2006 Progress Report: Children’s Environmental Health Center

EPA Grant Number: R831861
Center: USC Center for Children’s Environmental Health
Center Director: Gilliland, Frank D.
Title: Children’s Environmental Health Center
Investigators: Gilliland, Frank D. , Avol, Edward L. , Berhane, Kiros , Diaz-Sanchez, David , Dubeau, Louis , Froines, John R. , Gauderman, William , Gong, Henry , Hricko, Andrea M. , Kuenzli, Nino , Linn, William S. , Lurmann, Fred , McConnell, Rob Scot , Peters, John M.
Current Investigators: Gilliland, Frank D. , Avol, Edward L. , Berhane, Kiros , Diaz-Sanchez, David , Dubeau, Louis , Froines, John R. , Gauderman, William , Gong, Henry , Hricko, Andrea M. , Kuenzli, Nino , Linn, William S. , Lurmann, Fred , McConnell, Rob Scot , Peters, John M. , Riedl, Marc A
Institution: University of Southern California , University of California - Los Angeles
EPA Project Officer: Callan, Richard
Project Period: November 1, 2003 through October 31, 2008 (Extended to October 31, 2010)
Project Period Covered by this Report: November 1, 2005 through October 31,2006
Project Amount: $3,802,622
RFA: Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research (2003) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Children's Health , Health Effects , Human Health , Health

Objective:

The objectives of the Children’'s Environmental Health Center are to: (1) investigate the role of ambient air pollutants and genetic susceptibility in airway inflammation and in asthma occurrence during childhood; (2) investigate the mechanism for the modulating effects of ambient air pollutants on allergic inflammation in children; (3) implement a community-based participatory research program to respond to community concerns about the effects of regional ambient air pollutants and locally emitted fresh vehicle exhaust on early life asthma; and (4) provide a scientific resource for the broader community involved in protecting children'’s environmental health.
 
Project 1: Urban Air Pollution and Persistent Early Life Asthma
The Community Based Participatory Research project will evaluate the relationship between early life asthma and traffic-–related air pollution. We are examining this question in a case-–control study of asthma persisting to school entry, but with onset earlier in life, in children resident in the same home since before age 2. We also hypothesize that susceptibility to ambient air pollution will vary based on genotype for GSTM1, GSTP1, NQO1, HO-1, and TNF-α, genes involved in the biologic response to oxidant air pollutants. Lifetime exposure will be assessed by calibrating home measurements to the extensive historical exposure assessment from a monitor in each community operating continuously during the lifetime of participants. Community participation in study promotion to participants and in data collection and interpretation is enhancing both the quality of Center research and of the environmental action plans for families of children with asthma in ongoing projects of the community partners. A steering committee representing university and community research partners, and policy makers, works closely with the Community Outreach and Translation Core (COTC) to provide the scientific basis necessary for developing policy for the more widespread protection of children from the effects of air pollution. The specific aims have not been modified. The aims are to:
  1. Identify the population for the proposed case-control study.
  2. Collect information from parents of participants to assess asthma, activity patterns, and risk factors for asthma, using a structured telephone interview, also to be administered by Community Study Liaisons.
  3. Assess the relationship between residential exposure to ambient-traffic-related air pollutants and asthma among cases and controls, using information from the Exposure Assessment and Modeling Core.
  4. Develop tools for assessment of traffic within 100 meters of homes with COTC Neighborhood Assessment Teams composed of community volunteers selected by community research partners.
  5. Genotype cases and controls for polymorphisms in GSTM1, GSTP1, HO-1, NQO1 and TNF-α, and assess how these polymorphisms modify the relationship between air pollutants and asthma.
  6. Assess the burden of asthma-related disease attributable to air pollution in all children living in two communities represented by the community partners, using results from this study and from existing literature.
  7. Develop a series of community forums with the COTC to discuss the public health burden of air pollution for asthma.
  8. Integrate new information on air pollution into the environmental action plans developed with families of children with asthma by all community health workers working in service programs of community partners.
  9. Foster discussion among partners through an active steering committee and through presentation of results at meetings of partner organizations.
  10. Participate with the COTC in seminars, community forums and in the critique of policy initiatives by providing the best scientific evidence available on air pollution and childhood asthma.
Project 2: Pollution-Enhanced Allergic Inflammation and Phase II Enzymes
There has been no change in the specific aims of this study. They are to study the role of Phase II enzymes in regulating responses to pollutants in: children's upper airways (Aim #1); the lower airways of healthy and asthmatic individuals (Aim #2); and in mechanistic animal and cellular models of allergic inflammation (Aim #3).
 
Project 3: Air Pollution, Exhaled Breath Markers, and Asthma in Susceptible Children
In this project, we proposed to assess the following hypotheses:
  • Hypothesis 1 (H1): High ambient air pollution exposure is associated with chronic airway inflammation in children as indicated by elevated exhaled NO (eNO), a marker of airway inflammation and oxidative/nitrosative stress.
  • Hypothesis 2 (H2): Children's susceptibility to airway inflammation and oxidative/nitrosative stress from ambient air pollution varies by NOS1, NOS2 and NOS3, GSTM1, GSTP1, NQO1, and HO-1 genotypes.
  • Hypothesis 3 (H3): Children with chronic airway inflammation as indicated by elevated eNO are at increased risk for new onset asthma.
We will assess our hypotheses by accomplishing the following specific aims:
  • Specific Aim 1 (SA1): Collect eNO from 3000 children in the ongoing AIR study cohort.
  • Specific Aim 2 (SA2): Genotype the cohort of 3000 children for functional polymorphism/haplotypes in the NOS1, NOS2 and NOS3, GSTM1, GSTP1, NQO1, and HO-1.
  • Specific Aim 3 (SA3): To use a multilevel design to determine the relationship between levels of eNO with short- and long-term air pollution exposures and to assess the effects of genetic variation in NOS1, 2, and 3 on these relationships using data collected in SA1, SA2, and air pollution exposure estimates from the ongoing cohort study.
  • Specific Aim 4 (SA4): To determine the risk for new onset asthma in children with high levels of eNO using data collected in SA1 and in the ongoing prospective cohort study of incident asthma.

