Final Report: Center for Children's Environmental Health Research

EPA Grant Number: R831710
Center: University of California Berkeley Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research
Center Director: Eskenazi, Brenda
Title: Center for Children's Environmental Health Research
Investigators: Eskenazi, Brenda , Alkon, Abbey , Barr, Dana Boyd , Block, Gladys , Boyce, Thomas , Bradman, Asa , Casida, John , Cuevas, Maximiliano , Das, Rupali , Fenster, Laura , Ginsberg, Gary , Harley, Kim , Harnly, Martha , Hattis, Dale , Holland, Nina T. , Hubbard, Alan , Jewell, Nicholas , Johnson, Caroline , Klein, Rachel , Kreutzer, Richard , Linde, Brian , Lipsett, Michael , Lubin, Bertram , Macher, Janet , Mattison, Donald , McKone, Thomas , Miller, Mark Steven , Minkler, Meredith , Mountain, Karen , Raulet, David , Robin, Renee , Sedgwick, Jaqueline , Sword, Elizabeth , Tager, Ira , Tunzi, Mark , Wallestein, Nina , Winkleby, Marilyn , Young, John
Institution: University of California - Berkeley
EPA Project Officer: Callan, Richard
Project Period: May 1, 2004 through October 31, 2008 (Extended to October 31, 2010)
Project Amount: $6,665,538
RFA: Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research (2003) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Children's Health , Health Effects , Human Health , Health

Objective:

Over the past 10 years, the Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research at the University of California, Berkeley, successfully has created and coordinated a transdisciplinary research program that addresses the unique environmental health needs of children living in a predominantly Latino farmworker community. Thus far, we have focused our research on pesticide exposures, potential health consequences, and mechanisms of effect and community-based exposure prevention strategies. Below is a summary of our many accomplishments since 2003 for the three Projects and a brief update on Cores.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

A. PROJECT A: CHAMACOS CBPR Study
 
 
The purpose of the CHAMACOS study, a longitudinal birth cohort study, was to determine the relationship between pesticide exposure and neurodevelopment, growth and asthma in children. Integral to the success of our cohort study is our excellent retention of the cohort. There was effectively negative attrition (-1%) between the 3½-year visit (n = 336) and the 7-year visit (n = 339) because we were able to retain participants and even re-enroll a small number who had been lost previously. We continue to build the valuable biorepository for this study (Table 1). In this funding cycle, we collected blood, urine, saliva and deciduous teeth from children and blood from mothers. We have used these specimens to measure biomarkers of exposure, effect and susceptibility. We measured dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of OPs in maternal urine twice during pregnancy and at delivery and in children up to 5 years. We measured OP parent compounds and PBDEs in cord and maternal prenatal blood and in 7-year olds under separate funding. Assessment of growth, neurobehavioral development and respiratory function was conducted at each visit. We have built an extremely rich database on this unique population of families. Key findings of our study are outlined below:
 
1. Neurodevelopment: We reported that OP pesticide metabolites (DAPs) in maternal urine were associated with increased odds of abnormal reflexes in neonates assessed with the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS).1 We also found a significant inverse relation between prenatal DAPs and Bayley Scales of Infant Development Mental Development Index (MDI) scores at age 2 (β = -3.5 (-6.6, -0.5)). Both maternal and child DAPs were associated with heightened odds of maternally reported pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) on the Child Behavior Checklist (prenatal DAPs odds ratio (OR) = 2.3 (1.0, 5.6); 24-month DAPs OR = 1.7 (1.0, 2.9)). Urinary metabolites of malathion and chlorpyrifos were not associated with these outcomes.2 Follow-up analyses also suggest inverse relationships between prenatal exposures and neurodevelopment at 3.5, 5 and 7 years (submitted, in final review) and with attention at 3.5 and 5 years, especially in boys.3
 
 
Individual susceptibility to adverse effects of OPs may differ by expression of the PON1 gene, which is involved in OP metabolism and detoxification. We received two grants (NIEHS RO1 ES012503 and EPA RD-83273401) to examine PON1 genotypes and enzyme activities in relation to health outcomes and pesticide exposure in CHAMACOS mothers and children. We measured 5 PON1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in >400 children and mothers (PON 192, -108, 55, -162 and -909) and PON1 enzyme activity in arylesterase, paraoxonase, chlorpyrifosase and diazonase substrates in maternal prenatal blood at 2 time points and in children’s blood collected at 1, 2, 5 and 7 years. Enzyme activity assays showed broad variability of PON1 activity (~65-fold difference for diazinon and ~150-fold difference of chlorpyrifos-oxon), suggesting that the range of OP sensitivity may be considerably larger than estimated by current EPA safety factors.4, 5 Although a previous small study concluded that PON1 enzyme activity reached adult levels by age 2 years,6 we observed significantly lower levels of arylesterase and paraoxonase activities in children up to age 5. When children reached 7 years, mothers and children had similar enzyme levels (Figure 1). Thus, children may remain more vulnerable than adults to certain OPs longer than previously thought.
 
 
Our findings suggest that PON1 genotype may influence susceptibility to OP pesticide exposure. Though we found no relation between PON192 and Bayley scores, PON-108 genotype was significantly associated with MDI at 2 years (Figure 2).
 
 
Relative to the PON-108 CC genotype, the TT genotype is associated with lower enzyme activity. Children with this less-protective TT genotype were found to have lower MDI at 2 years. Also, although genotype was not associated with PDD at 2 years, lower arylesterase activity was associated with PDD (OR = 0.98, p = 0.01). Preliminary findings suggest that the association between prenatal DAPs, particularly dimethyl metabolites (DMs), and MDI and PDD is stronger for children with the susceptible TT genotype than the CC genotype (Table 2).
 
 
Maternal DDT/E levels were also high.7 Though we found no relation between prenatal DDT or DDE and newborn BNBAS performance,8 we found negative associations with toddlers’ neurodevelopment.9 Each 10-fold increase in o,p-DDT and p,p-DDT was associated with an approximately 2 to 3 point decrement in Bayley MDI at 12 and 24 months, and p,p-DDE was associated with a nonsignificant decrease in 24-month MDI.9 Breastfeeding was positively associated with MDI at all DDT/E exposure levels.9 We conducted preliminary analyses of DDT/E with 3½-year and 5-year neurodevelopmental outcomes (Chevrier et al., in prep).
 
2. Growth. Higher maternal DAPs and lower acetyl cholinesterase in cord blood (suggesting higher OP exposure) were associated with shorter gestation. No adverse associations were found between OP exposure measures and birthweight, length or head circumference.10 Maternal prenatal hexachlorobenzene levels in blood were associated with shorter gestation but no other birth outcomes, and other organochlorines (OC) analyzed, including DDT and DDE, showed no impact on birth outcome.11
 
PON1 genotype and enzyme activity were associated with birth outcome (Harley et al., submitted). The prevalence of overweight in this cohort is higher than national estimates for Mexican-American children; 30% of age 2 and 53% of age 5 children were overweight or at risk for overweight. Soda consumption, shorter breastfeeding, and higher maternal BMI predicted overweight at age 212 and 5 years. Adjusted odds of overweight also were increased in children in the highest quartile of DDE exposure (2,681-159,303 ng/g p,p’-DDE) relative to the lowest quartile (adj-OR = 1.83, 95% CI 0.86, 3.90, p = 0.12). Funded by UC MEXUS, we measured exposures and growth in 5-year-olds living in Mexican communities from which CHAMACOS participants emigrated in one of the first binational studies of migration and children’s health. The prevalence of overweight was much higher in CHAMACOS than in the Mexican sample (53% vs. 15%). Although many of the CHAMACOS families worked in agriculture, 39% were food insecure.
 
3. Respiratory disease. Many CHAMACOS families live in housing that may imperil respiratory health. Home inspections showed high rates of moderate to severe mold (42% of homes), water damage (25%), and roach (60%) and rodent (32%) infestation. Risk of asthma diagnosis by age 2 was associated with early-life exposure to tobacco smoke (OR = 3.0, p = 0.02), fine particulate air pollution (OR = 2.4, p = 0.09), pets (OR = 1.9, p = 0.09), and gas stoves (OR = 3.8, p = 0.07).13 Though one-third of house dust samples had high concentrations of endotoxin and two-thirds had dust mite allergens exceeding symptom-producing levels, preliminary analysis shows no association between allergens or endotoxin in house dust and respiratory symptoms or illness. We recently published that children born in the fungal season were at increased odds of asthma by age 2 relative to those born in summer (OR = 2.8, p = 0.02).13 Exposure to specific ambient fungal spores (e.g., basidiospores, ascospores) and pollen (e.g., alder, pine, cypress) in infancy was associated with later wheezing. We measured T-helper (Th) CD4+ lymphocytes in cord, 2-, 5- and 7-year serum14 because low Th1/Th2 ratio has been associated with asthma. Breastfeeding and number of colds were associated with higher Th1, while gas stoves, pets, rodents in the home and high PM2.5 exposure in early life were associated with higher Th2.13, 15 In analyses of DAPs and Th1/Th2, diethyl phosphate (DE) levels were inversely associated with both Th1 and Th2 at age 2 (Th1 β = -27%, p = 0.05; Th2 β = -29%, p < 0.01).16
 
4. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS). We have reported on the ontogeny of ANS responses, specifically heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and pre-ejection period, from 6 to 60 months in two publications.17, 18 The first publication showed that resting ANS measures were moderately stable from 6 to 12 months, but reactivity measures were not. There were significant changes in the ANS measures across the ages, showing normal developmental changes over time. In the second publication,18 we show the ontogeny of ANS from 6 to 60 months of age. There are significant developmental changes over the ages and the earlier finding are supported:  resting ANS measures are moderately stable but reactivity measures are not stable. There was a significant shift in ANS responses from infancy (i.e. 6, 12 months) and preschool-ages (i.e., 42, 60 months) with a largest percent of children exhibiting the classic reactivity profile of sympathetic activation and parasympathetic withdrawal at the older ages. These changes show the plasticity of young children’s physiologic responses, which change in response to their life experiences and challenging events.
 
