2007 Progress Report: Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research – CHAMACOS Community Based Research Project

EPA Grant Number: R831710C001
Subproject: this is subproject number 001 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R831710
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: University of California Berkeley Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research
Center Director: Eskenazi, Brenda
Title: Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research – CHAMACOS Community Based Research Project
Investigators: Eskenazi, Brenda , Alkon, Abbey , Boyce, Thomas , Cuevas, Maximiliano , Johnson, Caroline , Lipsett, Michael , Macher, Janet , Minkler, Meredith , Sedgwick, Jaqueline , Tager, Ira , Tunzi, Mark
Institution: University of California - Berkeley
EPA Project Officer: Callan, Richard
Project Period: May 1, 2004 through October 31, 2008 (Extended to October 31, 2010)
Project Period Covered by this Report: May 1, 2007 through October 31, 2008
RFA: Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research (2003) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Children's Health , Health Effects , Health

Objective:

The Specific aims of this project are:

  1. To determine whether organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure in utero and/or during the postnatal period is associated with poorer neurodevelopment and behavioral performance of children at ages 42-, 60-, and 84-months.
  2. To determine whether OP exposure in utero and/or during the postnatal period is associated with slower somatic growth of preschool age children.
  3. To determine whether OP exposure in utero and/or during the postnatal period is associated with atopy, active asthma or asthma-like symptoms of children and airway reactivity.
  4. To determine whether OP exposure is associated with autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction and whether the state of the ANS modifies the association of OPs and respiratory health.

Progress Summary:

In March 2007, we began 7-year assessments of child participants in the CHAMACOS cohort. The 7-year visit consists of a maternal questionnaire, a teacher questionnaire, and a direct assessment of the child, including multiple domains of the child’s cognitive and psychomotor development, anthropometric measurements of mother and child, lung function testing of the child, and collection of blood samples from the mother and child. The Center grant funds the maternal and teacher questionnaire only. However, we obtained additional funding this year (NIEHS RO1 ES015572) to conduct the neurodevelopmental assessment of the child at age 7. This grant funds the costs of bringing the children in for a direct assessment, making the anthropometric, lung function, and phlebotomy activities possible and leveraging the amount of data we can collect from the CHAMACOS cohort.

Specific Aim 1: Neurodevelopment
In May, we published a paper in EHP presenting our findings of the association of organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurodevelopment through 24 months of age (Eskenazi et al, 2007). Overall, we found that maternal prenatal dialklyl phosphate (DAP) urinary metabolite levels were negatively associated with scores on the mental development index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, but concurrent child DAPs were positively associated. At 24 months, these associations reached statistical significance (per ten-fold increase in prenatal DAPs: β=-3.5 points, 95% CI=-6.6, -0.5; child DAPs: β=2.4 points, 95% CI= 0.5, 4.2). Neither prenatal nor child DAPs were associated with psychomotor development index (PDI) scores. We found no associations between DAPs and 24 month attention problems as measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), but both prenatal and postnatal DAPs were associated with risk of pervasive developmental disorder (per ten-fold increase in prenatal DAPs: odds ratio (OR)=2.3, p=0.05; child DAPs OR=1.7, p=0.04). Urinary metabolites specific to malathion (MDA) and chlorpyrifos (TCPy) were not associated with any outcome.

This year we also published on the association of organochlorine pesticides and neonatal neurodevelopment (Fenster et al, 2007). We did not find any detrimental associations between maternal serum DDT or DDE levels during pregnancy and neonatal performance on seven clusters (habituation, orientation, motor performance, range of state, regulation of state, autonomic stability, and reflex) of the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS).

Specific Aim 2: Growth
We are currently exploring whether childhood DAP exposure is associated with growth. Raul Aguilar, a PhD student in Biostatistics, is currently conducting longitudinal analyses of concurrent DAP exposure and child height and weight at 6, 12 and 24 months of age. These models will be expanded to include 42 and 60 month time points when data become available.

