS imagery to assess the potential for an operational monitoring capability in the Pamlico Sound Estuary, USA. International Journal of Remote Sensing 2009;30(13):3291-3314. R828677 (Final)
  • Full-text: Informaworld-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Informaworld-Abstract
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  • Other: Taylor Francis Online-PDF
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  • Journal Article Magnuson A, Harding Jr. LW, Mallonee ME, Adolf JE. Bio-optical model for Chesapeake Bay and the Middle Atlantic Bight. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2004;61(3):403-424. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (2003)
    R828677C002 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Other: ScienceDirect-PDF
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  • Journal Article Miller WD, Kimmel DG. Synoptic climatology predictions of freshwater flow to Chesapeake Bay. Water Resources Research (in preparation, 2004). R828677C002 (2003)
    not available
    Journal Article Miller WD, Harding LW Jr. Synoptic-scale climatic forcing of spring phytoplankton biomass in Chesapeake Bay. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science (in preparation, 2004). R828677C002 (2003)
    not available
    Journal Article Miller WD, Kimmel DG, Harding Jr. LW. Predicting spring discharge of the Susquehanna River from a winter synoptic climatology for the eastern United States. Water Resources Research 2006;42(5):W05414, doi:10.1029/2005WR004270. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (Final)
  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Millie DF, Weckman GR, Paerl HW, Pinckney JL, Bendis BJ, Pigg RJ, Fahnenstiel GL. Neural net modeling of estuarine indicators: hindcasting phytoplankton biomass and net ecosystem production in the Neuse (North Carolina) and Trout (Florida) Rivers, USA. Ecological Indicators 2006;6(3):589-608. R828677C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect - Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect - Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Moisander PH, Piehler MF, Paerl HW. Diversity and activity of epiphytic nitrogen-fixers on standing dead stems of the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 2005;39(3):271-279. R828677 (Final)
  • Full-text: Aquatic Microbial Ecology-PDF
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  • Abstract: Aquatic Microbial Ecology-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Montane JM, Torres R. Accuracy of LiDAR in a Salt Marsh Environment. Remote Sensing of the Environment (in review, 2005). R828677C003 (2004)
    not available
    Journal Article Montane JM, Torres R. Accuracy assessment of Lidar saltmarsh topographic data using RTK GPS. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 2006;72(8):961-967. R828677 (Final)
  • Full-text: ASPRS-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Morris JT, Sundareshwar PV, Nietch CT, Kjerfve B, Cahoon DR. Responses of coastal wetlands to rising sea level. Ecology 2002;83(10):2869-2877. R828677 (2001)
    R828677 (Final)
    R828677C003 (2003)
    R828677C003 (Final)
    R826944 (2000)
    R826944 (2001)
    R826944 (Final)
  • Full-text: ESA Ecology-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ESA Ecology-Abstract
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  • Other: South Dakota School of Mines-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Morris JT, Porter D, Neet M, Noble PA, Schmidt L, Lapine LA, Jensen JR. Integrating LIDAR elevation data, multi-spectral imagery and neural network modelling for marsh characterization. International Journal of Remote Sensing 2005;26(23):5221-5234. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C003 (2004)
    R828677C003 (Final)
    R829458 (2005)
    R829458C004 (2003)
    R829458C004 (2005)
  • Full-text: Washington University - Taylor & Francis Preview
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  • Abstract: Taylor & Francis - Abstract
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  • Journal Article Morris JT. Scale-dependent responses of coastal wetlands to rising sea level. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science (submitted, 2005). R828677C003 (2004)
    not available
    Journal Article Mwamba MJ, Torres R. Rainfall effects on marsh sediment redistribution, North Inlet, SC. Marine Geology 2002;189(3-4):267-287. R828677C003 (2002)
    R828677C003 (2003)
    not available
    Journal Article Niemi G, Wardrop D, Brooks R, Anderson S, Brady V, Paerl H , Rakocinski C, Brouwer M, Levinson B, McDonald M. Rationale for a new generation of indicators for coastal waters. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(9):979-986. R828677C001 (Final)
    R828675 (2004)
    R828675 (Final)
    R828684 (Final)
    R829458C003 (2003)
    R829458C008 (2003)
    R829458C008 (2004)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: EHP - Full Text HTML
  • Abstract: EHP
  • Other: EHP - Full Text PDF
  • Journal Article Noble PA, Tymowski RG, Fletcher M, Morris JT, Lewitus AJ. Contrasting patterns of phytoplankton community pigment composition in two salt marsh estuaries in southeastern United States. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2003;69(7):4129-4143. R828677C003 (2003)
    R826944 (2000)
    R826944 (Final)
    R829458 (2005)
    R829458C004 (2003)