Recent analyses have explored the relations between prenatal adversity and the trajectory of ANS in the first 5 years of life. We have identified differences in sympathetic reactivity between children with high and low maternally reported adversity, years in the U.S. and social support. We will continue our exploration of ANS by studying the adversities experienced early in life and ANS as predictors of later behavior and mental health (age 7). It has been shown that a lack of biologic responsivity to the environment in highly stressed children may predispose them to behavioral and mental health problems later in life. Because most ANS neuronal fibers are cholinergic, OP exposure may affect ANS function. We have examined ANS function longitudinally from 6 to 60 months of age and reported on the validity of our assessment protocol.17 We are in the process of submitting a paper examining the association of OP exposure and ANS.19
 
5. Other findings. We have measured thyroid hormone levels in pregnant mothers and newborns and have published findings linking prenatal exposure to certain PCB congeners (notably 183, 194 and 199) to elevated newborn thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels.20 This work provides human evidence of a mechanism established in animal models (i.e., that exposure to specific PCB congeners induces an increase in enzymes that results in a drop in thyroid hormone levels, represented here by higher TSH). We also have identified a link between pesticide exposure markers and delayed conception. Maternal agricultural work, home pesticide use and residence near an agricultural field predicted longer time to pregnancy.21 Additionally, we measured PBDEs in serum (RO1 ES015572) and found maternal levels to predict longer time to pregnancy, lower birthweight and changes in maternal thyroid hormone levels. These papers are currently in preparation.
 
6. Other considerations in examining pesticides and child health. CHAMACOS participants face a complex web of biologic, social, psychological, and economic challenges that may compound the risks of pesticide exposure. Homes we inspected were overcrowded and lacked intellectual stimulation, with few toys or books. Despite crowding, women are emotionally isolated. Although most are married or partnered, almost half lack adequate social support and 50% are depressed. Our close contact with this population allows us to characterize these factors and to assess their implications for neurodevelopment and health. Children of mothers with depressive symptoms scored significantly lower for expressive communication (-2:82 (p-value<0:05) on the Preschool Language Scale) compared to children of non-depressed mothers after controlling for the intermediate effects of home environment and breastfeeding duration. We also published on the role of acculturation on mothers' health behaviors and found that longer US residence predicted poorer nutrition22 and shorter breastfeeding,23 but that social support could buffer some of the negative effects of acculturation.24
 
B. PROJECT B: EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDY
 
1. Pesticide exposure to pregnant women. We noted a significant jump in maternal DAPs immediately after birth (Figure 3). To understand the pharmacokinetics which may underlie this trend, we enrolled 15 women into the Peripartum Excretion Study and sampled multiple urine and blood samples before birth, at delivery and postpartum. We also collected cord blood and meconium at delivery and postpartum breastmilk. Due to changes in CDC laboratory capabilities, it was not possible to measure pesticides in blood. Data analyses of results for urine sample measurements are proceeding.
 
 
In the CHAMACOS cohort, we have measured exposure to multiple pesticides during pregnancy by leveraging funding to complement Center activities. With funding from NIOSH (OH007400-02), we examined exposure to non-persistent potential endocrine disruptors, including fungicides; OP, pyrethroid, carbamate, and OC insecticides; triazine and chloroacetanilide herbicides; naphthalene; and pentachlorophenol by measuring pesticide-specific metabolite levels in urine. Eight metabolites were detected in >50% of samples; two (TCPy and 1-naphthol) derive from pesticides used in agriculture (chlorpyrifos and carbaryl). Analyses suggest that carbaryl and malathion exposure was associated with work in strawberries. Of 21 metabolites measured in pregnant CHAMACOS and NHANES participants, distributions for 6 (2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, 2-naphthol, para-nitrophenol, ortho-phenylphenol and TCPy) were significantly higher in CHAMACOS women.25
 
With CDC, we developed a test for ethylene thiourea (ETU), a toxic metabolite of ethylene bisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicides.26 In the first study of urinary ETU in pregnant US women, we found higher frequency of detection at ~13 than at ~26 weeks gestation (23.5% vs. 7.7%).
 
In the last funding cycle, we also developed a mass-balance model to estimate sources of pesticide exposures to pregnant women using California pesticide use reporting (PUR) data; environmental sample results; and DAPs measured in prenatal urine samples.27 Biomarker comparisons and model results suggest that the CHAMACOS mothers experience somewhat higher (~30-40%; p<0.001) OP exposure than the general US population. The models suggest that most maternal exposure came from diet, but that additional exposure from local agricultural OP use also contributed to their total exposure. These results show that mass balance models can estimate exposures for OPs within the range measured by biological monitoring.
 
2. Pesticide exposure to children. To improve measurement of urinary DAPS, we helped develop a measurement using lyophilization to increase throughput.28 To understand variability in child DAP samples, we collected 7 consecutive daily spot and two 24-hour urine samples from 25 3- to 6-year olds. DAPs in spot samples collected one day apart were moderately correlated; but this attenuated by day 3 (Table 3).
 
 
We used the Cumulative Aggregate Simulation of Exposure (CASE) system to model children’s OP exposure. Developed by collaborators at Stanford,29 CASE integrates complex human behavior and variability of exposure processes by combining micro-level activity time series (MLATS) and mechanistic exposure equations. Between-child variability (σ2B = 0.22-0.39) exceeded within-child variability (σ2W = 0.01-0.02) in simulations of dermal and non-dietary ingestion. Dermal contact frequencies and durations differed by sex.30 Dermal exposure simulations approximated measures from dosimeters worn by the children. This was the first study to combine MLATS and concurrent environmental measurements in a single modeling framework.
 
With U.S. EPA STAR fellowship funding, Ph.D. candidate Rosana Hernandez Weldon collaborated with Dr. Dana Barr at CDC (now at Emory) to develop methods to measure non-persistent pesticides and other chemicals in breastmilk. Method validation was completed in September 2009 and was used to measure OPs, OCs, carbamates, pyrethroids and PCBs in the milk of women residing in two California communities.31
 
3. Contribution of diet to pesticide exposure. To better understand dietary contributions to pesticide exposure, we conducted a clinical trial of organic food. Adapting a design by Lu et al.,32 we introduced organic food to Mexican-American children in urban Oakland, CA (n=20) and a similar population of farmworker children in Salinas (n=20). We collected children’s urine for 15 consecutive days. Children ate a “typical” diet for 4 days, an organic diet for 7 and then a typical diet for 4 days. Preliminary results suggest that child pesticide exposure was significantly lower during the organic diet period.
 
4. Predictors of children’s pesticide exposure. Our measurements of urinary DAPs in CHAMACOS cohort children have shown steady increase with age (Figure 5). We have examined factors associated with urinary DAPs at 6, 12 and 24 months.33 Fruit and vegetable consumption was linked with significantly increased DAP levels at each age. At 6 months, Dimethyl phosphates (DMs) were higher in pesticide use months (summer/spring) than winter/fall months and when household members wore work clothes/shoes in the home. At 12 months, DMs and Diethyl phosphates (DEs) were higher in children living near (<200 ft) an agricultural field. At 24 months, DEs were higher during the summer/ spring months. These findings indicate that developmental changes in mobility affect OP exposure in young children. Analysis of exposure predictors in older children are in progress.
 
 
We also measured OP parent compounds in maternal blood during pregnancy and child blood at age 5. CDC methods have changed and the detection limits for common OPs were higher than limits of detection (LODs) in papers published by Whyatt et al.34, 35 Despite differences in LODs, it appears that chlorpyrifos exposure was higher in our population (median=5.8 pg/g vs. 3.1 pg/g maternal plasma in Whyatt et al.)34 (analysis in progress).
 
We measured 22 pesticides in 504 dust samples collected in CHAMACOS households. Using PUR data,36 we found that agricultural use of chlorpyrifos, chlorthal-dimethyl and iprodione was significantly (p < 0.01) associated with dust levels; dust concentrations increased 14% to 68% for every kg of pesticide applied.37 Other variables associated with dust levels included number of farmworkers in the home, wearing work shoes inside, home use of diazinon or pyrethroid products, house cleanliness and housing density. Many pesticides detected in dust have a log Kow > 4 and/or low vapor pressure, suggesting that physicochemical parameters are a strong exposure determinant.
 
With intensive biomonitoring and environmental sampling studies, we have tested field methods for measuring childhood pesticide exposure.33, 38, 39 In 20 farmworker homes,38 we collected house dust, indoor/outdoor air, dislodgable residues from surfaces and toys, residues on clothing (sock and union suits), food, and diaper urine samples. We measured 29 common agricultural and home use pesticides in these samples. Detection frequencies were highest in house dust, surface wipes and clothing, with chlorpyrifos, diazinon, chlorthal-dimethyl, and cis- and trans-permethrin detected in 90-100% of samples. Levels of four pesticides were significantly correlated among house dust, sock and union suit samples (Spearman rho=0.18–0.76), and loading on clothing was higher for toddlers than for infants. Using U.S. EPA STAR fellowship funding, Ph.D. candidate Lesliam Quiros worked with CDC to develop methods to measure DAP breakdown products in house dust.40 Dr. Quiros conducted additional testing of DAPs in house dust, showing that preformed DAP levels in dust are similar to levels for parent pesticide compounds, but that DAPs in dust likely do not significantly contribute to urinary DAP levels in children.
 
