Final Report: PM Characterization and Exposure Assessment (Project 2)

EPA Grant Number: R832417C002
Subproject: this is subproject number 002 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R832417
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center
Center Director: Samet, Jonathan M.
Title: PM Characterization and Exposure Assessment (Project 2)
Investigators: Geyh, Alison , Breysse, Patrick N. , Chillrud, Steven , Datta, Saugatta , Han, Inkyu , Ondov, John M. , Ramos-Bonilla, Juan , Rule, Ana
Institution: The Johns Hopkins University , Kansas State University , Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory , University of Maryland
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2010
RFA: Particulate Matter Research Centers (2004) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Health Effects , Air

Objective:

The focus of Project 2 is the measurement of specific chemical components and physical characteristics of PM collected from different areas of the country  in support of the Center focus, which is assessing characteristics of PM that determine toxicity.  The goals of Project 2 are to collect bulk PM samples for use in biological assays and for detailed characterization including mass, inorganic ions, elemental carbon and organic compounds, specifically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ,  and elemental metals and their oxides, as well as platinum group elements. We will also collect information on the distribution of particle size.  The objectives of Project 2 include: 1) the development of methods for collecting bulk ambient PM, and a system for characterizing the chemical and physical properties of ambient PM; and 2) the identification of specific regional differences in PM characteristics that may contribute to differential biological responses demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo bioassay systems.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

I.  Introduction

The rationale for this project is based on the conclusion that “[t]he diversity of PM characteristics and the array of possible health effects define a potentially large and complex matrix for investigation; in fact different features of particles might be relevant to different health outcomes” (NRC 2004) As a result we proposed to assess the specific chemical components and physical characteristics of particulate matter (PM) from samples taken in different areas of the country. These locations have been selected based on a gradient of estimated risks to health. Specifically, we proposed to develop a new method for collecting bulk PM for use in biological assays; to develop a portable system for the characterization of chemical and physical properties of ambient PM; and to identify specific regional differences in PM characteristics that may contribute to differential biological responses in in vitro and in vivo bioassay systems.  This report will describe activities carried out by Project 2 (PI.Patrick Breysse) and the PM Characterization, Sampling and Analysis Core (PI Alison Geyh) since funding, giving emphasis to progress during the past year.  The overall goal of developing a PM monitoring and collection approach and then deploying it at the sites identified through the Project 1 analyses has been accomplished.

II.  PM Monitoring

PM Monitoring and locations: Monitoring locations identified by Project 1 are found in Table 1.

 
County/locations monitored during the YR5 project period include Jefferson KY, Allegheny PA, and Queens NY, which concludes our monitoring effort.
 
Table 1 summarizes the status of the field monitoring effort to date.
 
Table 1. Monitoring Schedule
Order
County (Sample ID)
Start Date
End Date
1
King, WA (SEA)
October 25, 2007
December 1, 2007
2
Sacramento CA (SAC)
January 12, 2008
March 13, 2008
3
Maricopa AZ (PHX)
June 1, 2008
July 20, 2008
4
Hennepin  MN (MSP)
September 15, 2008
October 30, 2008
5
Harris TX (HOU)
January 11, 2008
February 20, 2009
6
Pinellas FL (TSP)
April 13, 2009
May 31, 2009
7
Jefferson KY** (LOU)
August 3, 2009
September 14, 2009
8
Allegheny PA** (PIT)
October 12, 2009
November 21, 2009
9
Queens NY** (NYC)
November 13, 2009
December 18, 2009
 
** Completed in year 5
 
Jefferson County KY:  The negotiation for a monitoring site in Jefferson KY and the justification for selecting this site were described in detail in our previous progress report. The monitoring site selected was located behind Bates Elementary School. Drs. Han and Geyh, and Ms. Mihalic began site set up July 29, 2009. Site setup took 4 days.  Ms. Polyak and Ms. Mihalic were responsible for site management. The site was shutdown and packed for shipment to Pittsburgh PA by Drs. Rule and Geyh on September 14, 2009.
 
