2006 Progress Report: Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research – CHAMACOS Community Based Research Project

EPA Grant Number: R831710C001
Subproject: this is subproject number 001 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R831710
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: University of California Berkeley Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research
Center Director: Eskenazi, Brenda
Title: Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research – CHAMACOS Community Based Research Project
Investigators: Eskenazi, Brenda , Alkon, Abbey , Boyce, Thomas , Cuevas, Maximiliano , Johnson, Caroline , Lipsett, Michael , Macher, Janet , Minkler, Meredith , Sedgwick, Jaqueline , Tager, Ira , Tunzi, Mark
Institution: University of California - Berkeley
EPA Project Officer: Callan, Richard
Project Period: May 1, 2004 through October 31, 2008 (Extended to October 31, 2010)
Project Period Covered by this Report: May 1, 2006 through October 31, 2007
RFA: Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research (2003) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Children's Health , Health Effects , Health

Objective:

The Specific aims of this project are:

  1. To determine whether organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure in utero and/or during the postnatal period is associated with poorer neurodevelopment and behavioral performance of children at ages 42-, 60-, and 84-months.
  2. To determine whether OP exposure in utero and/or during the postnatal period is associated with slower somatic growth of preschool age children.
  3. To determine whether OP exposure in utero and/or during the postnatal period is associated with atopy, active asthma or asthma-like symptoms of children and airway reactivity.
  4. To determine whether OP exposure is associated with autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction and whether the state of the ANS modifies the association of OPs and respiratory health.

Progress Summary:

Between March 2005 and August 2006, we completed the 5-year assessments of children participating in the CHAMACOS cohort study. Data collection at 5 years included 345 maternal interviews, 328 child neurobehavioral assessments, 311 autonomic nervous system assessments, and 320 home inspections. These children are from low-income, Spanish-speaking, migrant farmworker families and are a particularly challenging population to maintain in a long-term cohort study. Despite the challenges in following up this population, we had the lowest loss to follow-up (2.3%) at the most recent contact than at any previous point in time.

Specific Aim 1: Neurodevelopment
We found that DDT in maternal serum during pregnancy was inversely associated with psychomotor development index (PDI) at 6 and 12 months and mental development index (MDI) at 12 and 24 months, as measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (Eskenazi et al., 2006).

Specific Aim 2: Growth
We analyzed the association of maternal organochlorine (OC) pesticide levels during pregnancy and fetal growth and length of gestation. We analyzed 11 different OC compounds: p,p’-DDT, o,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDE, HCB, β-HCCH, γ-HCCH, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, and mirex. We found decreased length of gestation with increasing levels of lipid-adjusted HCB (adjusted β = -0.47 weeks; p=0.05). No effect was seen on birth weight or length. No significant associations were found with any other OC compound analyzed, including DDT and DDE (Fenster et al., 2006).

Specific Aim 3: Respiratory Illness
We have measured CD4 cells in 2-year-old children’s serum to identify levels of Th1 and Th2 cells. Because a higher level of Th2 relative to Th1 is associated with asthma, we have examined environmental exposures associated with Th1 and Th2 levels. Maternal work in agriculture was associated with a 25.9% increase in Th2 levels (p=0.04) and presence of a gas stove in the home was associated with a 34.5% increase (p<0.01) (Duramad et al, 2006).

Specific Aim 4: Autonomic Nervous System
We published a paper on the ontogeny of autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses among 6- and 12-month old children in this cohort. This paper assesses the validity of our ANS assessment protocol. We found that individual resting autonomic measures were moderately stable from 6 to 12 months, but reactivity measures were not stable, and that heart rate and RSA resting and challenge group means changed significantly. Findings suggest that although infants' autonomic responses show developmental changes, individuals' rank order is stable from 6 to 12 months of age. This study provides one of the first assessments of ANS function in infants as well as a longitudinal analysis of ANS responses (Alkon et al, 2006).

Other Findings
We found a high percentage of overweight children in the CHAMACOS cohort and found that soda consumption and shorter breastfeeding were associated with overweight at age 2 years. (Warner et al, 2006)

We also found an interaction between social support and acculturation on health behaviors during pregnancy, with US-born women with low social support being at highest risk of poor pregnancy health behaviors. (Harley et al, 2006)

Future Activities:

We will follow-up the cohort at age 7 years. Future analyses will examine the association of OP pesticides and neurodevelopment, growth and respiratory disease in older children.


