Final Report: Air Pollution, Exhaled Breath Markers, and Asthma in Susceptible Children

EPA Grant Number: R831861C003
Subproject: this is subproject number 003 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R831861
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: USC Center for Children’s Environmental Health
Center Director: Gilliland, Frank D.
Title: Air Pollution, Exhaled Breath Markers, and Asthma in Susceptible Children
Investigators: Gilliland, Frank D.
Institution: University of Southern California
EPA Project Officer: Callan, Richard
Project Period: November 1, 2003 through October 31, 2008 (Extended to October 31, 2010)
RFA: Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research (2003) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Health Effects , Children's Health , Health

Objective:

The Children’s Environmental Health Center (CEHC) was established in 1998 to investigate effects of the environment on children’s respiratory health, with a focus on asthma and airway disease. The theme of the Center and its research focus were chosen based on the clinical and public health importance of childhood respiratory diseases and the potential importance of common environmental exposures on the etiology of these conditions, especially among susceptible subgroups of children. The Center also established a community outreach and translation program to translate research findings to communities and inform policymakers about the effects of the environment on children’s health.
 
Project 3: Air Pollution, Exhaled Breath Markers and Asthma in Susceptible Children
 
Hypotheses:
  1. High ambient air pollution exposure is associated with chronic airway inflammation in children as indicated by elevated eNO, a marker of airway inflammation and oxidative/nitrosative stress.
  2. Children’s susceptibility to airway inflammation and oxidative/nitrosative stress from ambient air pollution varies by NOS1, NOS2 and NOS3, GSTM1, GSTP1, NQO1, and HO-1 genotypes.
  3. Children with chronic airway inflammation as indicated by elevated eNO are at increased risk for new onset asthma.
Specific Aims:
  • Collect eNO from 3,000 children in the ongoing AIR study cohort.
  • Genotype the cohort of 3,000 children for functional polymorphism/haplotypes in the NOS1, NOS2 and NOS3, GSTM1, GSTP1, NQO1, and HO-1.
To assess Hypotheses 1 and 2:
  • To use a multilevel design to determine the relationship between levels of eNO with short- and long-term air pollution exposures and to assess the effects of genetic variation in NOS1, 2, and 3 on these relationships using data collected in SA1, SA2 and air pollution exposure estimates from the ongoing cohort study.
 
To assess Hypothesis 3:
  • To determine the risk for new onset asthma in children with high levels of eNO using data collected in SA1 and in the ongoing prospective cohort study of incident asthma.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

In the past 5 years, we assessed three hypotheses based on a biological model for the oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways involved in the pathogenesis of adverse effects of air pollution: (1) High ambient air pollution exposure is associated with chronic airway inflammation in children as indicated by elevated exhaled NO (eNO), a marker of airway inflammation and oxidative/nitrosative stress; (2) Children’s susceptibility to airway inflammation and oxidative/nitrosative stress from ambient air pollution varies by NOS1, NOS2 and NOS3, GSTM1, GSTP1, NQO1, and HO-1 genotypes; and (3) Children with chronic airway inflammation as indicated by elevated eNO are at increased risk for new onset asthma.
 
We first investigated whether high ambient air pollutant exposures were associated with elevated eNO (marker of inflammation) in more than 2,700 children. We found that exposures to particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) mass concentration (2 to 7-day average prior to the test) were associated with increased eNO. In order to investigate the second hypothesis, we assessed whether specific genetic variants were associated with airway inflammation (elevated eNO) and children’s susceptibility to airway inflammation from ambient air pollution. We found strong evidence that variation in several genes on the nitric oxide (NO) synthesis pathway, including NOS2A and ARG2, are associated with eNO, susceptibility to air pollution, risk of new onset asthma and lung function growth. Finally, in order to evaluate hypothesis 3, we investigated whether elevated exhaled NO at baseline is associated with new onset asthma during the follow-up period. We determined that children with chronic airway inflammation as indicated by elevated eNO are at increased risk for new onset asthma.