Specific Aim 3: Respiratory Illness
We have recently submitted a paper examining the association of season of birth with risk of physician-diagnosed asthma at 24 months (Harley et al, submitted). By measuring ambient levels of pollen and fungal spores in the Salinas Valley throughout the study period, we were able to identify specific seasons with high levels of pollen or fungi.

Specific Aim 4: Autonomic Nervous System
In March 2007, we presented two posters on ANS functioning at the Society for Research in Child Development (Alkon et al 2007, Bensadoun et al. 2007). We have identified differences in parasympathetic reactivity between CHAMACOS children with high levels of maternally-reported cumulative stress and those with lower levels. A lack of biologic responsivity to the environmental in highly-stressed children may predispose them to behavioral and mental health problems later in life (Alkon et al). This research has helped refine ANS outcomes.

Other Findings
Two analyses on predictors of child overweight at 24 months (Warner et al. 2006) and on the relationship of acculturation to duration of breastfeeding (Harley et al. 2007) were published during the past year. We have also published findings this year implicating prenatal exposure to certain PCB congeners (most notably 183, 194 and 199) in elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in newborns. This finding is significant in that it provides evidence in humans of a mechanism previously established in animal models; namely, that exposure to specific PCB congeners (183, 194 and 199) induces an increase in enzymes which results in a drop in thyroid hormone levels. (The drop in thyroid hormone levels is represented by an increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone in this study) (Chevrier et al. in press).

Future Activities:

Year 5 will mark the end of the 7-year visits and the end of this round of Center funding. We plan to expand our analyses of the health effects of pesticides to older children, using the data collected at age 5 and 7. In particular, we will be looking to see if neurodevelopmental effects persist at older ages, taking advantage of respiratory data from older children, and exploring the interaction of PON1 genotype with OP exposure on health. If supplementary funding is granted, we will travel to South Africa in early 2008 to explore the feasibility of researching neurodevelopmental and health outcomes in children exposed to in-home spraying of DDT.