5. Other environmental exposures to pregnant women and children. Because many CHAMACOS women are born in Mexico where OC pesticides were used more recently, we measured levels of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, HCB, β-HCH and γ-HCH in maternal serum. Detection frequencies were 94% to 100%. Median levels (ng/g lipid) of p,p'-DDE (1,052), p,p'-DDT (13), β-HCH (37) and HCB (65) were significantly higher than in NHANES participants. Multivariate analyses indicate that time spent living outside the US and birthplace in an area of Mexico with recent DDT use were significant predictors of exposure. OC levels were not associated with current intake of saturated fat or agricultural take-home exposure risk factors. Lactation history and recent weight gain were negatively associated with serum levels of some OCs.7
 
Based on preliminary findings on PBDEs in 24 prenatal blood samples,41 we sought and received funds to examine PBDE levels in all mothers and age 7 children, as well as in Mexican children in communities from which CHAMACOS parents emigrated (NIEHS R01 ES015572).
 
We also obtained supplemental funding to measure pesticides and PBDEs in house dust samples collected for the Organic Diet Study.42 We compared concentrations of pesticides and PBDE congeners in multiple dust samples from low-income urban (n=15) and farmworker (n=13) homes. Several pesticides were frequently detected, with some agricultural pesticides detected solely in Salinas samples.
 
6. Interventions to reduce pesticide exposure to farmworker families. We conducted intervention studies with strawberry pickers to determine whether education, hand washing, and use of gloves and removable coveralls reduced direct OP exposure to workers and potential take-home exposure to families.43-45 Pre-intervention, use of U.S. EPA Worker Protection Standard (WPS)-recommended clothing, clean work clothes, and the combination of hand washing with soap and wearing gloves were associated with lower urinary DAP levels. At baseline, workers had significantly higher urinary pesticide metabolites than adults in NHANES (DM metabolites:  219.2 nmol/g vs. 20.8 nmol/g, p < 0.001; MDA:  76.4 μg/g vs. 0.2 μg/g, p < 0.001).44 Post-intervention, protective behaviors such as glove use, wearing clean work clothes, and hand washing during breaks and before going home increased in the intervention group; coverall use was also high. Workers who wore gloves had lower loading of malathion on hands (median = 8.2 vs. 777.2 μg, p < 0.001) and lower median malathion dicarboxylic acid (MDA) levels in urine (45.3 vs. 131.2 μg/g creatinine, p < 0.05). Workers who ate strawberries also had higher MDA levels in urine (median =114.5 vs. 39.4 μg/g creatinine, p < 0.01).43 Malathion was detected on clothing (median = 0.13 μg/cm2) but not on skin under coveralls. Findings support the efficacy of this intervention to increase protective behaviors and reduce take-home exposures.
 
C. PROJECT C: MECHANISM PROJECT
 
1. Th1/Th2 Cytokines. We examined cytokine expression in the cells of young children during critical periods of immune system maturation (1-, 2-, 5- and 7-years of age) to determine whether cytokine production changed with age and whether it was affected by children’s exposure to environmental agents. After validating a method to detect intracellular IFN-γ/IL-4 cytokine expression using flow cytometry,14 we carried out a longitudinal analysis of cytokine expression in over 400 CHAMACOS children (Figure 7). We have published on Th1 and Th2 levels as a proportion of total CD4 cells in 1- and 2-year-olds.15 The mean Th1 and Th2 levels were not significantly different comparing age 1 and 2 years, but levels of Th1 at age 7 were more than 3-fold higher than at ages 1-2 (Holland et al., in preparation). Even so, Th1 levels at age 7 were significantly lower than in their mothers (p < 0.001) (Table 4). Correlations of the percentage of Th1 cells at 2, 5 and 7 years ranged from 0.21 to 0.28 and were all significantly related (p < 0.01). In the subset of 86 children who had measurements at all 3 time points, Th1 was strongly associated with age. There was no significant age-sex interaction with cytokine profiles. However, cytokine measurements were more variable in girls than boys.
 
 
 
Measurements on matched mother-child pairs at 7 years were correlated (total CD4+ lymphocytes r = 0.45, p < 0.001; %Th2 r = 0.51, p < 0.001; %Th1 r = 0.15, p = 0.04). To test whether these correlations were due to genetic factors or environmental conditions at the time of blood collection, we mismatched mother-child pairs and selected pairs of unrelated mothers and children sampled close together in time. The direction of correlation of CD4+ lymphocytes in mismatched pairs was reversed compared to that in mother-child pairs, and the correlation was no longer statistically significant (p = 0.14), suggesting a genetic role in cytokine profiles.
 
Relation of cytokines and environmental exposures. As mentioned under Project A,13 we reported that exclusive breastfeeding at one month and pet ownership were associated with 35.3% (p < 0.01) and 34.5% increase in Th1 (p = 0.01), respectively. Maternal agricultural work (25.9%; p = 0.04) and the presence of gas stove in the home (46.5%; p < 0.01) was associated with an increase in Th2. These findings confirm that breastfeeding contributes to the development of the Th1 phenotype and further identifies new associations between rural exposures (pesticides, endotoxin, allergens) and Th1/Th2 expression in children. Levels of Th1 cells at age 2 were positively associated with mean spore concentrations and negatively associated with mean pollen concentrations in the first 3 months of life.
 
Cytokines and pesticides in human cells in vitro. We used in vitro treatment of human cells using whole blood cultures to study the effects of mixtures of pesticides, allergens and endotoxins such as those to which children in an agricultural community are exposed. We reported no expression of IFN-γ in cultures treated with metabolites of chlorpyrifos CPO or TCP alone, but cultures treated with pesticides and LPS (endotoxin) expressed higher levels of IFN-γ; some combinations induced greater IFN-γ expression than LPS alone (p < 0.01).46 IL-4 expression was observed only at the highest single dose that neared cytotoxicity. We confirmed these results using Luminex multiplex cytokine analysis. We then expanded the number of subjects in our in vitro experiments and explored effects of age and sex on cytokine response. Blood cultures from males had higher levels of both IFN-γ and IL-10 after adjusting for age and pesticide exposure. Levels of IFN-γ and IL-10 in vitro were correlated and higher in younger adults. The shape of dose-response curves for OP+LPS treatment did not differ by sex groups.
 
We published a review paper summarizing the state-of-art science and challenges in assessing immunological biomarkers of children’s environmental exposures47 and submitted an invited book chapter “Biomarkers of Immunotoxicity in Epidemiologic Studies."48 The work on cytokines resulted in a dissertation (Ph.D.), a Master's thesis and two undergraduate Honor projects.
 
2. Neuropathy target esterase (NTE). We examined mechanisms of toxicity by developing a method to characterize NTE-related enzymes in blood.49 NTE is the most studied secondary target of OP toxicants after acetylcholinesterase and OP inhibition, and aging of brain NTE is associated with delayed neuropathy. NTE is normally assayed with brain membranes as the paraoxon-resistant and mipafox-sensitive phenyl valerate hydrolysis. Using a physiologically based assay with brain tissue, lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) can be substituted for phenyl valerate with the same results. Using palmitoyl LysoPC as the substrate, we found the same OP sensitivity and specificity profiles in human erythrocyte and lymphocyte tissues as in the brain, suggesting that these tissues contain similar or identical enzymes (Figure 8) and providing a practical method for examining NTE-related activities. Erythrocyte LysoPLA activity in stored CHAMACOS blood samples had high interindividual variability. However, no difference was observed between newborns and mothers or between subjects with different genetic variants of the OP-detoxifying enzyme paraoxonase (Table 5).
 
 
 
One of the most potent NTE inhibitors and delayed neurotoxicants, ethyl octylphosphonofluoridate (with an in vitro IC50 of 1 nM), gives strong and dose-dependent inhibition of erythrocyte and brain LysoPLA activities at 1 or 3 mg/kg in mice. In vitro and in vivo surveys with mice indicate that erythrocyte LysoPLA activity, despite its high sensitivity to designer compounds with long alkyl chains, is poorly sensitive to commercial OP pesticides. Thus, erythrocyte lysopho-sphatidylcholine (LysoPC) hydrolase inhibition is predictive of exposure to OP inducers of delayed neuropathy. The relative contribution of NTE to erythrocyte LysoPC hydrolase activity was assessed using recombinant NTE (rNTE) in two cell lines, COS-7 (kidney epithelial) and Neuro-2a (neuroblastoma) cells (Figure 9). We found the same inhibitor sensitivity and specificity profiles for rNTE assayed with LPC or phenyl valerate (a standard NTE substrate). This correlation extends to the LPC hydrolases of human brain, lymphocytes and erythrocytes.50 All of these LPC hydrolases are, therefore, very similar in respect to conserved inhibitor binding site conformation. NTE is expressed in brain and lymphocytes and contributes to LPC hydrolase activities in these tissues. The enzyme(s) responsible for erythrocyte LPC hydrolase activity remain to be identified. We also show that rNTE protects Neuro-2a and COS-7 cells from exogenous LPC cytotoxicity. Expression of rNTE in Neuro-2a cells alters their phospholipid balance (analyzed by LC-MS with single ion monitoring) by lowering LPC-16:0 and LPC-18:0 and elevating glycerophosphocholine without a change in phosphatidylcholine-16:0/18:1 or -16:0/18:2. NTE therefore serves an important function in LPC homeostasis and action. Thus, our NTE analyses indicate that inhibition of blood LysoPC hydrolases is as good as inhibition of brain NTE in predicting OP inducers of delayed neuropathy. NTE and lysophospholipases (LysoPLAs) both hydrolyze LysoPC, yet they are in distinct enzyme families with no sequence homology and very different catalytic sites. This work has been conducted by Sarah Vose, who successfully completed her Ph.D. in 2008.
 
 
D. THE CORES
 
1. Community Outreach and Translation Core (COTC)
 
Since our inception, we have created a diversity of partnerships which has allowed us to disseminate research findings and increase awareness of children’s environmental health at the local, state, national and international levels. We have created an infrastructure to ensure community participation in research and outreach activities; our Community Advisory Board (CAB) and a Farmworker Council (FWC) allow bidirectional learning. We have educated more than 5000 workers about protecting themselves and their children from chemical exposures and have disseminated our findings broadly in the Salinas Valley community through our newsletter (“The Seed ~ La Semilla”), Dissemination Workshops and participant Community Forums. We have worked with the National Center for Healthy Homes to bring household health trainings to local organizations and have raised environmental health awareness through workshops with childcare providers, teachers, growers and clinicians. We have developed a Prenatal Environmental Health Kiosk to educate women on ways to protect themselves and their unborn child and have reached out to policy makers at the local, state, national and international levels to teach them how to protect pregnant women and children.
 