Conclusions:

Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that ambient PM produces inflammation and oxidative/nitrosative stress in the airways and provide evidence that airway inflammation/nitrosative stress contributes to asthma pathogenesis and abnormal lung function development. Furthermore, these findings indicate that variants in genes involved in NO production pathways may affect susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Based on preliminary data, studies of genes and pathways involved in regulating inflammatory responses are likely to provide crucial information needed to understand the role of the interrelated processes of oxidative/nitrosative stress on inflammation in respiratory disease pathogenesis.


Journal Articles on this Report : 89 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 141 publications 91 publications in selected types All 90 journal articles
Other center views: All 193 publications 125 publications in selected types All 124 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Bastain TM, Islam T, Berhane KT, McConnell RS, Rappaport EB, Salam MT, Linn WS, Avol EL, Zhang Y, Gilliland FD. Exhaled nitric oxide, susceptibility and new-onset asthma in the Children’s Health Study. European Respiratory Journal 2011;37(3):523-531. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Berg J, McConnell R, Milam J, Galvan J, Kotlerman J, Thorne P, Jones C, Ferdman R, Eggleston P, Rand C, Lewis MA, Peters J, Richardson J. Rodent allergen in Los Angeles inner city homes of children with asthma. Journal of Urban Health 2008;85(1):52-61. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Berhane K, Gauderman WJ, Stram DO, Thomas DC. Statistical issues in studies of the long-term effects of air pollution: The Southern California Children's Health Study. Statistical Science 2004;19(3):414-449. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Berhane K, Zhang Y, Linn WS, Rappaport EB, Bastain TM, Salam MT, Islam T, Lurmann F, Gilliland FD. The effect of ambient air pollution on exhaled nitric oxide in the Children’s Health Study. European Respiratory Journal 2011;37(5):1029-1036. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Breton CV, Vora H, Salam MT, Islam T, Wenten M, Gauderman WJ, Van den Berg D, Berhane K, Peters JM, Gilliland FD. Variation in the GST mu locus and tobacco smoke exposure as determinants of childhood lung function. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2009;179(7):601-607. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Breton CV, Byun HM, Wenten M, Pan F, Yang A, Gilliland FD. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure affects global and gene-specific DNA methylation. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2009;180(5):462-467. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Breton CV, Salam MT, Vora H, Gauderman WJ, Gilliland FD. Genetic variation in the glutathione synthesis pathway, air pollution, and children’s lung function growth. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2011;183(2):243-248. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Conti DV, Gauderman WJ. SNPs, haplotypes, and model selection in a candidate gene region: the SIMPle analysis for multilocus data. Genetic Epidemiology 2004;27(4):429-441. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Cozen W, Avol E, Diaz-Sanchez D, McConnell R, Gauderman WJ, Cockburn MG, Zadnick J, Jyrala M, Mack TM. Use of an electrostatic dust cloth for self-administered home allergen collection. Twin Research and Human Genetics 2008;11(2):150-155. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Diaz-Sanchez D, Riedl M. Diesel effects on human health: a question of stress? American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 2005;289(5):L722-L723. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Diaz-Sanchez D, Rumold R, Gong Jr. H. Challenge with environmental tobacco smoke exacerbates allergic airway disease in human beings. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2006;118(2):441-446. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Gilliland F, Vora H, Thomas D, Berhane K, McConnell R, Kuenzli N, Lurmann F, Rappaport E, Margolis H, Bates D, Peters J. The effect of air pollution on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age. New England Journal of Medicine 2004;351(11):1057-1067. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Lurmann F, Kuenzli N, Gilliland F, Peters J, McConnell R. Childhood asthma and exposure to traffic and nitrogen dioxide. Epidemiology 2005;16(6):737-743. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Gauderman WJ, Conti DV. Commentary: Models for longitudinal family data. International Journal of Epidemiology 2005;34(5):1077-1079. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Gauderman WJ. Air pollution and children — an unhealthy mix. New England Journal of Medicine 2006;355(1):78-79. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Gauderman WJ, Vora H, McConnell R, Berhane K, Gilliland F, Thomas D, Lurmann F, Avol E, Kunzli N, Jerrett M, Peters J. Effect of exposure to traffic on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age: a cohort study. Lancet 2007;369(9561):571-577. