2006 Progress Report: Epidemiological Studies on Extra Pulmonary Effects of Fresh and Aged Urban Aerosols from Different SourcesEPA Grant Number: R832415C002
Subproject: this is subproject number 002 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R832415
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
Center: Rochester PM Center
Center Director: Oberdörster, Günter
Title: Epidemiological Studies on Extra Pulmonary Effects of Fresh and Aged Urban Aerosols from Different Sources
Investigators: Peters, Annette , Utell, Mark J. , Wichmann, Heinz-Erich
Current Investigators: Peters, Annette , Breitner, Susanne , Henneberger, Alexandra , Phipps, Richard , Rückerl, Regina , Stoelzel, M , Utell, Mark J. , Wichmann, Heinz-Erich , Zareba, Wojciech
Institution: GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health , Ludwig Maximilian University , University of Rochester
Current Institution: GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health , University of Rochester
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2010 (Extended to September 30, 2012)
Project Period Covered by this Report: October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006
RFA: Particulate Matter Research Centers (2004) RFA Text | Recipients Lists
Research Category: Health Effects , Air
Our objective is to evaluate the role of key components of urban aerosol on acute phase reaction and prothrombotic states in the blood, endothelial dysfunction, cardiac function, and classical cardiovascular risk factors in susceptible subgroups. We will focus on determining the effects of fresh ultrafine particles from specific sources such as traffic as well as aged aerosols in the accumulation mode, which are mixtures of particles from different sources and secondary aerosols. We hypothesize that the following subgroups are susceptible to effects of ambient fine and ultrafine particles compared to control subjects: (1) patients with coronary artery disease during rehabilitation (Group A); (2) diabetics (Group B); (3) subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or obesity (Group C); (4) individuals with enhanced inflammatory responses due to genetic polymorphisms in inflammation regulating pathways and/or in detoxifying pathways (Group D).
In Rochester, 75 patients taking part in a cardiac rehabilitation program will be studied (Group A). Patients from an active cardiac rehabilitation program within the University of Rochester Medical Center are offered enrollment in the health effects study as they enter the Cardiac Rehabilitation program. These are patients who have had a recent coronary event such as myocardial infarction or unstable angina leading to coronary stenting. The program involves supervised, graded twice or thrice weekly exercise sessions for a total of 12 weeks. As part of the rehabilitation protocol, vital signs and a standard 12 lead EKG will be performed. In addition to the regularly electrophysiologically monitored exercise of the rehabilitation program, subjects will undergo 3-lead Holter ECG recordings performed and analyzed by the Cardiac Core allowing evaluation of a series of ECG parameters at rest, during exercise, and during immediate post-exercise period. Venous blood samples will be obtained once per week and analyzed by the Vascular & Inflammation Core for acute phase reactants (fibrinogen and C-reactive protein) previously found to vary with ultrafine particle exposure, as well as complete blood counts. Concurrently, ultrafine particle number and particle mass will be measured continuously at a central measuring site in downtown Rochester in association with Characterization and Source Apportionment Core. Other U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Criteria Pollutants are also measured in downtown Rochester. In addition, in a subset of study participants, we will record particle number counts using a portable condensation nuclei counter combined with a diary. Ultrafine particle numbers will be monitored in the car to and from the Rehabilitation Center and in the home between visits to the rehabilitation facility. Levels of ambient ultrafine and fine particles will then be associated with health data from the cardiac rehabilitation panel study.
In the past few months, the research proposal was approved both by the University of Rochester Institutional Review Board (IRB) and the EPA human studies review. Recruitment has been initiated and 2 patients have been enrolled. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) were developed, and a site visit by the quality assurance officer revealed adequate maintenance procedures and satisfactory quality assurance measures.
In Augsburg, panel studies enrolling a total of 240 subjects will be conducted including 80 subjects per group (Groups B–D). A random sample of the population of Augsburg will be screened for genetic predispositions for enhanced inflammatory responses and slower detoxification pathways to select participants with genetic polymorphisms as well as healthy controls. In a sub-study, data on 24 hour ECG Holter monitoring, a time-activity diary including traffic exposures and stress level, and continuous personal exposure to the total particle number concentrations will be collected in 30 participants of each group. Outcome measures will be determined by the Vascular & Inflammation Core, and ECG parameters will be provided by the Cardiac Core. The number concentration of ultra fine particles, particle size distributions, and continuous particle mass measurements are conducted in Rochester, NY. Ambient air pollution in Augsburg will include continuous particle mass measurements, particle size distributions separated into volatile and non-volatile fractions, particle surface, elemental and organic carbon, sulfates, and nitrates. Particulate matter (PM) associated oxidative stress will be measured in Rochester by the Aerosol Generation and Analysis Core. In collaboration with Characterization and Source Apportionment Core source apportionment analyses will be conducted.