Progress Summary:

Project 1: Urban Air Pollution and Persistent Early Life Asthma
Recruitment for the case control study was completed, and all questionnaire interviews will be completed by the end of October, and we will begin analysis of the case-control data. All three rounds of home air pollution sampling were completed in all communities, and data clean-up and modeling of exposures is under way. Buccal cell collection has been completed, and genotyping is almost complete.
 
We have published two important complementary papers (in Epidemiology and Environmental Health Perspectives) describing the relationship between early life asthma and modeled exposure to traffic related pollutants in two different cohorts from the Center, and we have identified susceptible demographic groups based on sex, allergy and parental history of asthma that we think may explain some of the inconsistency in previous literature. University of Southern California investigators and community counterparts participated in press-related activities resulting from these papers. We will use these results to estimate the attributable burden of lifetime asthma associated with traffic in Long Beach and Riverside, which is a major interest of the community partners in these cities, and an important goal of the collaboration. In related work, we have found that potentially confounding wildfire exposures in several of our study communities affected the prevalence of asthma symptoms, information that will be important for the further analysis of traffic-related pollution effects. We have also observed effects of associations between modeled traffic-related exposure and incident asthma in follow-up of the cohort. Investigators also participated in two cross-center methods papers. There is an active CBPR steering committee that has overseen the research interviews with the community staff and guided the joint development with the COTC of a community protocol for the identification of air pollution hot spots, using land use maps, community members’' knowledge of activities in neighborhoods, traffic counting, and measurement of ultrafine particle number in Long Beach and Riverside. This has focused on schools and residential areas with heavy traffic. Important qualitative findings have been the lack of correspondence between land use maps used for pollution modeling and actual land use in areas in Riverside. Results were presented at a community summit of interested groups throughout southern California, and Center members participated in several other workshops and communities, described in more detail in the COTC report. Better data on traffic counts at schools is a priority for the next year.
 
Project 2: Pollution-Enhanced Allergic Inflammation and Phase II Enzymes
 
Aim #1: We will test the hypothesis that Phase II enzyme expression in the upper airways are induced by oxidant pollutants and differ between children and adults.
Last year we reported on Phase II enzyme expression following nasal challenge with Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEP) in 10 adult subjects. In the last year we have expanded these studies and have completed similar challenges on an additional 10 adult subjects and 20 children. This was a single-blind randomized cross-over exposure study to test the expression of these enzymes in response to nasal challenge with four different DEP doses - 0 (control), 30, 100, or 300 µg. Subjects performed nasal lavage sampling immediately before and 24 hours after each DEP challenge. DEP was administered by nasal spray into one nare via an atomizer. Each subject was randomized to one of 24 possible sequences of 4 DEP exposures. A 4-week wash-out period was observed between each DEP exposure. In adults, DEP enhanced production of IL-8, TNF-α and GM-CSF in a dose-dependent fashion. Higher DEP challenge dose concentrations were associated with increased levels of chemokines as measured by ELISA (see Fig 1).
 
 
 
 
 
The degree of cellular infiltration correlated with the dose of nasally administered DEP challenge. Higher concentrations of DEP elicited a larger number of total cells recovered from nasal lavage fluid obtained 24 hours after DEP exposure. As we have previously reported, we have developed real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) to measure gene expression of sentinel Phase II enzymes (GSTM1, GSTP1, NQO1 and HO-1) from cells recovered from nasal washes. RNA was extracted from cells recovered from nasal lavages performed 24 hours after DEP challenge. In adults, DEP induced expression of GSTP1 in a dose-dependent fashion. With increasing concentrations of DEP challenge, there were higher levels of GSTP1 relative gene expression (Fig 2). In these adults, cellular infiltration was inversely correlated with GSTP1 enzyme gene expression. Increased levels of GSTP1 were associated with lower cell count numbers. In children, the degree of cellular infiltration also correlated with the dose of nasally administered DEP challenge. Higher concentrations of DEP elicited a larger number of total cells recovered from nasal lavage fluid obtained 24 hours after DEP exposure. However, as compared to adults, this effect in children was more robust at the DEP challenge of 300 µg (see Fig 1). In these children, DEP also induced expression of GSTP1. At DEP concentrations of 30 and 100 µg, there were higher levels of GSTP1 relative gene expression. However, GSTP1 relative gene expression for the DEP nasal challenge of 300 µg was decreased in children as compared to adults. Similar results are seen with the other 3 Phase II enzymes measured.
 
