2004 Progress Report: Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research – CHAMACOS Community Based Research Project

EPA Grant Number: R831710C001
Subproject: this is subproject number 001 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R831710
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: University of California Berkeley Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research
Center Director: Eskenazi, Brenda
Title: Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research – CHAMACOS Community Based Research Project
Investigators: Eskenazi, Brenda
Current Investigators: Eskenazi, Brenda , Alkon, Abbey , Boyce, Thomas , Cuevas, Maximiliano , Johnson, Caroline , Lipsett, Michael , Macher, Janet , Minkler, Meredith , Sedgwick, Jaqueline , Tager, Ira , Tunzi, Mark
Institution: University of California - Berkeley
EPA Project Officer: Callan, Richard
Project Period: May 1, 2004 through October 31, 2008 (Extended to October 31, 2010)
Project Period Covered by this Report: May 1, 2004 through October 31, 2005
RFA: Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research (2003) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Children's Health , Health Effects , Health

Objective:

The objectives of this research project are to: (1) determine whether organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure in utero and/or during the postnatal period is associated with poorer neurodevelopment and behavioral performance of children at ages 42, 60, and 84 months; (2) determine whether OPs, as measured by urinary metabolites, are associated with poorer performance on neurodevelopmental tests of cognition, language, attention, motor skills, and memory, as well as on teacher and parent evaluation of behavior, emotion, and school readiness and performance; (3) determine whether OP exposure in utero and/or during the postnatal period is associated with slower somatic growth of preschool age children and whether OP exposure is associated with alterations in patterns of growth as measured by weight, body mass, height, and head circumference; (4) determine whether OP exposure in utero and/or during the postnatal period is associated with atopy, active asthma, or asthma-like symptoms of children and airway reactivity; (5) determine the independent effects of exposure to several different types of environmental antigens and endotoxin during the early childhood periods on these endpoints and how pesticide exposure may modify the association; (6) determine whether OP exposure is associated with autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction and whether the state of the ANS modifies the association of OPs and respiratory health; and (7) determine whether OP exposure is related to ANS dysfunction and whether the ANS state (e.g., resting levels of parasympathetic tone) is related to airway reactivity and the occurrence of asthma at age 60 months.

Progress Summary:

Overview

Most of the activities of the Center for Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) Community-Based Prevention Research (CBPR) have continued on schedule. It is vital that we continue to follow and assess our birth cohort of more than 400 children in a timely manner or we risk losing our participants and valuable data. Thus, the CBPR activities of the Center have taken precedence over other activities, such as the Community Outreach and Translation Core and mechanisms studies.

The participants in the cohort have reached 42 months of age. The 42-month assessments are progressing on schedule. To date, these include:

  • Completion of the 42-month questionnaire on various health, behavioral, and exposure variables (including asthma and asthma-like symptoms) for 253 children.
  • Neurobehavioral assessments on 227 children.
  • Assessment of somatic growth in 253 participants.
  • Collection of urine samples from 229 participants and saliva samples from 216 participants to assess pesticide exposure.
  • Home visits to 217 participants to assess pesticide, allergen, and other environmental exposures in the home.
  • ANS assessments on 76 participants comprising a subset of the total participants.

We will continue the 42-month assessments through December, at which time we hope to have completed questionnaires, exposure, neurodevelopmental, and growth assessments on an additional 80 to 90 participants.

Significance

Biological monitoring data indicate widespread exposure to OPs in the U.S. population, including pregnant women, fetuses, and children. Children living in agricultural areas may be particularly at risk of exposure. The National Research Council stated that “… at levels believed to be safe for adults [OPs] could result in permanent loss of brain function [in children] if [exposure] occurred during the prenatal and early childhood period of brain development.” Based on substantial evidence in developing rodents and limited evidence in adult humans, low-level chronic exposure of children to OPs may affect neurodevelopment and somatic growth. Because OP exposure may cause dysregulation of the autonomic control of airways, it is biologically plausible that exposure may be related to the occurrence of asthma in children. Thus far, there are few data in children on the effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure.