2. The Biorepository Core
 
During our first 10 years, we have collected 100,000+ environmental and biologic specimens. These specimens were collected and stored to maximize future utility. We developed standard operating procedures with quality controls for each specimen type and developed tracking, processing and storage systems. This Core was originally named the Laboratory Core but has been renamed the Biorepository Core.
 
3. The Biostatistics Core
 
The Biostatistics Core has been folded into the Administrative Core and the individual projects. Statistical analyses conducted under this Core are detailed above under each project. Data coordination, management and protection activities are detailed further in the Administrative Core. Briefly, in the last 5 years, protocols for documenting and tracking participants' progress in the study have been developed and refined to ensure accurate and complete data collection. A detailed paper trail and electronic trail is maintained to document any contact with participants, and study and laboratory tracking databases are maintained in close collaboration between the Data Manager, Study Coordinator, Field Coordinator and Laboratory Coordinator.
 
The Data Manager cleans, documents and controls access to study datasets. This centralized system ensures that the PI approves of all use of data, analysts are using the most up-to-date and accurate variables, and final datasets are protected against accidental corruption by users. As in all studies, data security and the protection of confidentiality are key considerations, and great efforts are made to protect participants. All study files, including datasets and database files, are backed up nightly to a remote location.
 
4. The Administrative Core
 
An integral part of the development of the Center over the past 5 years has been the maintenance of a solid Administrative Core in our Center Office in Berkeley. The Core has coordinated the Center Field Office in Salinas, organized special meetings and workshops, coordinated professional development and training opportunities, continued the Center website and newsletter, managed other Center mailings and correspondence, overseen financial management of Center operations, and carried out other routine activities.
 
E. Future Directions
 
Our Center is continuing in the next phase of joint funding from the EPA and NIEHS (EPA RD-83451301 and NIEHS 2P01ES009605) through July 31, 2014. In addition to the Administrative Core and Biorepository Cores, projects A, B and C as well as the COTC will continue in this next phase of the Center as follows.
 
We are continuing Project A: CHAMACOS Community-Based Participatory Research Project, now called Project A: CHAMACOS Cohort Project, following CHAMACOS children from 9 to 13 to assess neurodevelopment, growth and pubertal onset. In addition, we will expand the cohort by enrolling 300 new children. Although we will still gather data about respiratory symptoms, pubertal onset will replace asthma as a key outcome in the new funding cycle. We will acquire new data about exposures to PBDE flame retardants, Mn and DDT/E, while using data already gathered on in utero and childhood OP exposures. In the next phase of the Center, Drs. Eskenazi and Harley are co-leaders of Project A.
 
In Project B: Exposure Assessment Study, we are expanding our focus to include more chemicals (DDT/E and PBDEs) present at high levels in this community. We will also study a heavily used class of fungicides, ethylene(bis)dithio-carbamates (EBDC), to determine its relation to body burden of manganese (Mn). We will develop methods to assess in utero chemical exposures using deciduous teeth and use state-of-the-art GIS methods to link pesticide use to pesticide exposure. Dr. Bradman is the leader of Project B.
 
In Project C, we are maintaining our focus on mechanisms of effects, but we have shifted our approach and our emphasis. We now will examine the relation of endocrine-disrupting compounds such as DDT/E and PBDEs on epigenetics, and we will examine the relationship of epigenetics to puberty onset. We will characterize maturational changes in children using the epigenome instead of cytokine profiles. Dr. Holland is the leader of Project C, which is now called Project C: The Epigenetics Project.
 
The COTC also continues to be an integral part of our Center. We will cement the efforts we have begun, engage youth in the research process and develop a program “by Youth for Youth”.
 

References:

1. Young JG, Eskenazi B, Gladstone EA, et al. Association between in utero organophosphate pesticide exposure and abnormal reflexes in neonates. Neurotoxicology 2005;26:199-209.
 
2. Eskenazi B, Marks AR, Bradman A, et al. Organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurodevelopment in young Mexican-American children. Environ Health Perspect 2007;115:792-8. [PMC1867968]
 
3. Marks AR, Harley K, Bradman A, et al. Organophosphate pesticide exposure and attention in young Mexican-American children:  The CHAMACOS Study. Environ Health Perspect 2010;118:1768-74.
 
4. Holland N, Furlong C, Bastaki M, et al. Paraoxonase polymorphisms, haplotypes, and enzyme activity in latino mothers and newborns. Environ Health Perspect 2006;114:985-91. [PMC1513322]
 
5. Furlong CE, Holland N, Richter RJ, Bradman A, Ho A, Eskenazi B. PON1 status of farmworker mothers and children as a predictor of organophosphate sensitivity. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2006;16:183-90.
 
6. Cole TB, Jampsa RL, Walter BJ, et al. Expression of human paraoxonase (PON1) during development. Pharmacogenetics 2003;13:357-64.
 
7. Bradman AS, Schwartz JM, Fenster L, Barr DB, Holland NT, Eskenazi B. Factors predicting organochlorine pesticide levels in pregnant Latina women living in a United States agricultural area. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2007;17:388-99.
 
8. Fenster L, Eskenazi B, Anderson M, Bradman A, Hubbard A, Barr DB. In utero exposure to DDT and performance on the Brazelton neonatal behavioral assessment scale. Neurotoxicology 2007;28:471-7.
 
9. Eskenazi B, Marks AR, Bradman A, et al. In utero exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and neurodevelopment among young Mexican American children. Pediatrics 2006;118:233-41.
 
10. Eskenazi B, Harley K, Bradman A, et al. Association of in utero organophosphate pesticide exposure and fetal growth and length of gestation in an agricultural population. Environ Health Perspect 2004;112:1116-24. [PMC1247387]
 
11. Fenster L, Eskenazi B, Anderson M, et al. Association of in utero organochlorine pesticide exposure and fetal growth and length of gestation in an agricultural population. Environ Health Perspect 2006;114:597-602. [PMC1440787]
 
12. Warner ML, Harley K, Bradman A, Vargas G, Eskenazi B. Soda consumption and overweight status of 2-year-old Mexican-American children in california. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006;14:1966-74.
 
13. Harley KG, Macher JM, Lipsett M, et al. Fungi and pollen exposure in the first months of life and risk of early childhood wheezing. Thorax 2009.
 
14. Duramad P, McMahon CW, Hubbard A, Eskenazi B, Holland NT. Flow cytometric detection of intracellular Th1/Th2 cytokines using whole blood: validation of immunologic biomarker for use in epidemiologic studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004;13:1452-8.
 
15. Duramad P, Harley K, Lipsett M, et al. Early environmental exposures and intracellular Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles in 24-month-old children living in an agricultural area. Environ Health Perspect 2006;114:1916-22. [PMC1764130]
 
16. Harley K, Duramad P, Lipsett M, et al. Early environmental exposures and intracellular Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles in 24-month-old children in an agricultural community. Epidemiology 2006;17 Suppl.:S239-S.
 
17. Alkon A, Lippert S, Vujan N, Rodriquez ME, Boyce WT, Eskenazi B. The ontogeny of autonomic measures in 6- and 12-month-old infants. Dev Psychobiol 2006;48:197-208.
 
18. Alkon A DN, Boyce WT, Eskenazi B. Developmental changes in autonomic nervous system resting and reactivity measures in Latino children from six to sixty months of age. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, submitted.
 
19. Quirós-Alcalá L. Children's residential exposures to flame retardants, pesticides and pesticide degradation products, and the relationship of pesticides with autonomic nervous system functioning. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 2010.
 
20. Chevrier J, Eskenazi B, Holland N, Bradman A, Barr DB. Effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides on thyroid function during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol 2008;168:298-310.
 
21. Harley KG, Marks AR, Bradman A, Barr DB, Eskenazi B. DDT exposure, work in agriculture, and time to pregnancy among farmworkers in California. J Occup Environ Med 2008;50:1335-42.
 
22. Harley K, Eskenazi B, Block G. The association of time in the US and diet during pregnancy in lowincome women of Mexican descent. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2005;19:125-34.
 
23. Harley K, Stamm NL, Eskenazi B. The effect of time in the U.S. on the duration of breastfeeding in women of Mexican descent. Matern Child Health J 2007;11:119-25.
 
24. Harley K, Eskenazi B. Time in the United States, social support and health behaviors during pregnancy among women of Mexican descent. Soc Sci Med 2006;62:3048-61.
 
25. Castorina R, Bradman A, Fenster L, et al. Current-use pesticide urinary metabolite levels during pregnancy in women living in an agricultural community. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, submitted.
 
26. Montesano MA, Olsson AO, Kuklenyik P, Needham LL, Bradman AS, Barr DB. Method for determination of acephate, methamidophos, omethoate, dimethoate, ethylenethiourea and propylenethiourea in human urine using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2007;17:321-30.
 
27. McKone TE, Castorina R, Harnly ME, Kuwabara Y, Eskenazi B, Bradman A. Merging models and biomonitoring data to characterize sources and pathways of human exposure to organophosphorus pesticides in the Salinas Valley of California. Environ Sci Technol 2007;41:3233-40.
 
28. Bravo R, Caltabiano LM, Weerasekera G, et al. Measurement of dialkyl phosphate metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides in human urine using lyophilization with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and isotope dilution quantification. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 2004;14:249-59.
 
29. Beamer P, Canales RA, Bradman A, Leckie JO. Farmworker children’s residential non-dietary exposure estimates from micro-level activity time series. Environmnental Science & Technology, submitted.
 