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Gauderman WJ, Murcray C, Gilliland F, Conti DV. Testing association between disease and multiple SNPs in a candidate gene. Genetic Epidemiology 2007;31(5):383-395. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Gilliland FD, Li Y-F, Saxon A, Diaz-Sanchez D. Effect of glutathione-S-transferase M1 and P1 genotypes on xenobiotic enhancement of allergic responses: randomised, placebo-controlled crossover study. Lancet 2004;363(9403):119-125. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Gilliland FD, Li YF, Gong Jr. H, Diaz-Sanchez D. Glutathione s-transferases M1 and P1 prevent aggravation of allergic responses by secondhand smoke. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2006;174(12):1335-1341. R831861 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Gilliland FD, Islam T, Berhane K, Gauderman WJ, McConnell R, Avol E, Peters JM. Regular smoking and asthma incidence in adolescents. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2006;174(10):1094-1100. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Gilliland FD. Outdoor air pollution, genetic susceptibility, and asthma management: opportunities for intervention to reduce the burden of asthma. Pediatrics 2009;123(Suppl 3):S168-S173. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Gilliland F, Avol E, Kinney P, Jerrett M, Dvonch T, Lurmann F, Buckley T, Breysse P, Keeler G, de Villiers T, McConnell R. Air pollution exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies of pregnant women and children: lessons learned from the Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(10):1447-1454. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Hricko A. Ships, trucks, and trains: effects of goods movement on environmental health. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(4):A204-A205 (guest editorial). R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Islam T, Gauderman WJ, Berhane K, McConnell R, Avol E, Peters JM, Gilliland FD. Relationship between air pollution, lung function and asthma in adolescents. Thorax 2007;62(11):957-963. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Islam T, Berhane K, McConnell R, Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Peters JM, Gilliland FD. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) P1, GSTM1, exercise, ozone and asthma incidence in school children. Thorax 2009;64(3):197-202. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Islam T, Breton C, Salam MT, McConnell R, Wenten M, Gauderman WJ, Conti D, Van Den Berg D, Peters JM, Gilliland FD. Role of inducible nitric oxide synthase in asthma risk and lung function growth during adolescence. Thorax 2010; 65(2):139-145. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Jerrett M, Arain A, Kanaroglou P, Beckerman B, Potoglou D, Sahsuvaroglu T, Morrison J, Giovis C. A review and evaluation of intraurban air pollution exposure models. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 2005;15(2):185-204. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Jerrett M, Shankardass K, Berhane K, Gauderman WJ, Künzli N, Avol E, Gilliland F, Lurmann F, Molitor JN, Molitor JT, Thomas DC, Peters J, McConnell R. Traffic-related air pollution and asthma onset in children: a prospective cohort study with individual exposure measurement. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008;116(10):1433-1438. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Kanaroglou P, Jerrett M, Morrison J, Beckerman B, Arain A, Gilbert N, Brook J. Establishing an air pollution monitoring network for intra-urban population exposure assessment: a location-allocation approach. Atmospheric Environment 2005;39(13):2399-2409. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Kraft P, Yen YC, Stram DO, Morrison J, Gauderman WJ. Exploiting gene-environment interaction to detect genetic associations. Human Heredity 2007;63(2):111-119. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Kunzli N, Perez L, Lurmann F, Hricko A, Penfold B, McConnell R. An attributable risk model for exposures assumed to cause both chronic disease and its exacerbations. Epidemiology 2008;19(2):179-185. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Lee YL, Gilliland FD, Wang JY, Lee YC, Guo YL. Associations of FcɛRIβ E237G polymorphism with wheezing in Taiwanese schoolchildren. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 2008;38(3):413-420. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Lee YL, McConnell R, Berhane K, Gilliland FD. Ambient ozone modifies the effect of tumor necrosis factor G-308A on bronchitic symptoms among children with asthma. Allergy 2009;64(9):1342-1348. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Li Y-F, Langholz B, Salam MT, Gilliland FD. Maternal and grandmaternal smoking patterns are associated with early childhood asthma. Chest 2005;127(4):1232-1241. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Li Y-F, Tsao YH, Gauderman WJ, Conti DV, Avol E, Dubeau L, Gilliland FD. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and childhood asthma. Human Genetics 2005;117(5):476-484. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Li Y-F, Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Dubeau L, Gilliland FD. Associations of tumor necrosis factor G-308A with childhood asthma and wheezing. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2006;173(9):970-976. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Linn WS, Avila M, Gong H Jr. Exhaled nitric oxide: sources of error in offline measurement. Archives of Environmental Health 2004;59(8):385-391. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Linn WS, Rappaport EB, Berhane KT, Bastain TM, Avol EL, Gilliland FD. Exhaled nitric oxide in a population-based study of southern California schoolchildren. Respiratory Research 2009;10(1):28. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Linn WS, Berhane KT, Rappaport EB, Bastain TM, Avol EL, Gilliland FD. Relationships of online exhaled, offline exhaled, and ambient nitric oxide in an epidemiologic survey of schoolchildren. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2009;19(7):674-681. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Linn WS, Rappaport EB, Berhane KT, Bastain TM, Salam MT, Gilliland FD. Extended exhaled nitric oxide analysis in field surveys of schoolchildren: a pilot test. Pediatric Pulmonology 2009;44(10):1033-1042. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article McConnell R, Berhane K, Molitor J, Gilliland F, Kunzli N, Thorne PS, Thomas D, Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Lurmann F, Rappaport E, Jerrett M, Peters JM. Dog ownership enhances symptomatic responses to air pollution in children with asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(12):1910-1915. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article McConnell R, Berhane K, Yao L, Lurmann FW, Avol E, Peters JM. Predicting residential ozone deficits from nearby traffic. Science of the Total Environment 2006;363(1-3):166-174. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article McConnell R, Berhane K, Yao L, Jerrett M, Lurmann F, Gilliland F, Kunzli N, Gauderman J, Avol E, Thomas D, Peters J. Traffic, susceptibility, and childhood asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(5):766-772. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article McConnell R, Islam T, Shankardass K, Jerrett M, Lurmann F, Gilliland F, Gauderman J, Avol E, Kunzli N, Yao L, Peters J, Berhane K. Childhood incident asthma and traffic-related air pollution at home and school. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(7):1021-1026. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Milam J, McConnell R, Yao L, Berhane K, Jerrett M, Richardson J. Parental stress and childhood wheeze in a prospective cohort study. Journal of Asthma 2008;45(4):319-323. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Millstein J, Gilliland F, Berhane K, Gauderman WJ, McConnell R, Avol E, Rappaport EB, Peters JM. Effects of ambient air pollutants on asthma medication use and wheezing among fourth-grade school children from 12 Southern California communities enrolled in The Children's Health Study. Archives of Environmental Health 2004;59(10):505-514. R831861 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Millstein J, Siegmund KD, Conti DV, Gauderman WJ. Testing association and linkage using affected-sib-parent study designs. Genetic Epidemiology 2005;29(3):225-233. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Millstein J, Conti DV, Gilliland FD, Gauderman WJ. A testing framework for identifying susceptibility genes in the presence of epistasis. American Journal of Human Genetics 2006;78(1):15-27. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Mirabelli MC, Kunzli N, Avol E, Gilliland FD, Gauderman WJ, McConnell R, Peters JM. Respiratory symptoms following wildfire smoke exposure: airway size as a susceptibility factor. Epidemiology 2009;20(3):451-459. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Molitor J, Molitor N-T, Jerrett M, McConnell R, Gauderman J, Berhane K, Thomas D. Bayesian modeling of air pollution health effects with missing exposure data. American Journal of Epidemiology 2006;164(1):69-76. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Molitor J, Jerrett M, Chang CC, Molitor NT, Gauderman J, Berhane K, McConnell R, Lurmann F, Wu J, Winer A, Thomas D. Assessing uncertainty in spatial exposure models for air pollution health effects assessment. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007;115(8):1147-1153. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Mueller-Anneling L, Avol E, Peters JM, Thorne PS. Ambient endotoxin concentrations in PM10 from Southern California. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(5):583-588. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Murcray CE, Lewinger JP, Gauderman WJ. Gene-environment interaction in genome-wide association studies. American Journal of Epidemiology 2009;169(2):219-226. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Perez L, Kunzli N, Avol E, Hricko AM, Lurmann F, Nicholas E, Gilliland F, Peters J, McConnell R. Global goods movement and the local burden of childhood asthma in southern California. American Journal of Public Health 2009;99(Suppl 3):S622-S628. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Riedl MA, Landaw EM, Saxon A, Diaz-Sanchez D. Initial high-dose nasal allergen exposure prevents allergic sensitization to a neoantigen. Journal of Immunology 2005;174(11):7440-7445. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Riedl MA, Saxon A, Diaz-Sanchez D. Oral sulforaphane increases Phase II antioxidant enzymes in the human upper airway. Clinical Immunology 2009;130(3):244-251. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Riedl M, Diaz-Sanchez D. Biology of diesel exhaust effects on respiratory function. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2005;115(2):221-228. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Ritz SA, Wan J, Diaz-Sanchez D. Sulforaphane-stimulated phase II enzyme induction inhibits cytokine production by airway epithelial cells stimulated with diesel extract. American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 2007;292(1):L33-L39. R831861 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Rondeau V, Berhane K, Thomas DC. A three-level model for binary time-series data: the effects of air pollution on school absences in the Southern California Children's Health Study. Statistics in Medicine 2005;24(7):1103-1115. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Ross Z, English PB, Scalf R, Gunier R, Smorodinsky S, Wall S, Jerrett M. Nitrogen dioxide prediction in Southern California using land use regression modeling: potential for environmental health analyses. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2006;16(2):106-114. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Salam MT, Li Y-F, Langholz B, Gilliland FD. Early-life environmental risk factors for asthma:findings from the Children's Health Study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(6):760-765. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Salam MT, Li Y-F, Langholz B, Gilliland FD. Maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and risk of childhood asthma. Journal of Asthma 2005;42(6):513-518. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Salam MT, Millstein J, Li YF, Lurmann FW, Margolis HG, Gilliland FD. Birth outcomes and prenatal exposure to ozone, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter: results from the Children's Health Study. Environment Health Perspectives 2005;113(11):1638-1644. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Salam MT, Margolis HG, McConnell R, McGregor JA, Avol EL, Gilliland FD. Mode of delivery is associated with asthma and allergy occurrences in children. Annals of Epidemiology 2006;16(5):341-346. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Salam MT, Gauderman WJ, McConnell R, Lin PC, Gilliland FD. Transforming growth factor-β1 C-509T polymorphism, oxidant stress, and early-onset childhood asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2007;176(12):1192-1199. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Salam MT, Lin PC, Avol EL, Gauderman WJ, Gilliland FD. Microsomal epoxide hydrolase, glutathione S-transferase P1, traffic and childhood asthma. Thorax 2007;62(12):1050-1057. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Salam MT, Islam T, Gilliland FD. Recent evidence for adverse effects of residential proximity to traffic sources on asthma. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine 2008;14(1):3-8. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Salam MT, Islam T, Gauderman WJ, Gilliland FD. Roles of arginase variants, atopy, and ozone in childhood asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2009;123(3):596-602. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Salam MT, Bastain TM, Rappaport EB, Islam T, Berhane K, Gauderman WJ, Gilliland FD. Genetic variations in nitric oxide synthase and arginase influence exhaled nitric oxide levels in children. Allergy 2011;66(3):412-419. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Sawant AA, Cocker III DR, Miller JW, Taliaferro T, Diaz-Sanchez D, Linn WS, Clark KW, Gong Jr. H. Generation and characterization of diesel exhaust in a facility for controlled human exposures. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2008;58(6):829-837. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Saxon A, Diaz-Sanchez D. Air pollution and allergy: you are what you breathe. Nature Immunology 2005;6(3):223-226. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Shankardass K, McConnell RS, Milam J, Berhane K, Tatalovich Z, Wilson JP, Jerrett M. The association between contextual socioeconomic factors and prevalent asthma in a cohort of Southern California school children. Social Science & Medicine 2007;65(8):1792-1806. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Stram DO. Designs for studies of personal exposure to air pollution and the impact of measurement error. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 2005;68(13-14):1181-1187. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Stram DO. Software for tag single nucleotide polymorphism selection. Human Genomics 2005;2(2):144-151. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Thomas DC. The need for a systematic approach to complex pathways in molecular epidemiology. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 2005;14(3):557-559. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Thomas DC, Haile RW, Duggan D. Recent developments in genomewide association scans: a workshop summary and review. American Journal of Human Genetics 2005;77(3):337-345. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Thomas DC, Witte JS, Greenland S. Dissecting effects of complex mixtures: who's afraid of informative priors? Epidemiology 2007;18(2):186-190. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Thomas D, Xie R, Gebregziabher M. Two-stage sampling designs for gene association studies. Genetic Epidemiology 2004;27(4):401-414. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Thomas D. Why do estimates of the acute and chronic effects of air pollution on mortality differ? Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 2005;68(13-14):1167-1174. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Thorne PS, Metwali N, Avol E, McConnell RS. Surface sampling for endotoxin assessment using electrostatic wiping cloths. Annals of Occupational Hygiene 2005;49(5):401-406. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Wan J, Diaz-Sanchez D. Phase II enzymes induction blocks the enhanced IgE production in B cells by diesel exhaust particles. Journal of Immunology 2006;177(5):3477-3483. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Wan J, Diaz-Sanchez D. Antioxidant enzyme induction: a new protective approach against the adverse effects of diesel exhaust particles. Inhalation Toxicology 2007;19(Suppl 1):177-182. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Wang C, Salam MT, Islam T, Wenten M, Gauderman WJ, Gilliland FD. Effects of in utero and childhood tobacco smoke exposure and beta2-adrenergic receptor genotype on childhood asthma and wheezing. Pediatrics 2008;122(1):e107-e114. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Wenten M, Berhane K, Rappaport EB, Avol E, Tsai WW, Gauderman WJ, McConnell R, Dubeau L, Gilliland FD. TNF-308 modifies the effect of second-hand smoke on respiratory illness-related school absences. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2005;172(12):1563-1568. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Wenten M, Gauderman WJ, Berhane K, Lin PC, Peters J, Gilliland FD. Functional variants in the catalase and myeloperoxidase genes, ambient air pollution, and respiratory-related school absences: an example of epistasis in gene-environment interactions. American Journal of Epidemiology 2009;170(12):1494-1501. R831861 (Final)
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  • Other: Oxford Journals-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Wenten M, Li YF, Lin PC, Gauderman WJ, Berhane K, Avol E, Gilliland FD. In utero smoke exposure, glutathione S-transferase P1 haplotypes, and respiratory illness-related absence among schoolchildren. Pediatrics 2009;123(5):1344-1351. R831861 (Final)
    R831861C001 (Final)
    R831861C002 (Final)
    R831861C003 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Pediatrics-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Pediatrics-Abstract
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  • Other: Pediatrics-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Wu J, Lurmann F, Winer A, Lu R, Turco R, Funk T. Development of an individual exposure model for application to the Southern California Children's Health Study. Atmospheric Environment 2005;39(2):259-273. R831861 (2004)
    R831861 (2005)
    R831861 (Final)
    R831861C001 (Final)
    R831861C002 (Final)
    R831861C003 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C015 (Final)
    R828172 (Final)
    R831845 (2005)
  • Full-text: Science Direct-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Science Direct-Abstract
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  • Other: Science Direct-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Wu J, Funk T, Lurmann F, Winer A. Improving spatial accuracy of roadway networks and geocoded addresses. Transactions in GIS 2005;9(4):585-601. R831861 (2005)
    R831861 (Final)
    R831861C001 (Final)
    R831861C002 (Final)
    R831861C003 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C015 (Final)
    R831845 (2005)
  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    Asthma, children, susceptibility, community, children’s health, health effects, risk assessment, airway disease, allergen, asthma, childhood respiratory disease, children’s environmental health, community-based intervention, outreach and education, respiratory problems, RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, Health Risk Assessment, Children's Health, Risk Assessment, asthma, community-based intervention, airway disease, respiratory problems, Human Health Risk Assessment, childhood respiratory disease, susceptibility, children's environmental health, outreach and education

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2004 Progress Report
  • 2005 Progress Report
  • 2006 Progress Report
  • 2007 Progress Report
  • 2008
  • 2009

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R831861    USC Center for Children’s Environmental Health

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R831861C001 Urban Air Pollution and Persistent Early Life Asthma
    R831861C002 Pollution-Enhanced Allergic Inflammation and Phase II Enzymes
    R831861C003 Air Pollution, Exhaled Breath Markers, and Asthma in Susceptible Children