Human Subjects

Informed consent is obtained from a parent/guardian of all participants before beginning study activities. Study activities have been approved by the University of California–Berkeley’s Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects (approval number 2003-8-168). We also have provided our staff with child abuse training and have developed extensive protocols for dealing with emergencies that may arise with participants.

Future Activities:

We are in the process of applying for a Federal Certificate of Confidentiality to further protect the confidentiality of our participants. In the past year, we have completed data entry of the 24-month assessments and are beginning to analyze these data. Papers on the ontogeny of the ANS and on the risk factors for asthma and respiratory disease are nearing completion. Dr. Eskenazi is editing a six-paper monograph on lessons learned from the Children’s Centers and leads the paper on lessons learned from the prospective birth cohort studies. We will begin planning the questionnaire, lung function tests, and neurobehavioral battery that will be conducted when the children are 60 months old. The 60-month assessments will begin in February 2005 when the first participants reach that age.


Journal Articles on this Report : 4 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 25 publications 23 publications in selected types All 23 journal articles
Other center views: All 131 publications 106 publications in selected types All 98 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Eskenazi B, Harley K, Bradman A, Weltzien E, Jewell NP, Barr DB, Furlong CE, Holland NT. Association of in utero organophosphate pesticide exposure and fetal growth and length of gestation in an agricultural population. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(10):1116-1124. R831710 (2004)
R831710 (2005)
R831710 (Final)
R831710C001 (2004)
R831709 (2007)
R831709C002 (2004)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Goldman L, Eskenazi B, Bradman A, Jewell NP. Risk behaviors for pesticide exposure among pregnant women living in farmworker households in Salinas, California. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 2004;45(6):491-499. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2004)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Wiley Online-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Harley K, Eskenazi B, Block G. The association of time in the US and diet during pregnancy in low-income women of Mexican descent. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2005;19(2):125-134. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2004)
    R826709 (2001)
    R826709 (2002)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Abstract: Wiley-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: US AID-Abstract (English and Spanish)
    Exit
  • Journal Article Landrigan PJ, Kimmel CA, Correa A, Eskenazi B. Children's health and the environment:public health issues and challenges for risk assessment. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(2):257-265. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2004)
    R831711 (2005)
    R831711 (2007)
    R831711 (Final)
    R831711C001 (2006)
    R831711C003 (2006)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    endocrine disruptor, EDC, wheeze, neurodevelopment, ANS, FQPA, organophosphate, environmental management, human health, health, pesticides, RFA, scientific discipline, children’s health, health effects, health risk assessment, pesticide types, risk assessment, human health risk assessment, agricultural community, airway disease, allergen, assessment of exposure, asthma, childhood respiratory disease, children's environmental health, community-based intervention, environmental health hazard, environmental risks, exposure assessment, insecticides, outreach and education, pesticide exposure,, RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, HUMAN HEALTH, PESTICIDES, Health Risk Assessment, Health Effects, Children's Health, Pesticide Types, Risk Assessment, pesticide exposure, asthma, community-based intervention, airway disease, environmental risks, respiratory problems, Human Health Risk Assessment, assessment of exposure, childhood respiratory disease, insecticides, children's environmental health, environmental health hazard, outreach and education, agricultural community, allergen

    Relevant Websites:

    http://ehs.sph.berkeley.edu/chamacos Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2005 Progress Report
  • 2006 Progress Report
  • 2007 Progress Report
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • Final

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R831710    University of California Berkeley Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R831710C001 Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research – CHAMACOS Community Based Research Project
    R831710C002 Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research – Pesticide Exposure Assessment Project
    R831710C003 Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research – Mechanisms of Pesticide Neuro- and Immunotoxicity
    R831710C004 Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research – Community Outreach and Translation Core