30. Beamer P, Key ME, Ferguson AC, Canales RA, Auyeung W, Leckie JO. Quantified activity pattern data from 6 to 27-month-old farmworker children for use in exposure assessment. Environ Res 2008;108:239-46. [PMC2613792]
 
31. Weldon RH. Biomonitoring persistent and non-persistent chemicals in human breast milk and endocrine disruption of lactation. University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.
 
32. Lu C, Toepel K, Irish R, Fenske RA, Barr DB, Bravo R. Organic diets significantly lower children's dietary exposure to organophosphorus pesticides. Environ Health Perspect 2006;114:260-3.
 
33. Bradman A, Castorina R, Barr DB, et al. Factors Predicting organophosphorus pesticide metabolites in 6, 12, and 24 month old children living in the Salinas Valley, CA. Environ Health Perspect, submitted.
 
34. Whyatt RM, Barr DB, Camann DE, et al. Contemporary-Use Pesticides in Personal Air Samples during Pregnancy and Blood Samples at Delivery among Urban Minority Mothers and Newborns. Environ Health Perspect 2003;111:749-56.
 
35. Whyatt RM, Rauh V, Barr DB, et al. Prenatal insecticide exposures and birth weight and length among an urban minority cohort. Environ Health Perspect 2004;112:1125-32.
 
36. CDPR. Pesticide use reporting: an overview of California’s unique full reporting system. Sacramento, CA:  California Department of Pesticide Regulation, 2000.
 
37. Harnly ME BA, Nishioka M, McKone TE, Smith D, McLaughlin R, Kavanagh-Baird G, Castorina R, Eskenazi B. Pesticides in dust from homes in an agricultural area. Environ Sci Technol 2009;1;43(23):8767-74.
 
38. Bradman A, Whitaker D, Quiros L, et al. Pesticides and their metabolites in the homes and urine of farmworker children living in the Salinas Valley, CA. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2007;17:331-49.
 
39. Harnly ME, Bradman A, Nishioka M, et al. Pesticides in House Dust in an Agricultural Area Environmental Science & Technology, submitted.
 
40. Weerasekera G, Smith K, Quirós-Alcalá L, et al. A mass spectrometry-based method to measure dialkylphosphate degradation products of organophosphorous insecticides in dust and orange juice. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 2009;11:1345 - 51.
 
41. Bradman A, Fenster L, Sjodin A, Jones RS, Patterson DG, Jr., Eskenazi B. Polybrominated diphenyl ether levels in the blood of pregnant women living in an agricultural community in California. Environ Health Perspect 2007;115:71-4. [PMC1797836]
 
42. Quirós-Alcalá L BA, Nishioka M, Harnly ME, Hubbard A, McKone TE, Eskenazi B. Concentrations and loadings of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in dust from low-income households in California. Environment International In press. 2011.
 
43. Bradman A, Salvatore AL, Boeniger M, et al. Community-based intervention to reduce pesticide exposure to farmworkers and potential take-home exposure to their families. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2009;19:79-89.
 
44. Salvatore AL, Bradman A, Castorina R, et al. Occupational behaviors and farmworkers' pesticide exposure: findings from a study in Monterey County, California. Am J Ind Med 2008;51:782-94. [PMC2605684]
 
45. Salvatore AL CJ, Bradman A, Camacho J, López J,, Kavanagh-Baird G MM, Eskenazi B. A community-based participatory worksite intervention to reduce pesticide exposures to farmworkers and their families. Am J Public Health 2009;99 Suppl 3:S578-81.
 
46. Duramad P, Tager IB, Leikauf J, Eskenazi B, Holland NT. Expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in human blood after in vitro treatment with chlorpyrifos, and its metabolites, in combination with endotoxin LPS and allergen Der p1. J Appl Toxicol 2006;26:458-65.
 
47. Duramad P, Tager IB, Holland NT. Cytokines and other immunological biomarkers in children's environmental health studies. Toxicol Lett 2007;172:48-59. [PMC2047341]
 
48. Duramad P, Holland N. Biomarkers of Immunotoxicity in Epidemiologic Studies. In:  Descotes J, ed. Human immunotoxicology:  from mechanisms and animal models to man. Chichester, UK:  John Wiley & Sons, in press.
 
49. Vose SC, Holland NT, Eskenazi B, Casida JE. Lysophosphatidylcholine hydrolases of human erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and brain:  sensitive targets of conserved specificity for organophosphorus delayed neurotoxicants. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2007;224:98-104.
 
50. Vose SC, Fujioka K, Gulevich AG, Lin AY, Holland NT, Casida JE. Cellular function of neuropathy target esterase in lysophosphatidylcholine action. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2008;232:376-83.