Journal Articles on this Report : 16 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 25 publications 23 publications in selected types All 23 journal articles
Other center views: All 131 publications 106 publications in selected types All 98 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Alkon A, Lippert S, Vujan N, Rodriquez ME, Boyce WT, Eskenazi B. The ontogeny of autonomic measures in 6-and 12-month-old infants. Developmental Psychobiology 2006;48(3):197-208. R831710 (2005)
R831710 (Final)
R831710C001 (2006)
R831710C001 (2007)
R831710C002 (2006)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Wiley Online-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Bradman A, Fenster L, Sjodin A, Jones RS, Patterson Jr DG, Eskenazi B. Polybrominated diphenyl ether levels in the blood of pregnant women living in an agricultural community in California. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007;115(1):71-74. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R831710C002 (2007)
    R834513 (2010)
    R834513 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Bradman A, Whitaker D, Quiros L, Castorina R, Claus Henn B, Nishioka M, Morgan J, Barr DB, Harnly M, Brisbin JA, Sheldon LS, McKone TE, Eskenazi B. Pesticides and their metabolites in the homes and urine of farmworker children living in the Salinas Valley, CA. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2007;17(4):331-349. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R831710C002 (2007)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Nature - Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Nature - Abstract
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  • Other: Nature - Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Chevrier J, Eskenazi B, Bradman A, Fenster L, Barr DB. Associations between prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in a Mexican-American population, Salinas Valley, California. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007;115(10):1490-1496. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R831710C003 (2007)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Duramad P, Harley K, Lipsett M, Bradman A, Eskenazi B, Holland NT, Tager IB. Early environmental exposures and intracellular Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles in 24-month-old children living in an agricultural area. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(12):1916-1922. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2006)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R831710C002 (2006)
    R831710C003 (2006)
    R831710C003 (2007)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Eskenazi B. Centros de investigación de salud medioambiental y prevención de enfermedades de niños. Desde 1998 al presente. Acta Toxicologica Argentina 2006;14(Suppl):60-62. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R832734 (2006)
  • Full-text: ATA - Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Eskenazi B, Bradman A, Harley K, Holland N. Indicadores biologicos de exposicion a pesticidas y su relacion con la salud de los ninos. Acta Toxicologica Argentina 2006;14(Supplement):63-65. R831710 (2005)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R831710C002 (2007)
    R832734 (2006)
    not available
    Journal Article Eskenazi B, Marks AR, Bradman A, Harley K, Barr DB, Johnson C, Morga N, Jewell NP. Organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurodevelopment in young Mexican-American children. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007;115(5):792-798. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2007)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Fenster L, Eskenazi B, Anderson M, Bradman A, Harley K, Hernandez H, Hubbard A, Barr DB. Association of in utero organochlorine pesticide exposure and fetal growth and length of gestation in an agricultural population. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(4):597-602. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2006)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R831710C002 (2006)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Fenster L, Eskenazi B, Anderson M, Bradman A, Hubbard A, Barr DB. In utero exposure to DDT and performance on the Brazelton neonatal behavioral assessment scale. NeuroToxicology 2007;28(3):471-477. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2007)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Science Direct - Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Science Direct-Abstract
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  • Other: Science Direct - Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Furlong CE, Holland N, Richter RJ, Bradman A, Ho A, Eskenazi B. PON1 status of farmworker mothers and children as a predictor of organophosphate sensitivity. Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 2006;16(3):183-190. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R831710C003 (2006)
    R831710C003 (2007)
    R831709 (2005)
    R831709 (2006)
    R831709 (2007)
    R831709C002 (2006)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics-Abstract
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  • Other: National Center for Farmworker Health-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Harley K, Eskenazi B. Time in the United States, social support and health behaviors during pregnancy among women of Mexican descent. Social Science & Medicine 2006;62(12):3048-3061. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2006)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R831710C002 (2006)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Harley K, Stamm NL, Eskenazi B. The effect of time in the U.S. on the duration of breastfeeding in women of Mexican descent. Maternal and Child Health Journal 2007;11(2):119-125. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2007)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Holland N, Furlong C, Bastaki M, Richter R, Bradman A, Huen K, Beckman K, Eskenazi B. Paraoxonase polymorphisms, haplotypes, and enzyme activity in Latino mothers and newborns. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(7):985-991. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R831710C003 (2006)
    R831709 (2005)
    R831709 (2006)
    R831709 (2007)
    R831709C002 (2006)
    R832734 (2006)
    R832734 (2007)
    R832734 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article McKone TE, Castorina R, Harnly ME, Kuwabara Y, Eskenazi B, Bradman A. Merging models and biomonitoring data to characterize sources and pathways of human exposure to organophosphorus pesticides in the Salinas Valley of California. Environmental Science & Technology 2007;41(9):3233-3240. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R831710C002 (2007)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: ACS-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ACS-Abstract
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  • Other: ACS-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Warner ML, Harley K, Bradman A, Vargas G, Eskenazi B. Soda consumption and overweight status of 2-year-old Mexican-American children in California. Obesity 2006;14(11):1966-1974. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2007)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Nature Publishing-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Wiley - Abstract
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  • Other: Nature Publishing-Full Text PDF
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    pesticides, exposure, prevention, development, obesity, children, DDT, organophosphate, Th1 Th2, children, pregnant women,, RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, HUMAN HEALTH, PESTICIDES, Health Risk Assessment, Health Effects, Children's Health, Pesticide Types, Risk Assessment, pesticide exposure, asthma, community-based intervention, airway disease, environmental risks, respiratory problems, Human Health Risk Assessment, assessment of exposure, childhood respiratory disease, insecticides, children's environmental health, environmental health hazard, outreach and education, agricultural community, allergen

    Relevant Websites:

    http://www.chamacos.org Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2004 Progress Report
  • 2005 Progress Report
  • 2006 Progress Report
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • Final

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R831710    University of California Berkeley Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R831710C001 Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research – CHAMACOS Community Based Research Project
    R831710C002 Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research – Pesticide Exposure Assessment Project
    R831710C003 Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research – Mechanisms of Pesticide Neuro- and Immunotoxicity
    R831710C004 Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research – Community Outreach and Translation Core