Journal Articles on this Report : 7 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 25 publications 23 publications in selected types All 23 journal articles
Other center views: All 131 publications 106 publications in selected types All 98 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Alkon A, Lippert S, Vujan N, Rodriquez ME, Boyce WT, Eskenazi B. The ontogeny of autonomic measures in 6-and 12-month-old infants. Developmental Psychobiology 2006;48(3):197-208. R831710 (2005)
R831710 (Final)
R831710C001 (2006)
R831710C001 (2007)
R831710C002 (2006)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Wiley Online-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Duramad P, Harley K, Lipsett M, Bradman A, Eskenazi B, Holland NT, Tager IB. Early environmental exposures and intracellular Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles in 24-month-old children living in an agricultural area. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(12):1916-1922. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2006)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R831710C002 (2006)
    R831710C003 (2006)
    R831710C003 (2007)
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  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Journal Article Eskenazi B, Gladstone EA, Berkowitz GS, Drew CH, Faustman EM, Holland NT, Lanphear B, Meisel SJ, Perera FP, Rauh VA, Sweeney A, Whyatt RM, Yolton K. Methodologic and logistic issues in conducting longitudinal birth cohort studies: lessons learned from the Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(10):1419-1429. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2006)
    R831710C002 (2006)
    R827027 (2002)
    R829389 (2003)
    R829389 (2004)
    R829389 (2005)
    R829389 (Final)
    R829390 (2005)
    R829390 (Final)
    R829390C002 (2005)
    R831709 (2005)
    R831709C001 (2004)
    R831711 (2005)
    R831711 (2006)
    R831711 (2007)
    R831711 (Final)
    R831711C001 (2006)
    R831711C002 (2004)
    R831711C002 (2006)
    R831711C003 (2006)
    R832141 (2005)
    R832141 (2007)
    R832141 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Eskenazi B, Marks AR, Bradman A, Fenster L, Johnson C, Barr DB, Jewll NP. In utero exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and neurodevelopment among young Mexican American children. Pediatrics 2006;118(1):233-241. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2006)
    R831710C002 (2006)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Pediatrics-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Pediatrics-Abstract
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  • Other: Pediatrics-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Fenster L, Eskenazi B, Anderson M, Bradman A, Harley K, Hernandez H, Hubbard A, Barr DB. Association of in utero organochlorine pesticide exposure and fetal growth and length of gestation in an agricultural population. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(4):597-602. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2006)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R831710C002 (2006)
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  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Harley K, Eskenazi B. Time in the United States, social support and health behaviors during pregnancy among women of Mexican descent. Social Science & Medicine 2006;62(12):3048-3061. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2006)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R831710C002 (2006)
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Israel BA, Parker EA, Rowe Z, Salvatore A, Minkler M, Lopez J, Butz A, Mosley A, Coates L, Lambert G, Potito PA, Brenner B, Rivera M, Romero H, Thompson B, Coronado G, Halstead S. Community-based participatory research:lessons learned from the Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(10):1463-1471. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2006)
    R831710C002 (2006)
    R831710C004 (2006)
    R826710 (Final)
    R829391 (2004)
    R829391 (2005)
    R829391 (2006)
    R829391C005 (2006)
    R831709 (2005)
    R831709 (2007)
    R831709C003 (2005)
    R831709C003 (2006)
    R831711 (2005)
    R831711 (2006)
    R831711 (2007)
    R831711 (Final)
    R831711C001 (2006)
    R831711C002 (2006)
    R831711C003 (2006)
    R832139 (2006)
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    pesticides, exposure, prevention, development, obesity, children, DDT, organophosphate, Th1 Th2, children, pregnant women,, RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, HUMAN HEALTH, PESTICIDES, Health Risk Assessment, Health Effects, Children's Health, Pesticide Types, Risk Assessment, asthma, pesticide exposure, community-based intervention, airway disease, environmental risks, respiratory problems, Human Health Risk Assessment, insecticides, assessment of exposure, childhood respiratory disease, environmental health hazard, children's environmental health, outreach and education, agricultural community, allergen

    Relevant Websites:

    http://www.chamacos.org Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2004 Progress Report
  • 2005 Progress Report
  • 2007 Progress Report
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • Final

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R831710    University of California Berkeley Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R831710C001 Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research – CHAMACOS Community Based Research Project
    R831710C002 Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research – Pesticide Exposure Assessment Project
    R831710C003 Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research – Mechanisms of Pesticide Neuro- and Immunotoxicity
    R831710C004 Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research – Community Outreach and Translation Core