Journal Articles: 98 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other center views: All 131 publications 107 publications in selected types All 98 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Alkon A, Lippert S, Vujan N, Rodriquez ME, Boyce WT, Eskenazi B. The ontogeny of autonomic measures in 6-and 12-month-old infants. Developmental Psychobiology 2006;48(3):197-208. R831710 (2005)
R831710 (Final)
R831710C001 (2006)
R831710C001 (2007)
R831710C002 (2006)
  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
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  • Journal Article AuYeung W, Canales RA, Beamer P, Ferguson AC, Leckie JO. Young children’s mouthing behavior:an observational study via videotaping in a primarily outdoor residential setting. Journal of Children's Health 2005;2(3-4):271-295. R831710 (Final)
  • Full-text: Research Gate - PDF
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  • Abstract: Informa healthcare-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Beamer PI, Canales RA, Bradman A, Leckie JO. Farmworker children’s residential non-dietary exposure estimates from micro-level activity time series. Environment International 2009;35(8):1202-1209. R831710 (Final)
    R834513 (2010)
    R834513 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Beamer P, Key ME, Ferguson AC, Canales RA, Auyeung W, Leckie JO. Quantified activity pattern data from 6 to 27-month-old farmworker children for use in exposure assessment. Environmental Research 2008;108(2):239-246. R831710 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Beamer P, Canales RA, Leckie JO. Developing probability distributions for transfer efficiencies for dermal exposure. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2009;19(3):274-283. R831710 (2005)
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    R834513 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Bouchard MF, Chevrier J, Harley KG, Kogut K, Vedar M, Calderon N, Trujillo C, Johnson C, Bradman A, Barr DB, Eskenazi B. Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and IQ in 7-year-old children. Environmental Health Perspectives 2011;119(8):1189-1195. R831710 (Final)
    R832734 (Final)
    R834513 (2010)
    R834513 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Bradman AS, Schwartz JM, Fenster L, Barr DB, Holland NT, Eskenazi B. Factors predicting organochlorine pesticide levels in pregnant Latina women living in a United States agricultural area. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology2007;17(4):388-399. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Bradman A, Barr DB, Henn BG, Drumheller T, Curry C, Eskenazi B. Measurement of pesticides and other toxicants in amniotic fluid as a potential biomarker of prenatal exposure: a validation study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003;111(14):1779-1782. R831710 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Bradman A, Whyatt RM. Characterizing exposures to nonpersistent pesticides during pregnancy and early childhood in the National Children's Study: a review of monitoring and measurement methodologies. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(8):1092-1099. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Bradman A, Chevrier J, Tager I, Lipsett M, Sedgwick J, Macher J, Vargas AB, Cabrera EB, Camacho JM, Weldon R, Kogut K, Jewell NP, Eskenazi B. Association of housing disrepair indicators with cockroach and rodent infestations in a cohort of pregnant Latina women and their children. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(12):1795-1801. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Bradman A, Eskenazi B, Barr DB, Bravo R, Castorina R, Chevrier J, Kogut K, Harnly ME, McKone TE. Organophosphate urinary metabolite levels during pregnancy and after delivery in women living in an agricultural community. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(12):1802-1807. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Bradman A, Fenster L, Sjodin A, Jones RS, Patterson Jr DG, Eskenazi B. Polybrominated diphenyl ether levels in the blood of pregnant women living in an agricultural community in California. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007;115(1):71-74. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R831710C002 (2007)
    R834513 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Bradman A, Whitaker D, Quiros L, Castorina R, Claus Henn B, Nishioka M, Morgan J, Barr DB, Harnly M, Brisbin JA, Sheldon LS, McKone TE, Eskenazi B. Pesticides and their metabolites in the homes and urine of farmworker children living in the Salinas Valley, CA. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2007;17(4):331-349. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R831710C002 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Bradman A, Salvatore AL, Boeniger M, Castorina R, Snyder J, Barr DB, Jewell NP, Kavanagh-Baird G, Striley C, Eskenazi B. Community-based intervention to reduce pesticide exposure to farmworkers and potential take-home exposure to their families. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2009;19(1):79-89. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Bradman A, Castorina R, Barr DB, Chevrier J, Harnly ME, Eisen EA, McKone TE, Harley K, Holland N, Eskenazi B. Determinants of organophosphorus pesticide urinary metabolite levels in young children living in an agricultural community. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2011;8(4):1061-1083. R831710 (Final)
    R832734 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Bravo R, Caltabiano LM, Weerasekera G, Whitehead RD, Fernandez C, Needham LL, Bradman A, Barr DB. Measurement of dialkyl phosphate metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides in human urine using lyophilization with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and isotope dilution quantification. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 2004;14(3):249-259. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
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    R831710C002 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Canales RA, Leckie JO. Using contact-specific surface area estimates in exposure models. Journal of Children's Health 2005;2(3-4):345-362. R831710 (2005)
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  • Abstract: Informa healthcare - Abstract
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  • Journal Article Casida JE, Quistad GB. Organophosphate toxicology: safety aspects of nonacetylcholinesterase secondary targets. Chemical Research in Toxicology 2004;17(8):983-998. R831710 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Casida JE, Nomura DK, Vose SC, Fujioka K. Organophosphate-sensitive lipases modulate brain lysophospholipids, ether lipids and endocannabinoids. Chemico-Biological Interactions 2008;175(1-3):355-364. R831710 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Castorina R, Woodruff TJ. Assessment of potential risk levels associated with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference values. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003;111(10):1318-1325. R831710 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Castorina R, Bradman A, McKone TE, Barr DB, Harnly ME, Eskenazi B. Cumulative organophosphate pesticide exposure and risk assessment among pregnant women living in an agricultural community: a case study from the CHAMACOS cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003;111(13):1640-1648. R831710 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Castorina R, Bradman A, Fenster L, Barr DB, Bravo R, Vedar MG, Harnly ME, McKone TE, Eisen EA, Eskenazi B. Comparison of current-use pesticide and other toxicant urinary metabolite levels among pregnant women in the CHAMACOS cohort and NHANES. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(6):856-863. R831710 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Castorina R, Bradman A, Sjodin A, Fenster L, Jones RS, Harley KG, Eisen EA, Eskenazi B. Determinants of serum polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels among pregnant women in the CHAMACOS cohort. Environmental Science & Technology 2011;45(15):6553-6560. R831710 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Chevrier J, Eskenazi B, Bradman A, Fenster L, Barr DB. Associations between prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in a Mexican-American population, Salinas Valley, California. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007;115(10):1490-1496. R831710 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Chevrier J, Eskenazi B, Holland N, Bradman A, Barr DB. Effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides on thyroid function during pregnancy. American Journal of Epidemiology 2008;168(3):298-310. R831710 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Chevrier J, Harley KG, Bradman A, Gharbi M, Sjodin A, Eskenazi B. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants and thyroid hormone during pregnancy. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(10):1444-1449. R831710 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Chevrier J, Harley KG, Bradman A, Sjodin A, Eskenazi B. Prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in the CHAMACOS study. American Journal of Epidemiology 2011;174(10):1166-1174. R831710 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Dietrich KN, Eskenazi B, Schantz S, Yolton K, Rauh VA, Johnson CB, Alkon A, Canfield RL, Pessah IN, Berman RF. Principles and practices of neurodevelopmental assessment in children: lessons learned from the Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(10):1437-1446. R831710 (2005)
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    R829390 (2005)
    R829390 (Final)
    R829390C002 (2005)
    R831711 (2005)
    R832141 (2006)
    R832141 (2007)
    R832141 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Duramad P, McMahon CW, Hubbard A, Eskenazi B, Holland NT. Flow cytometric detection of intracellular TH1/TH2 cytokines using whole blood: validation of immunologic biomarker for use in epidemiologic studies. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2004;13(9):1452-1458. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C003 (2004)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: AACR-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: AACR-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: AACR-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Duramad P, Harley K, Lipsett M, Bradman A, Eskenazi B, Holland NT, Tager IB. Early environmental exposures and intracellular Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles in 24-month-old children living in an agricultural area. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(12):1916-1922. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2006)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R831710C002 (2006)
    R831710C003 (2006)
    R831710C003 (2007)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Duramad P, Tager IB, Leikauf J, Eskenazi B, Holland NT. Expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in human blood after in vitro treatment with chlorpyrifos, and its metabolites, in combination with endotoxin LPS and allergen Der p1. Journal of Applied Toxicology 2006;26(5):458-465. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C003 (2006)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Wiley Online-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Duramad P, Tager IB, Holland NT. Cytokines and other immunological biomarkers in children's environmental health studies. Toxicology Letters 2007;172(1-2):48-59. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C003 (2007)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Eggleston PA, Diette G, Lipsett M, Lewis T, Tager I, McConnell R, Chrischilles E, Lanphear B, Miller R, Krishnan J. Lessons learned for the study of childhood asthma from the Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(10):1430-1436. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R826710 (Final)
    R827027 (2002)
    R829389 (2003)
    R829389 (2004)
    R829389 (2005)
    R829389 (Final)
    R831861 (2005)
    R831861 (2006)
    R831861C001 (2006)
    R832139 (2004)
    R832139 (2005)
    R832139 (2006)
    R832139C002 (2005)
    R832139C003 (2005)
    R832141 (2006)
    R832141 (2007)
    R832141 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Eskenazi B, Bradman A, Gladstone EA, Jaramillo S, Birch K, Holland N. CHAMACOS, a longitudinal birth cohort study:lessons from the fields. Journal of Children's Health 2003;1(1):3-27. R831710 (Final)
    R826709 (2002)
  • Full-text: Berkeley PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: InformaWorld Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: NCER
  • Journal Article Eskenazi B, Harley K, Bradman A, Weltzien E, Jewell NP, Barr DB, Furlong CE, Holland NT. Association of in utero organophosphate pesticide exposure and fetal growth and length of gestation in an agricultural population. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(10):1116-1124. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2004)
    R831709 (2007)
    R831709C002 (2004)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Eskenazi B, Gladstone EA, Berkowitz GS, Drew CH, Faustman EM, Holland NT, Lanphear B, Meisel SJ, Perera FP, Rauh VA, Sweeney A, Whyatt RM, Yolton K. Methodologic and logistic issues in conducting longitudinal birth cohort studies: lessons learned from the Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(10):1419-1429. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2006)
    R831710C002 (2006)
    R827027 (2002)
    R829389 (2003)
    R829389 (2004)
    R829389 (2005)
    R829389 (Final)
    R829390 (2005)
    R829390 (Final)
    R829390C002 (2005)
    R831709 (2005)
    R831709C001 (2004)
    R831711 (2005)
    R831711 (2006)
    R831711 (2007)
    R831711 (Final)
    R831711C001 (2006)
    R831711C002 (2004)
    R831711C002 (2006)
    R831711C003 (2006)
    R832141 (2005)
    R832141 (2007)
    R832141 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Eskenazi B. Centros de investigación de salud medioambiental y prevención de enfermedades de niños. Desde 1998 al presente. Acta Toxicologica Argentina 2006;14(Suppl):60-62. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R832734 (2006)
  • Full-text: ATA - PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Eskenazi B, Bradman A, Harley K, Holland N. Indicadores biológicos de exposición a pesticidas y su relación con la salud de los niños. Acta Toxicologica Argentina 2006;14(Suppl):63-65. R831710 (Final)
  • Full-text: Acta Toxicologica Argentina-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Eskenazi B, Marks AR, Bradman A, Fenster L, Johnson C, Barr DB, Jewll NP. In utero exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and neurodevelopment among young Mexican American children. Pediatrics 2006;118(1):233-241. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2006)