Allegheny County PA:   The negotiation for a monitoring site in Allegheny county PA was initiated on November 2008, through Dr. Allen Robinson at Carnegie Mellon University, who contacted us with Mr. Darrel Stern at the Allegheny County health department. Mr. Stern had forewarned us that the county did not have available inside space in any of their operating monitoring sites, but we were offered three monitoring sites that had recently been discontinued.  Drs. Breysse and Rule traveled to Pittsburgh on July 13 to meet with Mr. Stern and choose a site where space and power would be adequate to house our instruments.  All three sites were located in residential areas, but were overgrown by weeds and were impossible to assess with a close inspection. Only one of the sites was deemed adequate for our purposes, and was located on a safe area. The site was located next to a baseball field, and consisted of a small trailer housing a met station. The outside fenced space was too small for our instruments, but we were given permission to temporarily extend the fence into the adjacent empty grassy area and were assured there would be enough power. As with other sites, some paperwork had to be obtained, in this case a Certificate of Insurance naming the City of Pittsburgh as an additional insured to protect them from liability. The certificate was obtained by Dr. Geyh through our Legal office. We contracted to have temporary fencing installed to extend the boundary around the trailer to accommodate the cyclones and filter samplers. Drs. Geyh and Rule began site setup October 12, 2009. Unfortunately, power was found to be insufficient for all our instruments, and a decision had to be made to only install the integrated samplers (cyclones and filter collectors). Sampling commenced October 15, 2009. Due to the reduced setup and proximity to Baltimore, team members (Ms. Mihalic, Ms. Polyak. Dr. Geyh and Dr. Han) took turns to go once a week to collect samples and perform calibration. Drs. Han and Rule dismantled the site on November 21 for shipment to Baltimore.
 
Queens County NY: Negotiation for a monitoring site in Queens county NY was initiated by Mr. Dirk Felton on August 2009. As part of the negotiations, Dr. Chilrud helped find somebody from Queens College that could perform daily equipment checks and collect weekly samples. On October 20, 2009 Drs. Rule and Breysse traveled to New York to meet with Dr. Steve Chilrud and Mr. James Ross, who drove them to meet with Mr. David Wheeler and Mr. Mike Chirstopherson of the NY State Dept of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) and with Mr. Kale Clauson from Queens College. The monitoring station currently in operation had no room available to set up the JHPMRC equipment. However, the site where the monitoring station had previously been located, located across from an athletic complex in the roof of an elementary School had ample power and room available, and was deemed appropriate after the site visit. Site set up consisted of only the integrated samplers, as time-resolved data from the NYSDEC monitoring station could complement our data from this site. Setup was the responsibility of Drs. Rule and Han, and commenced November 12th with monitoring starting November 13. Daily checks were performed by Mr. Kale Clauson. Weekly sample collection and calibration was performed by Mr. James Ross. Drs. Rule and Han dismantled the site on December 18 2009.
 
Yields for bulk PM collected from deployment of the HSCS are reported in Table 2.
 
Table 2.  Bulk PM mass results to date
Site (County)
Coarse PM (mg)
Fine  (mg)
King
89
705
Sacramento
111
397
Maricopa
1181
1510
Hennepin
291
822
Harris
658
1266
Pinellas
449
837
Louisville
348
867.3
Allegheny
274
1149
Queens
137
401
 
III. Data Management
 
Details of Project 2 data management have been described previously. To date, all data files generated by the continuous instruments have been reviewed for problems, processed and uploaded to the project 2 database. In addition, analytical results from all filter based and bulk samples to date have been incorporated to the data base. Refer to Table 3.
 