In Augsburg, a central measurement site was set up to measure continuous particle mass measurements, particle size distributions separated into volatile and non-volatile fractions, particle surface, elemental and organic carbon, sulfates, and nitrates. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) were developed and a site visit by the quality assurance officer revealed adequate maintenance procedures and satisfactory quality assurance measures. The study protocols for the field phase of the epidemiological study are being developed. Existing questionnaires were revised and modified and SOPs were adopted for the new study. A pilot phase was conducted including 87 subjects in June 2006 testing the baseline examination and, in particular, the measurements of the endothelial dysfunction using an Endopath measurement device. Pilot data revealed large variability in the endothelial dysfunction measurements and the need for further standardization. In particular, the necessity to conduct measurements at fasting levels in subjects with glucose metabolisms abnormalities became apparent. Therefore, repeated measurements do not seem to be feasible in Groups B and C. In addition, the data analyses for a large study on myocardial infarction survivors within six European cities showed that myocardial infarction survivors might be nowadays protected against the induction of an acute phase response monitored by C-reactive protein by treatment with statins. We therefore now consider including subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or obesity instead of myocardial infarction survivors in our studies. This new group has been implicated to be vulnerable to ambient air pollution and may be better suited to observe early physiological changes in subjects who are not yet treated with highly efficient anti-inflammatory medication. The sub-study on personal monitoring of ultrafine particles and the stress diary has been piloted. These data are currently being analyzed and will form the basis for the finalization of the study protocols.
In Rochester, recruitment into the cardiac rehabilitation study will continue and is expected to be conducted over a 24-month period. The personal monitoring of the study will start in the fall 2006. In Augsburg, study materials will be revised based on the results of the pilot phase. Training and certification of the nurse examiners will start in September 2006. Field phase for the epidemiological study will start in October 2006 and is anticipated to be conducted over a 24-month period until September 2008.
Journal Articles on this Report : 2 Displayed | Download in RIS Format
|Other subproject views:||All 19 publications||18 publications in selected types||All 18 journal articles|
|Other center views:||All 190 publications||156 publications in selected types||All 143 journal articles|
||Pitz M, Birmili W, Schmid O, Peters A, Wichmann HE, Cyrys J. Quality control and quality assurance for particle size distribution measurements at an urban monitoring station in Augsburg, Germany. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 2008;10(9):1017-1024.||
||Yue W, Stolzel M, Cyrys J, Pitz M, Heinrich J, Kreyling WG, Wichmann H-E, Peters A, Wang S, Hopke PK. Source apportionment of ambient fine particle size distribution using positive matrix factorization in Erfurt, Germany. Science of the Total Environment 2008;398(1-3):133-144.||
Supplemental Keywords:air pollution, cardiac function, diabetes, electrocardiogram, epidemiology, fine particles, gene-environment interactions, inflammation, panel studies, ultrafine particles,, RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, PHYSICAL ASPECTS, Air, particulate matter, Health Risk Assessment, Epidemiology, Risk Assessments, Physical Processes, atmospheric particulate matter, atmospheric particles, long term exposure, acute cardiovascular effects, airway disease, exposure, human exposure, ambient particle health effects, atmospheric aerosol particles, PM, aersol particles, cardiovascular disease
Progress and Final Reports:Original Abstract
Main Center Abstract and Reports:R832415 Rochester PM Center
Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
R832415C001 Characterization and Source Apportionment
R832415C002 Epidemiological Studies on Extra Pulmonary Effects of Fresh and Aged Urban Aerosols from Different Sources
R832415C003 Human Clinical Studies of Concentrated Ambient Ultrafine and Fine Particles
R832415C004 Animal models: Cardiovascular Disease, CNS Injury and Ultrafine Particle Biokinetics
R832415C005 Ultrafine Particle Cell Interactions In Vitro: Molecular Mechanisms Leading To Altered Gene Expression in Relation to Particle Composition