    R829458C004 (2005)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: Applied and Environmental Microbiology-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Applied and Environmental Microbiology-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Applied and Environmental Microbiology-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Novakowski KI, Torres R, Gardner LR. Geomorphic analysis of tidal creek networks. Water Resources Research 2004;40(5):W05401. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C003 (2004)
    R828677C003 (Final)
  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Paerl HW. Connecting atmospheric nitrogen deposition to coastal eutrophication. Environmental Science & Technology 2002;36(15):323A-326A. R828677C001 (2002)
    R828677C001 (2003)
    R828677C001 (Final)
    R826938 (Final)
    not available
    Journal Article Paerl HW, Dennis RL, Whitall DR. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen: implications for nutrient over-enrichment of coastal waters. Estuaries and Coasts 2002;25(4):677-693. R828677C001 (Final)
    R826938 (2001)
    R826938 (Final)
  • Abstract: SpringerLink
    Exit
  • Other: Prepublication paper
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  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Dyble J, Twomey L, Pinckney JL, Nelson J, Kerkhof L. Characterizing man-made and natural modifications of microbial diversity and activity in coastal ecosystems. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology 2002;81(1-4):487-507. R828677 (2001)
    R828677 (Final)
    R828677C001 (2002)
    R828677C001 (2003)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Dyble J, Moisander PH, Noble RT, Piehler MF, Pinckney JL, Steppe TF, Twomey LJ, Valdes LM. Microbial indicators of aquatic ecosystem change: current applications to eutrophication studies. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 2003;46(3):233-246. R828677C001 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Science Direct - Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Wiley Online
    Exit
  • Other: Science Direct - Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Steppe TF, Buchan KC, Potts M. Hypersaline cyanobacterial mats as indicators of elevated tropical hurricane activity and associated climate change. Ambio 2003;32(2):87-90. R828677C001 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: BioOne
    Exit
  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Steppe TF. Scaling up: the next challenge in environmental microbiology. Environmental Microbiology 2003;5(11):1025-1038. R828677C001 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Wiley Online
    Exit
  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Valdes LM, Pinckney JL, Piehler MF, Dyble J, Moisander PH. Phytoplankton photopigments as indicators of estuarine and coastal eutrophication. BioScience 2003;53(10):953-964. R828677C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: University of Minnesota - PDF
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  • Abstract: BioOne
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  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Valdes LM, Joyner AB, Piehler MF. Solving problems resulting from solutions: Evolution of a dual nutrient management strategy for the eutrophying Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(11):3068-3073. R828677C001 (2003)
    R828677C001 (2004)
    not available
    Journal Article Paerl HW, Valdes LM, Joyner AR, Peierls BL, Piehler MF, Riggs SR, Christian RR, Eby LA, Crowder LB, Ramus JS, Clesceri EJ, Buzzelli CP, Luettich RA. Ecological response to hurricane events in the Pamlico Sound system, North Carolina, and implications for assessment and management in a regime of increased frequency. Estuaries and Coasts 2006;29(6):1033-1045. R828677 (Final)
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Valdes LM, Peierls BL, Adolf JE, Harding Jr LW. Anthropogenic and climatic influences on the eutrophication of large estuarine ecosystems. Limnology and Oceanography 2006;51(1, Part 2):448-462. R828677C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: ASLO - Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: ASLO
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  • Other: Bowdoin College PDF
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  • Journal Article Paerl HW. Assessing and managing nutrient-enhanced eutrophication in estuarine and coastal waters: interactive effects of human and climatic perturbations. Ecological Engineering 2006;26(1):40-54. R828677C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: Science Direct - Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Science Direct
    Exit
  • Other: Science Direct - Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Valdes LM, Piehler MF, Stow CA. Assessing the effects of nutrient management in an estuary experiencing climatic change: the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina. Environmental Management 2006;37(3):422-436. R828677C001 (Final)
    R830652 (2004)
    R830652 (2005)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: SpringerLink Full Text
    Exit
  • Abstract: SpringerLink
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  • Other: SpringerLink Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Valdes-Weaver LM, Joyner AR, Winkelmann V. Phytoplankton indicators of ecological change in the eutrophying Pamlico Sound system, North Carolina. Ecological Applications 2007;17(Suppl 5):S88-S101. R828677 (Final)