    R831710C002 (2006)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Pediatrics-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Pediatrics-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Pediatrics-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Eskenazi B, Bradman A, Harley K, Holland N. Indicadores biologicos de exposicion a pesticidas y su relacion con la salud de los ninos. Acta Toxicologica Argentina 2006;14(Supplement):63-65. R831710 (2005)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R831710C002 (2007)
    R832734 (2006)
    not available
    Journal Article Eskenazi B, Marks AR, Bradman A, Harley K, Barr DB, Johnson C, Morga N, Jewell NP. Organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurodevelopment in young Mexican-American children. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007;115(5):792-798. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2007)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Eskenazi B, Rosas LG, Marks AR, Bradman A, Harley K, Holland N, Johnson C, Fenster L, Barr DB. Pesticide toxicity and the developing brain. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 2008;102(2):228-236. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R832734 (2007)
    R832734 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Wiley Online-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Wiley Online-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Eskenazi B, Chevrier J, Rosas LG, Anderson HA, Bornman MS, Bouwman H, Chen A, Cohn BA, de Jager C, Henshel DS, Leipzig F, Leipzig JS, Lorenz EC, Snedeker SM, Stapleton D. The Pine River statement: human health consequences of DDT use. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(9):1359-1367. R831710 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Eskenazi B, Huen K, Marks A, Harley KG, Bradman A, Barr DB, Holland N. PON1 and neurodevelopment in children from the CHAMACOS study exposed to organophosphate pesticides in utero. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(12):1775-1781. R831710 (Final)
    R832734 (Final)
    R834513 (2010)
    R834513 (2011)
    R834513 (2012)
    R834513 (2013)
    R834513 (2015)
    R834513C001 (2010)
    R834513C001 (2011)
    R834513C003 (2010)
    R834513C003 (2011)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: EHP-Full Text PDF
  • Abstract: EHP-Abstract & Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Journal Article Eskenazi B, Fenster L, Castorina R, Marks AR, Sjodin A, Rosas LG, Holland N, Guerra AG, Lopez-Carrillo L, Bradman A. A comparison of PBDE serum concentrations in Mexican and Mexican-American children living in California. Environmental Health Perspectives 2011;119(10):1442-1448. R831710 (Final)
    R834513 (2010)
    R834513 (2011)
    R834513 (2012)
    R834513 (2013)
    R834513 (2015)
    R834513C001 (2010)
    R834513C001 (2011)
    R834513C001 (2012)
    R834513C002 (2010)
    R834513C002 (2011)
    R834513C002 (2012)
    R834513C003 (2010)
    R834513C003 (2011)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: EHP-Full Text PDF
  • Abstract: EHP-Abstract & Full Text HTML
  • Journal Article Fenske RA, Bradman A, Whyatt RM, Wolff MS, Barr DB. Lessons learned for the assessment of children's pesticide exposure: critical sampling and analytical issues for future studies. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(10):1455-1462. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R827027 (2002)
    R828609 (Final)
    R831709 (2005)
    R831709 (2007)
    R831711 (2004)
    R831711 (2005)
    R831711 (2006)
    R831711 (2007)
    R831711 (Final)
    R831711C001 (2006)
    R831711C002 (2006)
    R831711C003 (2006)
    R832141 (2006)
    R832141 (2007)
    R832141 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Fenster L, Eskenazi B, Anderson M, Bradman A, Harley K, Hernandez H, Hubbard A, Barr DB. Association of in utero organochlorine pesticide exposure and fetal growth and length of gestation in an agricultural population. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(4):597-602. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2006)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R831710C002 (2006)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Fenster L, Eskenazi B, Anderson M, Bradman A, Hubbard A, Barr DB. In utero exposure to DDT and performance on the Brazelton neonatal behavioral assessment scale. NeuroToxicology 2007;28(3):471-477. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2007)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Science Direct - Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Science Direct-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Science Direct - Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Ferguson AC, Canales RA, Beamer P, Auyeung W, Key M, Munninghoff A, Lee KT, Robertson A, Leckie JO. Video methods in the quantification of children's exposures. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2006;16(3):287-298. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Nature Publishing-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Nature Publishing-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Nature Publishing-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Furlong CE, Holland N, Richter RJ, Bradman A, Ho A, Eskenazi B. PON1 status of farmworker mothers and children as a predictor of organophosphate sensitivity. Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 2006;16(3):183-190. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R831710C003 (2006)
    R831710C003 (2007)
    R831709 (2005)
    R831709 (2006)
    R831709 (2007)
    R831709C002 (2006)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: National Center for Farmworker Health-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Goldman L, Eskenazi B, Bradman A, Jewell NP. Risk behaviors for pesticide exposure among pregnant women living in farmworker households in Salinas, California. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 2004;45(6):491-499. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2004)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Wiley Online-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Grandjean P, Bellinger D, Bergman A, Cordier S, Davey-Smith G, Eskenazi B, Gee D, Gray K, Hanson M, van den Hazel P, Heindel JJ, Heinzow B, Hertz-Picciotto I, Hu H, Huang TT, Jensen TK, Landrigan PJ, McMillen IC, Murata K, Ritz B, Schoeters G, Skakkebaek NE, Skerfving S, Weihe P. The Faroes statement: human health effects of developmental exposure to chemicals in our environment. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 2008;102(2):73-75. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Wiley Online-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Wiley Online-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Harley KG, Marks AR, Bradman A, Barr DB, Eskenazi B. DDT exposure, work in agriculture, and time to pregnancy among farmworkers in California. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2008;50(12):1335-1342. R831710 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Abstract: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Harley KG, Macher JM, Lipsett M, Duramad P, Holland NT, Prager SS, Ferber J, Bradman A, Eskenazi B, Tager IB. Fungi and pollen exposure in the first months of life and risk of early childhood wheezing. Thorax 2009;64(4):353-358. R831710 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: BMJ-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: BMJ-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: BMJ-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Harley KG, Marks AR, Chevrier J, Bradman A, Sjodin A, Eskenazi B. PBDE concentrations in women’s serum and fecundability. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(5):699-704. R831710 (Final)
    R834513 (2010)
    R834513 (2011)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: EHP-Full Text HTML
  • Abstract: EHP-Abstract
  • Other: EHP-Full Text PDF
  • Journal Article Harley KG, Chevrier J, Schall RA, Sjodin A, Bradman A, Eskenazi B. Association of prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and infant birth weight. American Journal of Epidemiology 2011;174(8):885-892. R831710 (Final)
    R834513 (2010)
    R834513 (2011)
    R834513 (2012)
    R834513 (2013)
    R834513 (2015)
    R834513C001 (2010)
    R834513C001 (2011)
    R834513C001 (2012)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: Oxford University Press-Full Text -HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Oxford University Press-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Oxford University Press-Full Text-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Harley K, Eskenazi B, Block G. The association of time in the US and diet during pregnancy in low-income women of Mexican descent. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2005;19(2):125-134. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2004)
    R826709 (2001)
    R826709 (2002)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Harley K, Eskenazi B. Time in the United States, social support and health behaviors during pregnancy among women of Mexican descent. Social Science & Medicine 2006;62(12):3048-3061. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2006)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R831710C002 (2006)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Harley K, Stamm NL, Eskenazi B. The effect of time in the U.S. on the duration of breastfeeding in women of Mexican descent. Maternal and Child Health Journal 2007;11(2):119-125. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2007)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Harnly ME, Bradman A, Nishioka M, McKone TE, Smith D, McLaughlin R, Kavanagh-Baird G, Castorina R, Eskenazi B. Pesticides in dust from homes in an agricultural area. Environmental Science & Technology 2009;43(23):8767-8774. R831710 (Final)
    R834513 (2010)
    R834513 (2011)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: ResearchGate-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: ACS-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Harnly M, McLaughlin R, Bradman A, Anderson M, Gunier R. Correlating agricultural use of organophosphates with outdoor air concentrations: a particular concern for children. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(9):1184-1189. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Holland NT, Smith MT, Eskenazi B, Bastaki M. Biological sample collection and processing for molecular epidemiological studies. Mutation Research-Reviews in Mutation Research 2003;543(3):217-234. R831710 (Final)
    R826709 (2001)
    R826709 (2002)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Science Direct Full Text
    Exit
  • Abstract: Science Direct
    Exit
  • Other: Science Direct PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Holland NT, Pfleger L, Berger E, Ho A, Bastaki M. Molecular epidemiology biomarkers--sample collection and processing considerations. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2005;206(2):261-268. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Science Direct-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Other: Science Direct-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Holland N, Furlong C, Bastaki M, Richter R, Bradman A, Huen K, Beckman K, Eskenazi B. Paraoxonase polymorphisms, haplotypes, and enzyme activity in Latino mothers and newborns. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(7):985-991. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R831710C003 (2006)
    R831709 (2005)
    R831709 (2006)
    R831709 (2007)
    R831709C002 (2006)
    R832734 (2006)
    R832734 (2007)
    R832734 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Huen K, Richter R, Furlong C, Eskenazi B, Holland N. Validation of PON1 enzyme activity assays for longitudinal studies. Clinica Chimica Acta 2009;402(1-2):67-74. R831710 (Final)
    R831709 (2007)
    R832734 (2009)
    R832734 (Final)
    R834513 (2010)
    R834513 (2011)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: UC Berkeley-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Science Direct-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Huen K, Harley K, Brooks J, Hubbard A, Bradman A, Eskenazi B, Holland N. Developmental changes in PON1 enzyme activity in young children and effects of PON1 polymorphisms. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(10):1632-1638. R831710 (Final)
    R832734 (2009)
    R832734 (Final)
    R834513 (2010)
    R834513 (2011)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: EHP-Full Text HTML
  • Abstract: EHP-Abstract
  • Other: EHP-Full Text PDF
  • Journal Article Huen K, Barcellos L, Beckman K, Rose S, Eskenazi B, Holland N. Effects of PON polymorphisms and haplotypes on molecular phenotype in Mexican-American mothers and children. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2011;52(2):105-116. R831710 (Final)
    R832734 (Final)
    R834513 (2010)
    R834513 (2011)
    R834513 (2012)
    R834513 (2013)
    R834513 (2015)
    R834513C001 (2010)
    R834513C001 (2011)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: ResearchGate-Full Text-PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Wiley-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Huen K, Bradman A, Harley K, Yousefi P, Boyd Barr D, Eskenazi B, Holland N. Organophosphate pesticide levels in blood and urine of women and newborns living in an agricultural community. Environmental Research 2012;117:8-16. R831710 (Final)
    R832734 (Final)
    R834513 (2010)
    R834513 (2011)
    R834513 (2012)
    R834513 (2013)
    R834513 (2015)
    R834513C001 (2010)
    R834513C001 (2011)
    R834513C002 (2010)
    R834513C002 (2012)
    R834513C002 (2013)
    R834513C003 (2010)
    R834513C003 (2011)
    R834513C003 (2012)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text-HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text-PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Israel BA, Parker EA, Rowe Z, Salvatore A, Minkler M, Lopez J, Butz A, Mosley A, Coates L, Lambert G, Potito PA, Brenner B, Rivera M, Romero H, Thompson B, Coronado G, Halstead S. Community-based participatory research: lessons learned from the Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(10):1463-1471. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2006)
    R831710C002 (2006)
    R831710C004 (2006)
    R826710 (Final)
    R829391 (2004)
    R829391 (2005)
    R829391 (2006)
    R829391C005 (2006)
    R831709 (2005)
    R831709 (2007)
    R831709C003 (2005)
    R831709C003 (2006)
    R831711 (2005)
    R831711 (2006)
    R831711 (2007)
    R831711 (Final)
    R831711C001 (2006)
    R831711C002 (2006)
    R831711C003 (2006)