Aim #2: We will test the hypothesis that Phase II enzyme expression in the lower airways are induced by oxidant pollutants and differ between asthmatic and non-asthmatic subjects.
In the past year, we have exposed 10 subjects (five asthmatic and five non-asthmatic) to diesel exhaust to study the effect of Phase II expression on lower airway responses. To date, we have thus performed exposures on 10 healthy and 15 asthmatic subjects. We have refined our exposure system and can produce a diesel particulate exposure level that is within 8% of the target level every time. These diesel particles are chemically and physically identical to diesel particles encountered in ambient air. Diesel exhaust resulted in increased expression of all four Phase II enzymes tested in cells recovered from sputum induced 24 hours after exposure. This increase was observed in both healthy and asthmatic subjects. There was wide heterogeneity in responses to diesel exhaust between subjects. While no enhanced inflammation was observed in any of the healthy subjects, four out of the 15 asthmatic subjects demonstrated a robust inflammatory response to diesel exhaust but not filtered air. Phase II enzyme expression was measured in cells recovered from induced sputum performed 24 hours after exposure. For all subjects measured to date we could observe an increase in Phase II enzyme expression. Again, there was wide heterogeneity in responses between subjects. This heterogeneity makes meaningful statistical analysis between asthmatic and healthy subjects premature.
 
Aim #3: We will determine the role of Phase II enzymes in regulating the adjuvant effects of particulate pollutants.
We have previously reported that treatment with sulforaphane (a Phase II enzyme inducer) can prevent the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in respiratory epithelial cells in vitro and IgE production from PBMCs. We have now explored this mechanism. We confirmed that DEPs and the extracts (DEPX) can act directly on B lymphocytes and showed that DEPX could enhance the IgH germline-transcription both in a B cell line and PBMC. DEPX increased NQO1 mRNA gene expression in both peripheral blood lymphocytes and the B lymphocyte cell line DG75 in a dose-dependent manner. NQO1 protein induction by DEPX in DG75 cells was confirmed by Western blot. A reporter gene assay showed that DEP could induce activity of the anti-oxidant response element (ARE) located in the NQO1 gene promoter. Induction of both NQO1 mRNA and protein expression could be blocked by co-culture with an anti-oxidant and partly repressed by inhibitors of PI3-K and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not by inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Mek/ERK) or protein kinase C (PKC).
 
The principal findings of our results is the discovery that children have enhanced inflammatory responses to the model pollutant DEP and that this seems to be related to their reduced capacity to make a cytoprotective Phase II enzymes response. Our in vitro data support the idea that DEP suggest Phase II enzyme expression through activation of the ARE. Our studies illuminate why there may be increased susceptibility of certain vulnerable individuals and populations (such as children) to oxidant pollutants and suggest that increasing the body'’s Phase II responses either by therapeutic or dietary means may counteract this effect.
 
Project 3: Air Pollution, Exhaled Breath Markers, and Asthma in Susceptible Children
In this period, we have developed protocols for field collection, tested methods, and trained field staff. We have completed fieldwork for enrolling subjects in the study and collecting eNO. We are beginning analysis of the data. Buccal cells for DNA were collected, processed, and stored in the Molecular Biology Core. We developed NOS assays and are beginning to extract DNA in preparation for genotyping. We also continue to follow the cohort for asthma status and exposure variables.
 
eNO has the potential for use in understanding asthma etiology, for identifying high-risk children and for use as a marker of response in intervention studies. This program of innovative research builds on the results from studies in the initial 5 years of the Children’'s Environmental Health Center, the population resource of a large ongoing prospective cohort study of the determinants of childhood asthma incidence, and an extensive cutting edge air pollution exposure assessment program to efficiently fill key research and public health needs.

Future Activities:

Project 1: Urban Air Pollution and Persistent Early Life Asthma
We plan to conduct the primary case-control analyses. We plan to complete estimates of burden of exposure associated with traffic and to train our community counterparts to disseminate these results.
 
Project 2: Pollution-Enhanced Allergic Inflammation and Phase II Enzymes
In the next year we intend to continue recruitment of adults and children for Aims #1 and #2 and use our in vitro system to examine the role of individual Phase II enzymes.
 
Project 3: Air Pollution, Exhaled Breath Markers, and Asthma in Susceptible Children
We plan to continue to analyzing the eNO data, complete DNA extraction and begin genotyping the cohort for the proposed genes, and continue developing exposure metrics as the exposure measurements become available. We plan to investigate the use of GIS methods to examine these data. We plan to submit a manuscript on the determinants of eNO is this large population-based sample as our first paper.