  • Full-text: ESA-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ESA-Abstract
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  • Other: ESA-PDF
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  • Journal Article Paerl HW. Controlling eutrophication along the freshwater-marine continuum: dual nutrient (N and P) reductions are essential. Estuaries and Coasts 2009;32(4):593-601. R828677 (Final)
  • Full-text: Springer Full-text
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  • Abstract: Springer Abstract
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  • Other: Springer Full-text pdf
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  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Rossignol KL, Guajardo R, Hall NS, Joyner AR, Peierls BL, Ramus JS. FerryMon: ferry-based monitoring and assessment of human and climatically driven environmental change in the Albemarle-Pamlico Sound system. Environmental Science & Technology 2009;43(20):7609-7613. R828677 (Final)
  • Full-text: ACS Publications-Full Text HTML
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  • Other: ACS Publications-PDF
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  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Rossignol KL, Hall SN, Peierls BL, Wetz MS. Phytoplankton community indicators of short-and long-term ecological change in the anthropogenically and climatically impacted Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, USA. Estuaries and Coasts 2010;33(2):485-497. R828677 (Final)
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Paerl HW, Piehler MF, Valdes LM, Dyble J, Moisander PH, Pinckney JL, Steppe TF. Determining anthropogenic and climatically-induced change in aquatic ecosystems using microbial indicators: an integrative approach. Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinigung fur Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie 2005;29(1):89-133. R828677C001 (Final)
    R830652 (2005)
    not available
    Journal Article Peierls BL, Christian RR, Paerl HW. Water quality and phytoplankton as indicators of hurricane impacts on a large estuarine ecosystem. Estuaries and Coasts 2003;26(5):1329-1343. R828677C001 (Final)
  • Abstract: Springer
    Exit
  • Journal Article Piehler MF, Dyble J, Moisander PH, Pinckney JL, Paerl HW. Effects of modified nutrient concentrations and ratios on the structure and function of the native phytoplankton community in the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, USA. Aquatic Ecology 2002;36(3):371-385. R828677C001 (Final)
    R826938 (Final)
  • Abstract: SpringerLink
    Exit
  • Journal Article Piehler MF, Twomey LJ, Hall NS, Paerl HW. Impacts of inorganic nutrient enrichment on phytoplankton community structure and function in Pamlico Sound, NC, USA. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2004;61(2):197-209. R828677C001 (2003)
    R828677C001 (2004)
    R830652 (2004)
  • Full-text: EPA(only)
    Exit
  • Abstract:
    Exit
  • Other: EPA(only)
    Exit
  • Journal Article Piehler MF, Dyble J, Moisander PH, Chapman AD, Hendrickson J, Paerl HW. Interactions between nitrogen dynamics and the phytoplankton community in Lake George, Florida, USA. Lake and Reservoir Management 2009;25(1):1-14. R828677 (Final)
  • Abstract: Taylor & Francis Online-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Pinckney JL, Richardson TL, Millie DF, Paerl HW. Application of photopigment biomarkers for quantifying microalgal community composition and in situ growth rates. Organic Geochemistry 2001;32(4):585-595. R828677 (2001)
    R826938 (Final)
    not available
    Journal Article Reynolds-Fleming JV, Fleming JG, Luettich RA. Portable autonomous vertical profiler for estuarine applications. Estuaries and Coasts 2002;25(1):142-147. R828677C001 (Final)
    R826938 (Final)
  • Full-text: SpringerLink - Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: SpringerLink
    Exit
  • Journal Article Reynolds-Fleming JV, Luettich Jr. RA. Wind-driven lateral variability in a partially mixed estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2004;60(3):395-407. R828677C001 (2003)
    R826938 (Final)
    R827957 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Reynolds-Fleming JV, Luettich RA. Simulation of lateral salinity variability in a shallow, wind-driven estuary affected by fish kills. Ocean Dynamics (in preparation, 2004). R828677C001 (2003)
    not available
    Journal Article Roman MR, Boicourt WC, Kimmel DG, Miller WD, Adolf JE, Bichy J, Harding Jr. LW, Houde ED, Jung S, Zhang JX. Stimulation of plankton and fish abundance in Chesapeake Bay by Hurricane Isabel. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 2005;86(28):261-265. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (Final)
  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Sundareshwar PV, Morris JT, Koepfler EK, Fornwalt B. Phosphorus limitation of coastal ecosystem processes. Science 2003;299(5606):563-565. R828677C003 (2003)
    not available
    Journal Article Torres R, Mwamba MJ, Goni MA. Properties of marsh sediment mobilized by low tide rainfall. Limnology and Oceanography 2003;48(3):1245-1253. R828677C003 (2002)
    not available
