Final Report: Fine and Coarse Particulate Continuous Emissions Monitoring System

EPA Contract Number: EPD06071
Title: Fine and Coarse Particulate Continuous Emissions Monitoring System
Investigators: Baldwin, Tom
Small Business: Baldwin Environmental, Inc.
EPA Contact: Richards, April
Phase: II
Project Period: April 1, 2006 through August 29, 2008
Project Amount: $225,000
RFA: Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) - Phase II (2006) Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Particulate Matter , SBIR - Air Pollution , Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)


Baldwin Environmental Inc. (BEI) and Desert Research Institute (DRI) successfully completed a SBIR Phase II project that demonstrated the feasibility of designing and producing a Fine and Coarse Particulate Monitoring Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (FCPMCEMS) for use on dry stacks. This system simultaneously measures and reports mass concentrations of fine and coarse particulate material using Atmospheric Dispersion Simulation (ADS) and Beta Attenuation Monitoring (BAM). This report summarizes the development a FCPMCEMS capable of continuously measuring and reporting PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 on most dry particulate emitting sources. This research and development includes, design, production and laboratory testing of one prototype system including documentation; development of a calibration scheme; and testing on a wide variety of possible samples. A field test of the technology and implementation has been scheduled for August 2008.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

The project used a combination of technical literature search, consultation with experts in the field, laboratory experimentation and the principal investigators’ personal experience to design and fabricate a FCPCEMS suitable for dry source emissions monitoring. The laboratory work consisted of challenging the prototype dilution tunnel system (ADS) with a variety of typical particulate materials and comparing the BAM measurement results with continuous laser particle analyzers and traditional gravimetric filter analysis.

The method is applicable to: medical, industrial and municipal waste incinerators; coal, oil and gas fired power generation systems, including turbines; cement, asphalt and aggregate plants; chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical plants; and other similar sources. Packaging can be suitable for indoor or outdoor installations.


  1. It has been determined that sample dilution with clean, dry air at ambient temperature is the only practical method of quantifying the emission mass of PM2.5 and PM10. This method simulates when a source emission plume is diluted into the atmosphere. We have found that traditional Method 5 sampling grossly overestimates PM2.5 and PM10. This has been convincingly demonstrated by a comprehensive literature search.
  2. The BAM is a practical and repeatable measurement method when challenged by some typical stack emissions samples that have been diluted. Water concentrations to 20% v/v in the original simulated sample have been shown not to adversely affect the correlation with accepted gravimetric methods. We achieved correlation coefficients of greater than 0.95 when comparing gravimetric versus BAM results. Long- term measurement of zero and span under typical operating conditions as well as consumption of expendable supplies indicate that unattended operating intervals of greater than 1 month are achievable. These conclusions are supported by experimental data and numerous technical literature references.
  3. Based on the preliminary test data, the ADS can measure PM fine and PM coarse particulates down to a pre-dilution stack concentration of 200 ug/scm3 (0.00009 gr/sft3) at a 20:1 dilution ratio. It can range upwards to handle concentrations as high as 100 mg/m3 (0.044gr/sft3). This concentration range makes the system useful for most controlled industrial sources.
  4. Laboratory characterization testing proved the ADS is capable of measuring both PM fine and coarse particulates on a continuous measurement basis, and correlates to gravimetric (standard ambient measurement procedures).
  5. The software and hardware of the BAM, originally designed for ambient monitoring, had be altered slightly to accommodate stack monitoring requirements. These requirements have been communicated to the manufacturer who has made the necessary changes.
  6. The commercial prospects for the product are good. The market for medical waste incinerators is declining, but other industrial sources such as power generation present excellent prospects. For the product to have a market, regulations on monitoring fine particulates from sources must be promulgated.

Dilution sampling combined with BAM is a practical method for the measurement of fine and coarse particulates and has been packaged for industrial applications. The proposed system will have a greater than 30-day maintenance interval. To use the method, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will need to issue a reference method based on dilution sampling technology.

Supplemental Keywords:

small business, SBIR, EPA, air monitoring, air pollution, particulate matter, PM, CEM, emissions, stack dilution sampling, aerosol particles, air sampling, airborne particulate matter, continuous emissions monitoring, hazardous waste combustion, hazardous waste incinerators, ecosystem protection/environmental exposure and risk, air, scientific discipline, RFA, air quality, air pollutants, environmental chemistry, monitoring/modeling, environmental monitoring, aerosols, monitoring, atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric measurements, airborne particulate matter,, RFA, Scientific Discipline, Air, Ecosystem Protection/Environmental Exposure & Risk, particulate matter, Air Quality, Environmental Chemistry, Air Pollutants, Monitoring/Modeling, Environmental Monitoring, monitoring, atmospheric measurements, hazardous waste combustion, airborne particulate matter, air pollution, emissions, hazardous waste incinerators, air sampling, particulate matter mass, continuous emissions monitoring, beta attenuation monitor, aerosols

SBIR Phase I:

Fine and Course Particulate Continuous Emissions Monitoring System