Journal Articles: 124 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other center views: All 193 publications 125 publications in selected types All 124 journal articles
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Journal Article Bastain TM, Gilliland FD, Li Y-F, Saxon A, Diaz-Sanchez D. Intraindividual reproducibility of nasal allergic responses to diesel exhaust particles indicates a susceptible phenotype. Clinical Immunology 2003;109(2):130-136. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Bastain TM, Islam T, Berhane KT, McConnell RS, Rappaport EB, Salam MT, Linn WS, Avol EL, Zhang Y, Gilliland FD. Exhaled nitric oxide, susceptibility and new-onset asthma in the Children’s Health Study. European Respiratory Journal 2011;37(3):523-531. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Berg J, McConnell R, Milam J, Galvan J, Kotlerman J, Thorne P, Jones C, Ferdman R, Eggleston P, Rand C, Lewis MA, Peters J, Richardson J. Rodent allergen in Los Angeles inner city homes of children with asthma. Journal of Urban Health 2008;85(1):52-61. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Berhane K, Gauderman WJ, Stram DO, Thomas DC. Statistical issues in studies of the long-term effects of air pollution: The Southern California Children's Health Study. Statistical Science 2004;19(3):414-449. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Berhane K, Zhang Y, Linn WS, Rappaport EB, Bastain TM, Salam MT, Islam T, Lurmann F, Gilliland FD. The effect of ambient air pollution on exhaled nitric oxide in the Children’s Health Study. European Respiratory Journal 2011;37(5):1029-1036. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Bernstein JA, Alexis N, Barnes C, Bernstein IL, Bernstein JA, Nel A, Peden D, Diaz-Sanchez D, Tarlo SM, Williams PB. Health effects of air pollution. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2004;114(5):1116-1123. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Breton CV, Vora H, Salam MT, Islam T, Wenten M, Gauderman WJ, Van den Berg D, Berhane K, Peters JM, Gilliland FD. Variation in the GST mu locus and tobacco smoke exposure as determinants of childhood lung function. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2009;179(7):601-607. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Breton CV, Byun HM, Wenten M, Pan F, Yang A, Gilliland FD. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure affects global and gene-specific DNA methylation. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2009;180(5):462-467. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Breton CV, Salam MT, Vora H, Gauderman WJ, Gilliland FD. Genetic variation in the glutathione synthesis pathway, air pollution, and children’s lung function growth. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2011;183(2):243-248. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Cho AK, Di Stefano E, You Y, Rodriquez CE, Schmitz DA, Kumagai Y, Miguel AH, Eiguren-Fernandez A, Kobayashi T, Avol E, Froines JR. Determination of four quinones in diesel exhaust particles, SRM 1649a and atmospheric PM2.5. Aerosol Science and Technology 2004;38(Suppl 1):68-81. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Conti DV, Gauderman WJ. SNPs, haplotypes, and model selection in a candidate gene region: the SIMPle analysis for multilocus data. Genetic Epidemiology 2004;27(4):429-441. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Corren J, Diaz-Sanchez D, Saxon A, Deniz Y, Reimann J, Sinclair D, Davancaze T, Adelman D. Effects of omalizumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, on nasal reactivity to allergen and local IgE synthesis. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology 2004;93(3):243-248. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Cozen W, Avol E, Diaz-Sanchez D, McConnell R, Gauderman WJ, Cockburn MG, Zadnick J, Jyrala M, Mack TM. Use of an electrostatic dust cloth for self-administered home allergen collection. Twin Research and Human Genetics 2008;11(2):150-155. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Delfino RJ, Gong Jr. H, Linn WS, Pellizzari ED, Hu Y. Asthma symptoms in Hispanic children and daily ambient exposures to toxic and criteria air pollutants. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003;111(4):647-656. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Delfino RJ, Gong H, Linn WS, Hu Y, Pellizzari ED. Respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow in children with asthma in relation to volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and ambient air. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 2003;13(5):348-363. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Diaz-Sanchez D, Proietti L, Polosa R. Diesel fumes and the rising prevalence of atopy: an urban legend? Current Allergy and Asthma Reports 2003;3(2):146-152. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Diaz-Sanchez D, Riedl M. Diesel effects on human health: a question of stress? American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 2005;289(5):L722-L723. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Diaz-Sanchez D, Rumold R, Gong Jr. H. Challenge with environmental tobacco smoke exacerbates allergic airway disease in human beings. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2006;118(2):441-446. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Eggleston PA, Diette G, Lipsett M, Lewis T, Tager I, McConnell R, Chrischilles E, Lanphear B, Miller R, Krishnan J. Lessons learned for the study of childhood asthma from the Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(10):1430-1436. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Eiguren-Fernandez A, Miguel AH, Froines JR, Thurairatnam S, Avol EL. Seasonal and spatial variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vapor-phase and PM2.5 in Southern California urban and rural communities. Aerosol Science and Technology 2004;38(5):447-455. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Finkelman FD, Yang M, Orekhova T, Clyne E, Bernstein J, Whitekus M, Diaz-Sanchez D, Morris SC. Diesel exhaust particles suppress in vivo IFN-γ production by inhibiting cytokine effects on NK and NKT cells. Journal of Immunology 2004;172(6):3808-3813. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Gilliland F, Vora H, Thomas D, Berhane K, McConnell R, Kuenzli N, Lurmann F, Rappaport E, Margolis H, Bates D, Peters J. The effect of air pollution on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age. New England Journal of Medicine 2004;351(11):1057-1067. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Lurmann F, Kuenzli N, Gilliland F, Peters J, McConnell R. Childhood asthma and exposure to traffic and nitrogen dioxide. Epidemiology 2005;16(6):737-743. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Gauderman WJ, Conti DV. Commentary: Models for longitudinal family data. International Journal of Epidemiology 2005;34(5):1077-1079. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Gauderman WJ. Air pollution and children — an unhealthy mix. New England Journal of Medicine 2006;355(1):78-79. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Gauderman WJ, Vora H, McConnell R, Berhane K, Gilliland F, Thomas D, Lurmann F, Avol E, Kunzli N, Jerrett M, Peters J. Effect of exposure to traffic on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age: a cohort study. Lancet 2007;369(9561):571-577. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Gauderman WJ, Murcray C, Gilliland F, Conti DV. Testing association between disease and multiple SNPs in a candidate gene. Genetic Epidemiology 2007;31(5):383-395. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Gilliland FD, Berhane K, Li YF, Rappaport EB, Peters JM. Effects of early onset asthma and in utero exposure to maternal smoking on childhood lung function. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2003;167(6):917-924. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Gilliland FD, Berhane K, Islam T, Wenten M, Rappaport E, Avol E, Gauderman WJ, McConnell R, Peters JM. Environmental tobacco smoke and absenteeism related to respiratory illness in schoolchildren. American Journal of Epidemiology 2003;157(10):861-869. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Gilliland FD, Berhane K, Islam T, McConnell R, Gauderman WJ, Gilliland SS, Avol E, Peters JM. Obesity and the risk of newly diagnosed asthma in school-age children. American Journal of Epidemiology 2003;158(5):406-415. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Gilliland FD, Berhane KT, Li Y-F, Gauderman WJ, McConnell R, Peters J. Children's lung function and antioxidant vitamin, fruit, juice, and vegetable intake. American Journal of Epidemiology 2003;158(6):576-584. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Gilliland FD, Li Y-F, Saxon A, Diaz-Sanchez D. Effect of glutathione-S-transferase M1 and P1 genotypes on xenobiotic enhancement of allergic responses: randomised, placebo-controlled crossover study. Lancet 2004;363(9403):119-125. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Gilliland FD, Li YF, Gong Jr. H, Diaz-Sanchez D. Glutathione s-transferases M1 and P1 prevent aggravation of allergic responses by secondhand smoke. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2006;174(12):1335-1341. R831861 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Gilliland FD, Islam T, Berhane K, Gauderman WJ, McConnell R, Avol E, Peters JM. Regular smoking and asthma incidence in adolescents. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2006;174(10):1094-1100. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Gilliland FD. Outdoor air pollution, genetic susceptibility, and asthma management: opportunities for intervention to reduce the burden of asthma. Pediatrics 2009;123(Suppl 3):S168-S173. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Gilliland F, Avol E, Kinney P, Jerrett M, Dvonch T, Lurmann F, Buckley T, Breysse P, Keeler G, de Villiers T, McConnell R. Air pollution exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies of pregnant women and children: lessons learned from the Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(10):1447-1454. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Gong Jr. H, Linn WS, Sioutas C, Terrell SL, Clark KW, Anderson KR, Terrell LL. Controlled exposures of healthy and asthmatic volunteers to concentrated ambient fine particles in Los Angeles. Inhalation Toxicology 2003;15(4):305-325. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Gong Jr. H, Linn WS, Terrell SL, Anderson KR, Clark KW, Sioutas C, Cascio WE, Alexis N, Devlin RB. Exposures of elderly volunteers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to concentrated ambient fine particulate pollution. Inhalation Toxicology 2004;16(11-12):731-744. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Gong Jr. H, Linn WS, Clark KW, Anderson KR, Geller MD, Sioutas C. Respiratory responses to exposures with fine particulates and nitrogen dioxide in the elderly with and without COPD. Inhalation Toxicology 2005;17(3):123-132. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Hall JV, Brajer V, Lurmann F. Economic valuation of ozone-related school absences in the South Coast Air Basin of California. Contemporary Economic Policy 2003;21(4):407-417. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Hricko A. Ships, trucks, and trains: effects of goods movement on environmental health. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(4):A204-A205 (guest editorial). R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Hricko A. Global trade comes home: community impacts of goods movement. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008;116(2):A78-A81. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Islam T, Gauderman WJ, Berhane K, McConnell R, Avol E, Peters JM, Gilliland FD. Relationship between air pollution, lung function and asthma in adolescents. Thorax 2007;62(11):957-963. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Islam T, McConnell R, Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Peters JM, Gilliland FD. Ozone, oxidant defense genes, and risk of asthma during adolescence. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2008;177(4):388-395. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Islam T, Berhane K, McConnell R, Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Peters JM, Gilliland FD. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) P1, GSTM1, exercise, ozone and asthma incidence in school children. Thorax 2009;64(3):197-202. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Islam T, Breton C, Salam MT, McConnell R, Wenten M, Gauderman WJ, Conti D, Van Den Berg D, Peters JM, Gilliland FD. Role of inducible nitric oxide synthase in asthma risk and lung function growth during adolescence. Thorax 2010; 65(2):139-145. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Jerrett M, Buzzelli M, Burnett RT, DeLuca PF. Particulate air pollution, social confounders, and mortality in small areas of an industrial city. Social Science & Medicine 2005;60(12):2845-2863. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Jerrett M, Arain A, Kanaroglou P, Beckerman B, Potoglou D, Sahsuvaroglu T, Morrison J, Giovis C. A review and evaluation of intraurban air pollution exposure models. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 2005;15(2):185-204. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Jerrett M, Shankardass K, Berhane K, Gauderman WJ, Künzli N, Avol E, Gilliland F, Lurmann F, Molitor JN, Molitor JT, Thomas DC, Peters J, McConnell R. Traffic-related air pollution and asthma onset in children: a prospective cohort study with individual exposure measurement. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008;116(10):1433-1438. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Kunzli N, Avol E, Wu J, Gauderman WJ, Rappaport E, Millstein J, Bennion J, McConnell R, Gilliland FD, Berhane K, Lurmann F, Winer A, Peters JM. Health effects of the 2003 Southern California wildfires on children. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2006;174(11):1221-1228. R831861C003 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Kanaroglou P, Jerrett M, Morrison J, Beckerman B, Arain A, Gilbert N, Brook J. Establishing an air pollution monitoring network for intra-urban population exposure assessment: a location-allocation approach. Atmospheric Environment 2005;39(13):2399-2409. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Kraft P, Yen YC, Stram DO, Morrison J, Gauderman WJ. Exploiting gene-environment interaction to detect genetic associations. Human Heredity 2007;63(2):111-119. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Kuenzli N, McConnell R, Bates D, Bastain TM, Hricko A, Lurmann F, Avol E, Gilliland FD, Peters JM. Breathless in Los Angeles: the exhausting search for clean air. American Journal of Public Health 2003;93(9):1494-1499. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Kuenzli N, Jerrett M, Mack WJ, Beckerman B, LaBree L, Gilliland F, Thomas D, Peters J, Hodis HN. Ambient air pollution and atherosclerosis in Los Angeles. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(2):201-206. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Kuenzli N, Schindler C. A call for reporting the relevant exposure term in air pollution case-crossover studies. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2005;59(6):527-530. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Kunzli N, Perez L, Lurmann F, Hricko A, Penfold B, McConnell R. An attributable risk model for exposures assumed to cause both chronic disease and its exacerbations. Epidemiology 2008;19(2):179-185. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Lee YL, Gilliland FD, Wang JY, Lee YC, Guo YL. Associations of FcɛRIβ E237G polymorphism with wheezing in Taiwanese schoolchildren. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 2008;38(3):413-420. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Lee YL, McConnell R, Berhane K, Gilliland FD. Ambient ozone modifies the effect of tumor necrosis factor G-308A on bronchitic symptoms among children with asthma. Allergy 2009;64(9):1342-1348. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Li Y-F, Langholz B, Salam MT, Gilliland FD. Maternal and grandmaternal smoking patterns are associated with early childhood asthma. Chest 2005;127(4):1232-1241. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Li Y-F, Tsao YH, Gauderman WJ, Conti DV, Avol E, Dubeau L, Gilliland FD. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and childhood asthma. Human Genetics 2005;117(5):476-484. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Li Y-F, Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Dubeau L, Gilliland FD. Associations of tumor necrosis factor G-308A with childhood asthma and wheezing. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2006;173(9):970-976. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Linn WS, Avila M, Gong H Jr. Exhaled nitric oxide: sources of error in offline measurement. Archives of Environmental Health 2004;59(8):385-391. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Linn WS, Rappaport EB, Berhane KT, Bastain TM, Avol EL, Gilliland FD. Exhaled nitric oxide in a population-based study of southern California schoolchildren. Respiratory Research 2009;10(1):28. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Linn WS, Berhane KT, Rappaport EB, Bastain TM, Avol EL, Gilliland FD. Relationships of online exhaled, offline exhaled, and ambient nitric oxide in an epidemiologic survey of schoolchildren. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2009;19(7):674-681. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Linn WS, Rappaport EB, Berhane KT, Bastain TM, Salam MT, Gilliland FD. Extended exhaled nitric oxide analysis in field surveys of schoolchildren: a pilot test. Pediatric Pulmonology 2009;44(10):1033-1042. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Lu R, Wu J, Turco RP, Winer AM, Atkinson R, Arey J, Paulson SE, Lurmann FW, Miguel AH, Eiguren-Fernandez A. Naphthalene distributions and human exposure in Southern California. Atmospheric Environment 2005;39(3):489-507. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article McConnell R, Jones C, Milam J, Gonzalez P, Berhane K, Clement L, Richardson J, Hanley-Lopez J, Kwong K, Maalouf N, Galvan J, Platts-Mills T. Cockroach counts and house dust allergen concentrations after professional cockroach control and cleaning. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 2003;91(6):546-552. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article McConnell R, Berhane K, Gilliland F, Molitor J, Thomas D, Lurmann F, Avol E, Gauderman WJ, Peters JM. Prospective study of air pollution and bronchitic symptoms in children with asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2003;168(7):790-797. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article McConnell R, Milam J, Richardson J, Galvan J, Jones C, Thorne PS, Berhane K. Educational intervention to control cockroach allergen exposure in the homes of hispanic children in Los Angeles: results of the La Casa study. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 2005;35(4):426-433. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article McConnell R, Berhane K, Molitor J, Gilliland F, Kunzli N, Thorne PS, Thomas D, Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Lurmann F, Rappaport E, Jerrett M, Peters JM. Dog ownership enhances symptomatic responses to air pollution in children with asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(12):1910-1915. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article McConnell R, Berhane K, Yao L, Lurmann FW, Avol E, Peters JM. Predicting residential ozone deficits from nearby traffic. Science of the Total Environment 2006;363(1-3):166-174. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article McConnell R, Berhane K, Yao L, Jerrett M, Lurmann F, Gilliland F, Kunzli N, Gauderman J, Avol E, Thomas D, Peters J. Traffic, susceptibility, and childhood asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(5):766-772. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article McConnell R, Islam T, Shankardass K, Jerrett M, Lurmann F, Gilliland F, Gauderman J, Avol E, Kunzli N, Yao L, Peters J, Berhane K. Childhood incident asthma and traffic-related air pollution at home and school. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(7):1021-1026. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Sheppard L, Wakefield JC. Comment. In: Berhane K, Gauderman WJ, Stram DO, Thomas DC. Statistical issues in studies of the long-term effects of air pollution: the Southern California Children's Health Study. Statistical Science 2004;19(3):414-449. Statistical Science 2004;19(3):438-441. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Milam J, McConnell R, Yao L, Berhane K, Jerrett M, Richardson J. Parental stress and childhood wheeze in a prospective cohort study. Journal of Asthma 2008;45(4):319-323. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Millstein J, Gilliland F, Berhane K, Gauderman WJ, McConnell R, Avol E, Rappaport EB, Peters JM. Effects of ambient air pollutants on asthma medication use and wheezing among fourth-grade school children from 12 Southern California communities enrolled in The Children's Health Study. Archives of Environmental Health 2004;59(10):505-514. R831861 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Millstein J, Siegmund KD, Conti DV, Gauderman WJ. Testing association and linkage using affected-sib-parent study designs. Genetic Epidemiology 2005;29(3):225-233. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Millstein J, Conti DV, Gilliland FD, Gauderman WJ. A testing framework for identifying susceptibility genes in the presence of epistasis. American Journal of Human Genetics 2006;78(1):15-27. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Mirabelli MC, Kunzli N, Avol E, Gilliland FD, Gauderman WJ, McConnell R, Peters JM. Respiratory symptoms following wildfire smoke exposure: airway size as a susceptibility factor. Epidemiology 2009;20(3):451-459. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Molitor J, Molitor N-T, Jerrett M, McConnell R, Gauderman J, Berhane K, Thomas D. Bayesian modeling of air pollution health effects with missing exposure data. American Journal of Epidemiology 2006;164(1):69-76. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Molitor J, Jerrett M, Chang CC, Molitor NT, Gauderman J, Berhane K, McConnell R, Lurmann F, Wu J, Winer A, Thomas D. Assessing uncertainty in spatial exposure models for air pollution health effects assessment. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007;115(8):1147-1153. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Mueller-Anneling L, Avol E, Peters JM, Thorne PS. Ambient endotoxin concentrations in PM10 from Southern California. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(5):583-588. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Murcray CE, Lewinger JP, Gauderman WJ. Gene-environment interaction in genome-wide association studies. American Journal of Epidemiology 2009;169(2):219-226. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Perez L, Kunzli N, Avol E, Hricko AM, Lurmann F, Nicholas E, Gilliland F, Peters J, McConnell R. Global goods movement and the local burden of childhood asthma in southern California. American Journal of Public Health 2009;99(Suppl 3):S622-S628. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Richardson JL, Milam JE, Galvan J, Jones C, McConnell R. Knowledge of skin test results among parents of asthmatic children. Journal of Asthma 2004;41(2):199-204. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Riedl MA, Landaw EM, Saxon A, Diaz-Sanchez D. Initial high-dose nasal allergen exposure prevents allergic sensitization to a neoantigen. Journal of Immunology 2005;174(11):7440-7445. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Riedl MA, Saxon A, Diaz-Sanchez D. Oral sulforaphane increases Phase II antioxidant enzymes in the human upper airway. Clinical Immunology 2009;130(3):244-251. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Riedl M, Diaz-Sanchez D. Biology of diesel exhaust effects on respiratory function. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2005;115(2):221-228. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Ritz SA, Wan J, Diaz-Sanchez D. Sulforaphane-stimulated phase II enzyme induction inhibits cytokine production by airway epithelial cells stimulated with diesel extract. American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 2007;292(1):L33-L39. R831861 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Rondeau V, Berhane K, Thomas DC. A three-level model for binary time-series data: the effects of air pollution on school absences in the Southern California Children's Health Study. Statistics in Medicine 2005;24(7):1103-1115. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Ross Z, English PB, Scalf R, Gunier R, Smorodinsky S, Wall S, Jerrett M. Nitrogen dioxide prediction in Southern California using land use regression modeling: potential for environmental health analyses. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2006;16(2):106-114. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Salam MT, Li Y-F, Langholz B, Gilliland FD. Early-life environmental risk factors for asthma:findings from the Children's Health Study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(6):760-765. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Salam MT, Li Y-F, Langholz B, Gilliland FD. Maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and risk of childhood asthma. Journal of Asthma 2005;42(6):513-518. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Salam MT, Millstein J, Li YF, Lurmann FW, Margolis HG, Gilliland FD. Birth outcomes and prenatal exposure to ozone, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter: results from the Children's Health Study. Environment Health Perspectives 2005;113(11):1638-1644. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Salam MT, Wenten M, Gilliland FD. Endogenous and exogenous sex steroid hormones and asthma and wheeze in young women. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2006;117(5):1001-1007. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Salam MT, Margolis HG, McConnell R, McGregor JA, Avol EL, Gilliland FD. Mode of delivery is associated with asthma and allergy occurrences in children. Annals of Epidemiology 2006;16(5):341-346. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Salam MT, Gauderman WJ, McConnell R, Lin PC, Gilliland FD. Transforming growth factor-β1 C-509T polymorphism, oxidant stress, and early-onset childhood asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2007;176(12):1192-1199. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Salam MT, Lin PC, Avol EL, Gauderman WJ, Gilliland FD. Microsomal epoxide hydrolase, glutathione S-transferase P1, traffic and childhood asthma. Thorax 2007;62(12):1050-1057. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Salam MT, Islam T, Gilliland FD. Recent evidence for adverse effects of residential proximity to traffic sources on asthma. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine 2008;14(1):3-8. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Salam MT, Islam T, Gauderman WJ, Gilliland FD. Roles of arginase variants, atopy, and ozone in childhood asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2009;123(3):596-602. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Salam MT, Bastain TM, Rappaport EB, Islam T, Berhane K, Gauderman WJ, Gilliland FD. Genetic variations in nitric oxide synthase and arginase influence exhaled nitric oxide levels in children. Allergy 2011;66(3):412-419. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Sawant AA, Cocker III DR, Miller JW, Taliaferro T, Diaz-Sanchez D, Linn WS, Clark KW, Gong Jr. H. Generation and characterization of diesel exhaust in a facility for controlled human exposures. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2008;58(6):829-837. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Saxon A, Diaz-Sanchez D. Air pollution and allergy: you are what you breathe. Nature Immunology 2005;6(3):223-226. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Schlesinger RB, Kunzli N, Hidy GM, Gotschi T, Jerrett M. The health relevance of ambient particulate matter characteristics:coherence of toxicological and epidemiological inferences. Inhalation Toxicology 2006;18(2):95-125. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Shankardass K, McConnell RS, Milam J, Berhane K, Tatalovich Z, Wilson JP, Jerrett M. The association between contextual socioeconomic factors and prevalent asthma in a cohort of Southern California school children. Social Science & Medicine 2007;65(8):1792-1806. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Stram DO. Designs for studies of personal exposure to air pollution and the impact of measurement error. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 2005;68(13-14):1181-1187. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Stram DO. Software for tag single nucleotide polymorphism selection. Human Genomics 2005;2(2):144-151. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Thomas DC. The need for a systematic approach to complex pathways in molecular epidemiology. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 2005;14(3):557-559. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Thomas DC, Haile RW, Duggan D. Recent developments in genomewide association scans: a workshop summary and review. American Journal of Human Genetics 2005;77(3):337-345. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Thomas DC, Witte JS, Greenland S. Dissecting effects of complex mixtures: who's afraid of informative priors? Epidemiology 2007;18(2):186-190. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Thomas D, Xie R, Gebregziabher M. Two-stage sampling designs for gene association studies. Genetic Epidemiology 2004;27(4):401-414. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Thomas D. Why do estimates of the acute and chronic effects of air pollution on mortality differ? Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 2005;68(13-14):1167-1174. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Thomas DC, Jerrett M, Kuenzli N, Louis TA, Dominici F, Zeger S, Schwartz J, Burnett RT, Krewski D, Bates D. Bayesian model averaging in time-series studies of air pollution and mortality. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health-Part A 2007;70(3-4):311-315. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Thorne PS, Metwali N, Avol E, McConnell RS. Surface sampling for endotoxin assessment using electrostatic wiping cloths. Annals of Occupational Hygiene 2005;49(5):401-406. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Wan J, Diaz-Sanchez D. Phase II enzymes induction blocks the enhanced IgE production in B cells by diesel exhaust particles. Journal of Immunology 2006;177(5):3477-3483. R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Wan J, Diaz-Sanchez D. Antioxidant enzyme induction: a new protective approach against the adverse effects of diesel exhaust particles. Inhalation Toxicology 2007;19(Suppl 1):177-182. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Wang C, Salam MT, Islam T, Wenten M, Gauderman WJ, Gilliland FD. Effects of in utero and childhood tobacco smoke exposure and beta2-adrenergic receptor genotype on childhood asthma and wheezing. Pediatrics 2008;122(1):e107-e114. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Wenten M, Berhane K, Rappaport EB, Avol E, Tsai WW, Gauderman WJ, McConnell R, Dubeau L, Gilliland FD. TNF-308 modifies the effect of second-hand smoke on respiratory illness-related school absences. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2005;172(12):1563-1568. R831861 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Wenten M, Gauderman WJ, Berhane K, Lin PC, Peters J, Gilliland FD. Functional variants in the catalase and myeloperoxidase genes, ambient air pollution, and respiratory-related school absences: an example of epistasis in gene-environment interactions. American Journal of Epidemiology 2009;170(12):1494-1501. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Wenten M, Li YF, Lin PC, Gauderman WJ, Berhane K, Avol E, Gilliland FD. In utero smoke exposure, glutathione S-transferase P1 haplotypes, and respiratory illness-related absence among schoolchildren. Pediatrics 2009;123(5):1344-1351. R831861 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Westerdahl D, Fruin SA, Fine PL, Sioutas C. The Los Angeles International Airport as a source of ultrafine particles and other pollutants to nearby communities. Atmospheric Environment 2008;42(13):3143-3155. R831861 (2005)
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    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Wu J, Lurmann F, Winer A, Lu R, Turco R, Funk T. Development of an individual exposure model for application to the Southern California Children's Health Study. Atmospheric Environment 2005;39(2):259-273. R831861 (2004)
    R831861 (2005)
    R831861 (Final)
    R831861C001 (Final)
    R831861C002 (Final)
    R831861C003 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C015 (Final)
    R828172 (Final)
    R831845 (2005)
  • Full-text: Science Direct-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Science Direct-Abstract
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  • Other: Science Direct-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Wu J, Funk T, Lurmann F, Winer A. Improving spatial accuracy of roadway networks and geocoded addresses. Transactions in GIS 2005;9(4):585-601. R831861 (2005)
    R831861 (Final)
    R831861C001 (Final)
    R831861C002 (Final)
    R831861C003 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C015 (Final)
    R831845 (2005)
  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Xie B, Gilliland FD, Li Y-F, Rockett HRH. Effects of ethnicity, family income, and education on dietary intake among adolescents. Preventive Medicine 2003;36(1):30-40. R831861 (2004)
    R831861 (2005)
    R826708 (2000)
    R826708 (2001)
    R826708 (2002)
    R826708 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    Air, airway disease, allergen, ambient particle pollution, asthma, automotive emissions, automotive exhaust, biochemistry, childhood respiratory disease, children, children's environmental health, children's health, community, community-based intervention, engine exhaust, environmental management, health, health effects, health risk assessment, human health, human health risk assessment, mobile sources, outreach and education, respiratory problems, RFA, risk assessment, scientific discipline, susceptibility, RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, Air, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, HUMAN HEALTH, Health Risk Assessment, mobile sources, Biochemistry, Health Effects, Children's Health, Risk Assessment, asthma, engine exhaust, traffic, community-based intervention, airway disease, respiratory problems, automotive emissions, Human Health Risk Assessment, automotive exhaust, childhood respiratory disease, susceptibility, ambient particle pollution, children's environmental health, outreach and education

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2004 Progress Report
  • 2005 Progress Report
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • Final Report
  • Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R831861C001 Urban Air Pollution and Persistent Early Life Asthma
    R831861C002 Pollution-Enhanced Allergic Inflammation and Phase II Enzymes
    R831861C003 Air Pollution, Exhaled Breath Markers, and Asthma in Susceptible Children