    R832139 (2006)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Kimmel CA, Collman GW, Fields N, Eskenazi B. Lessons learned for the National Children's Study from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(10):1414-1418. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Landrigan PJ, Kimmel CA, Correa A, Eskenazi B. Children's health and the environment: public health issues and challenges for risk assessment. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(2):257-265. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2004)
    R831711 (2005)
    R831711 (2007)
    R831711 (Final)
    R831711C001 (2006)
    R831711C003 (2006)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Journal Article Longnecker MP, Bellinger DC, Crews D, Eskenazi B, Silbergeld EK, Woodruff TJ, Susser ES. An approach to assessment of endocrine disruption in the National Children's Study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003;111(13):1691-1697. R831710 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Journal Article Marks AR, Harley K, Bradman A, Kogut K, Barr DB, Johnson C, Calderon N, Eskenazi B. Organophosphate pesticide exposure and attention in young Mexican-American children: the CHAMACOS Study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(12):1768-1774. R831710 (Final)
    R832734 (Final)
    R834513 (2010)
    R834513 (2011)
    R834513 (2012)
    R834513 (2013)
    R834513 (2015)
    R834513C001 (2010)
    R834513C001 (2011)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: EHP-Full Text PDF
  • Abstract: EHP-Abstract & Full Text HTML
  • Journal Article McKone TE, Castorina R, Harnly ME, Kuwabara Y, Eskenazi B, Bradman A. Merging models and biomonitoring data to characterize sources and pathways of human exposure to organophosphorus pesticides in the Salinas Valley of California. Environmental Science & Technology 2007;41(9):3233-3240. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2007)
    R831710C002 (2007)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Environmental Science & Technology-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Montesano MA, Olsson AO, Kuklenyik P, Needham LL, Bradman AS, Barr DB. Method for determination of acephate, methamidophos, omethoate, dimethoate, ethylenethiourea and propylenethiourea in human urine using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2007;17(4):321-330. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C002 (2007)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Nature Publishing - Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Nature Publishing - Abstract
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  • Other: Nature Publishing - Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Needham LL, Ozkaynak H, Whyatt RM, Barr DB, Wang RY, Naeher L, Akland G, Bahadori T, Bradman A, Fortmann R, Liu L-JS, Morandi M, O'Rourke MK, Thomas K, Quackenboss J, Ryan PB, Zartarian V. Exposure assessment in the National Children's Study: introduction. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(8):1076-1082. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R827355 (Final)
    R827355C003 (Final)
    R832141 (2006)
    R832141 (2007)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: Medscape - Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Neri M, Bonassi S, Knudsen LE, Sram RJ, Holland N, Ugolini D, Merlo DF. Children’s exposure to environmental pollutants and biomarkers of genetic damage: I. Overview and critical issues. Mutation Research-Reviews in Mutation Research 2006;612(1):1-13. R831710 (Final)
    R831710C003 (2006)
    R832734 (2006)
    R832734 (2007)
    R832734 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Neri M, Ugolini D, Bonassi S, Fucic A, Holland N, Knudsen LE, Sram RJ, Ceppi M, Bocchini V, Merlo DF. Children’s exposure to environmental pollutants and biomarkers of genetic damage: II. Results of a comprehensive literature search and meta-analysis. Mutation Research-Reviews in Mutation Research 2006;612(1):14-39. R831710 (Final)
    R831710C003 (2006)
    R832734 (2006)
    R832734 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Other: ScienceDirect-PDF
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  • Journal Article Ozkaynak H, Whyatt R, Needham LL, Akland G, Quackenboss J. Exposure assessment implications for the design and implementation of the National Children's Study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(8):1108-1115. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R832141 (2005)
    R832141 (2007)
    R832141 (Final)
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  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Journal Article Payne-Sturges D, Cohen J, Castorina R, Axelrad DA, Woodruff TJ. Evaluating cumulative organophosphorus pesticide body burden of children: a national case study. Environmental Science & Technology 2009;43(20):7924-7930. R831710 (Final)
    R834513 (2010)
    R834513 (2011)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Full-text: ResearchGate-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: ACS-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Quiros-Alcala L, Bradman A, Nishioka M, Harnly ME, Hubbard A, McKone TE, Eskenazi B. Concentrations and loadings of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in dust from low-income households in California. Environment International 2011;37(3):592-596. R831710 (Final)
    R834513 (2010)
    R834513 (2011)
    R834513 (2012)
    R834513 (2013)
    R834513 (2015)
    R834513C001 (2010)
    R834513C001 (2011)
    R834513C002 (2010)
    R834513C002 (2011)
    R834513C002 (2012)
  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text-PDF
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  • Journal Article Quiros-Alcala L, Bradman A, Nishioka M, Harnly ME, Hubbard A, McKone TE, Ferber J, Eskenazi B. Pesticides in house dust from urban and farmworker households in California: an observational measurement study. Environmental Health 2011;10:19 (15 pp.). R831710 (Final)
    R834513 (2010)
    R834513 (2011)
    R834513 (2012)
    R834513 (2013)
    R834513 (2015)
    R834513C001 (2010)
    R834513C001 (2011)
    R834513C002 (2010)
    R834513C002 (2011)
    R834513C002 (2012)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Full-text: EHJ-Full Text-HTML
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  • Abstract: EHJ-Abstract
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  • Other: EHJ-Full Text-PDF
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  • Journal Article Quistad GB, Casida JE. Lysophospholipase inhibition by organophosphate toxicants. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2004;196(3):319-326. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710C003 (2004)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Science Direct-Full Text HTML
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  • Other: Science Direct-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Quistad GB, Liang SN, Fisher KJ, Nomura DK, Casida JE. Each lipase has a unique sensitivity profile for organophosphorus inhibitors. Toxicological Sciences 2006;91(1):166-172. R831710C003 (2006)
    not available
    Journal Article Quistad GB, Klintenberg R, Caboni P, Liang SN, Casida JE. Monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition by organophosphorus compounds leads to elevation of brain 2-arachidonoylglycerol and the associated hypomotility in mice. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2006;211(1):78-83. R831710C003 (2006)
    not available
    Journal Article Riley WJ, McKone TE, Cohen Hubal EA. Estimating contaminant dose for intermittent dermal contact: model development, testing, and application. Risk Analysis 2004;24(1):73-85. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C002 (2004)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Wiley Online-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
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  • Other: Wiley Online-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Rosas LG, Eskenazi B. Pesticides and child neurodevelopment. Current Opinion in Pediatrics 2008;20(2):191-197. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Phemed-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Current Opinion in Pediatrics-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Rosas LG, Guendelman S, Harley K, Fernald LC, Neufeld L, Mejia F, Eskenazi B. Factors associated with overweight and obesity among children of Mexican descent: results of a binational study. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 2011;13(1):169-180. R831710 (Final)
    R834513 (2010)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Full-text: Springer-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Springer-Abstract
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  • Other: Springer-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Salvatore AL, Bradman A, Castorina R, Camacho J, Lopez J, Barr DB, Snyder J, Jewell NP, Eskenazi B. Occupational behaviors and farmworkers' pesticide exposure: findings from a study in Monterey County, California. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 2008;51(10):782-794. R831710 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: Wiley Online-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Salvatore AL, Chevrier J, Bradman A, Camacho J, Lopez J, Kavanagh-Baird G, Minkler M, Eskenazi B. A community-based participatory worksite intervention to reduce pesticide exposures to farmworkers and their families. American Journal of Public Health 2009;99(Suppl 3):S578-S581. R831710 (Final)
    R834513 (2010)
    R834513 (2011)
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  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Full-text: ResearchGate-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: APHA-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Scholtz, RI, McLaughlin KR, Cirillo PM, Petreas M, Park J-S, Wolff MS, Factor-Litvak P, Eskenazi B, Krigbaum N, Cohn BA. Assaying organochlorines in archived serum for a large, long-term cohort: implications of combining assay results from multiple laboratories over time. Environment International 2011;37(4):709-714. R831710 (Final)
    R834513 (2010)
    R834513 (2011)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Sly PD Eskenazi B, Pronczuk J, Sram R, Diaz-Barriga F, Machin DG, Carpenter DO, Surdu S, Meslin EM. Ethical issues in measuring biomarkers in children's environmental health. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(8):1185-1190. R831710 (Final)
    R832734 (2009)
    R832734 (Final)
    R834513 (2010)
    R834513 (2011)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: EHP-Full Text HTML
  • Abstract: EHP-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Vose SC, Holland NT, Eskenazi B, Casida JE. Lysophosphatidylcholine hydrolases of human erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and brain: sensitive targets of conserved specificity for organophosphorus delayed neurotoxicants. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2007;224(1):98-104. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R832734 (2007)
    R832734 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Vose SC, Fujioka K, Gulevich AG, Lin AY, Holland NT, Casida JE. Cellular function of neuropathy target esterase in lysophosphatidylcholine action. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2008;232(3):376-383. R831710 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Warner ML, Harley K, Bradman A, Vargas G, Eskenazi B. Soda consumption and overweight status of 2-year-old Mexican-American children in California. Obesity 2006;14(11):1966-1974. R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831710C001 (2007)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Nature Publishing-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Wiley - Abstract
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  • Other: Nature Publishing-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Weerasekera G, Smith KD, Quiros-Alcala L, Fernandez C, Bradman A, Eskenazi B, Needham LL, Barr DB. A mass spectrometry-based method to measure dialkylphosphate degradation products of organophosphorous insecticides in dust and orange juice. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 2009;11(7):1345-1351. R831710 (Final)
    R834513 (2010)
    R834513 (2011)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: ResearchGate-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: RSC Publishing-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Weldon RH, Webster M, Harley KG, Bradman A, Fenster L, Davis MD, Hubbard A, Barr DB, Holland N, Eskenazi B. Serum persistent organic pollutants and duration of lactation among Mexican-American women. Journal of Environmental and Public Health 2010;2010:861757 (11 pp.). R831710 (Final)
    R834513 (2010)
    R834513 (2011)
    R834513 (2012)
    R834513 (2013)
    R834513 (2015)
    R834513C001 (2010)
    R834513C001 (2011)
    R834513C002 (2010)
    R834513C002 (2011)
    R834513C003 (2010)
    R834513C003 (2011)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Full-text: Hindawi-Full Text-HTML
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  • Abstract: Hindawi-Abstract
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  • Other: Hindawi-Full Text-PDF
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  • Journal Article Young JG, Eskenazi B, Gladstone EA, Bradman A, Pedersen L, Johnson C, Barr DB, Furlong CE, Holland NT. Association between in utero organophosphate pesticide exposure and abnormal reflexes in neonates. NeuroToxicology 2005;26(2):199-209. R831710 (2004)
    R831710 (2005)
    R831710 (Final)
    R831709 (2005)
    R831709 (2006)
    R831709 (2007)
    R831709C002 (2004)
    R831709C002 (2006)
  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, PESTICIDES, Health Risk Assessment, Children's Health, Pesticide Types, Risk Assessment, health effects, pesticide exposure, community-based intervention, airway disease, environmental risks, respiratory problems, Human Health Risk Assessment, assessment of exposure, childhood respiratory disease, insecticides, children's environmental health, environmental health hazard, outreach and education, agricultural community, allergen

    Relevant Websites:

    http://ehs.sph.berkeley.edu/chamacos/ Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
    2004 Progress Report
    2005 Progress Report

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R831710C001 Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research – CHAMACOS Community Based Research Project
    R831710C002 Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research – Pesticide Exposure Assessment Project
    R831710C003 Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research – Mechanisms of Pesticide Neuro- and Immunotoxicity
    R831710C004 Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research – Community Outreach and Translation Core