    Journal Article Torres R, Styles R. Effects of Salt Marsh topography on tidal asymmetry. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science (in review, 2005). R828677C003 (2004)
    not available
    Journal Article Tzortziou M, Herman JR, Gallegos CL, Neale PJ, Subramaniam A, Harding Jr. LW, Ahmad Z. Bio-optics of Chesapeake Bay from measurements and radiative transfer closure. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 2006;68(1-2):348-362. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Other: ScienceDirect-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Vahatalo AV, Wetzel RG, Paerl HW. Light absorption by phytoplankton and chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the drainage basin and estuary of the Neuse River, North Carolina (U.S.A.). Freshwater Biology 2005;50(3):477-493. R828677C001 (Final)
  • Abstract: Wiley Online
    Exit
  • Journal Article Valdes-Weaver LM, Piehler MF, Pinckney JL, Howe KE, Rossignol K, Paerl HW. Long-term temporal and spatial trends in phytoplankton biomass and class-level taxonomic composition in the hydrologically variable Neuse-Pamlico estuarine continuum, North Carolina, USA. Limnology and Oceanography 2006;51(3):1410-1420. R828677C001 (Final)
    R830652 (2005)
  • Full-text: ASLO - Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: ASLO Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Valentine V, Hopkinson, Jr. C. Investigating drainage density and fractal dimension as geomorphometric indicators of tidal marsh condition using remotely sensed data and geographical information systems. International Journal of Remote Sensing (in submission, 2004). R828677C003 (2003)
    not available
    Journal Article Valentine V, Hopkinson Jr. CS, Millette TL, Hayward CD, et al. Formation of ponds in marshes of the Plum Island Sound estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science (submitted, 2005). R828677C003 (2004)
    not available
    Journal Article Wetz MS, Paerl HW. Estuarine phytoplankton responses to hurricanes and tropical storms with different characteristics (trajectory, rainfall, winds). Estuaries and Coasts 2008;31(2):419-429. R828677 (Final)
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Whipple AC, Luettich RA, Seim HE. Measurements of Reynolds stress in a wind-driven lagoonal estuary. Ocean Dynamics 2006;56(3-4):169-185. R828677C001 (Final)
  • Abstract: SpringerLink - Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Yeager CLJ, Harding Jr. LW, Mallonee ME. Phytoplankton production, biomass and community structure following a summer nutrient pulse in Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic Ecology 2005;39(2):135-149. R828677 (Final)
    R828677C002 (Final)
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
    Exit
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    air, water, watersheds, estuary, marine ecological effects, bioavailability, metabolism, vulnerability, sensitive populations, stressor, susceptibility, nutrients, toxics, metals, effluent, discharge, ecosystem, indicators, restoration, regionalization, scaling, aquatic, integrated assessment, innovative technology, bioindicators, restoration, water quality, habitat management, public policy, decisionmaking, community-based, public good, socioeconomic, conservation, environmental assets, marine science, biology, physics, ecology, hydrology, geology, phycology, microbiology, wetland ecology, remote sensing, HPLC, modeling, monitoring, macrophyte indices, spatial analysis, geomorphic indices, circulation, SEAWiFS, LIDAR, aircraft remote sensing, Northeast, Chesapeake Bay, Pamlico Sound, Mid-Atlantic, Southeast, MA, MD, VA, NC, SC, EPA Region 3, EPA Region 4, agriculture, fisheries, tourism, forestry., RFA, Scientific Discipline, Air, Geographic Area, Waste, Water, Ecosystem Protection/Environmental Exposure & Risk, Bioavailability, Hydrology, Nutrients, exploratory research environmental biology, Ecosystem/Assessment/Indicators, Ecosystem Protection, climate change, State, Microbiology, Ecological Effects - Environmental Exposure & Risk, Ecological Risk Assessment, Biology, Geology, Ecological Indicators, anthropogenic stresses, environmental monitoring, nutrient supply, remote sensing, risk assessment, watershed analysis, coastal ecosystem, nutrient transport, aquatic ecosystem, bioindicator, anthropogenic stress, agriculturally impacted watershed, Atlantic Coast Consortium, hydrological stability, ecological exposure, CISNet, ecosystem assessment, watershed management, Virginia (VA), satellite imagery, ecosystem integrity, environmental stressor, hydrological, coastal environments, Coastal Intensive Site Network, biomonitoring, ecological assessment, estuarine ecosystems, integrated assessment, ecosystem indicators, Maryland (MD), environmental stressors, sustainability, water quality, plankton, North Carolina (NC), spatial and temporal patterns, agricultural community

    Relevant Websites:

    http://www.marine.unc.edu/Paerllab Exit
    http://www.cbrsp.org Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • Final Report
  • Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R828677C001 Phytoplankton Community Structure as an Indicator of Coastal Ecosystem Health
    R828677C002 Trophic Indicators of Ecosystem Health in Chesapeake Bay
    R828677C003 Coastal Wetland Indicators
    R828677C004 Environmental Indicators in the Estuarine Environment: Seagrass Photosynthetic Efficiency as an Indicator of Coastal Ecosystem Health