IV. PM Characterization
 
Table 3 contains the analyses that have been completed to date:
 
Table 3.  Bulk PM mass: results to date
Analysis
Sample analyzed
SAC
PHX
MSP
HOU
TSP
LOU
PIT
NYC
Anion analysis for bulk
coarse and fine
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
Total metals analysis for bulk
coarse and fine
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
Soluble metals analysis for bulk
coarse and fine
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
Insoluble metals analysis for bulk
coarse and fine
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
Total metals analysis for filter
PM10 and PM2.5
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
EC/OC analysis for filter
PMASS PM2.5
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
EC/OC analysis for bulk
coarse and fine
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
Pt group metals analysis for bulk
coarse and fine
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
Pt group metals analysis for filter
PM10 and PM2.5
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
Oxidation state data from synchrotron
coarse and fine
P
P
P
P
P
N/A
N/A
N/A
 PAH analysis for  bulk
coarse and fine
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
PAH analysis for filters
PMASS PM2.5
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P = Pending. To be completed by 08-31-2010
 
Subcontracts
Pt - Group Element and PAH Analysis (Work conducted at LDEO-CU: Steven Chillrud, James Ross and Beizhan Yan)
 
The aims of the LDEO subcontract are to carryout measurements of platinum group elements and trace organics on samples collected by Project 2 of the Johns Hopkins PM Center.  In addition, we collaborate on the experiments on PM samples at the National Light Source at Brookhaven National Labs.
 
PGE analyses- We have completed extraction and analysis of PGEs for all filter samples and for both the bulk and fine PM from all cities. A poster of this work was presented Oct-09 at the AAAR meeting in San Diego CA, and a paper describing the results is in preparation.
 
Organic Analyses - Two-dimensional gas chromatography was successfully established to separate saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, and other organic pollutants.
Coarse, fine, and composite filter samples collected from every site were extracted using CH2Cl2, and purified and determined by Varian GC/MS/MS. Analyses of alkylated and hyroxylated PAHs from these cities were also completed. A poster of this work was presented Oct-09 at the AAAR meeting in San Diego CA, and a paper describing the results is in preparation.
 
Oxidation States and Coordination Chemistry  (Work conducted at the Synchrotron National Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Saugata Datta (KSU), Steve Chillrud (LDEO), Ana Rule and Jana Mihalic (JHU).  
 
During year 5, the remaining bulk PM samples were assessed for  Mn, Fe and Cr oxidation states by EXAFS and XANES. The focus of this year’s work was to finalize characterization of Mn composition in the bulk samples and the analysis of additional Mn, Cr and Fe standards to complement our library of model spectra. Quantification of oxidation states was accomplished using Athena software and Principles of Linear Combination Fitting. A poster of this work was presented Oct-09 at the AAAR meeting in San Diego CA, and a paper has been submitted to Atmospheric Environment.
 
Source apportionment: (Work conducted at the University of Maryland by Dr. John Ondov)
 
Dr. Ondov is using publicly available emissions data to generate maps of sources that potentially account for the PM found in each of our monitoring locations. In addition, he is conducting chemical mass balance analysis using source profiles from EPA’s Speciate 4 database and data collected by us.  The purpose of these analyses is to provide an explanation for the source of PM components found at the different locations.    
 
Delivery of bulk PM to Project 3.   Project 3 has received bulk fine PM from every county.   
 


Journal Articles on this Report : 2 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 13 publications 2 publications in selected types All 2 journal articles
Other center views: All 89 publications 66 publications in selected types All 64 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Han I, Ramos-Bonilla JP, Rule AM, Mihalic JN, Polyak LM, Breysse PN, Geyh AS. Comparison of spatial and temporal variations in p-PAH, BC, and p-PAH/BC ratio in six US counties. Atmospheric Environment 2011;45(40):7644-7652. R832417 (Final)
R832417C002 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Ramos-Bonilla JP, Breysse PN, Dominici F, Geyh A, Tankersley CG. Ambient air pollution alters heart rate regulation in aged mice. Inhalation Toxicology 2010;22(4):330-339. R832417 (Final)
    R832417C002 (Final)
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  • Abstract: Taylor and Francis-Abstract
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    Bulk particle collection, particle characterization, metals speciation,  polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, anions, RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, PHYSICAL ASPECTS, Air, particulate matter, Health Risk Assessment, Epidemiology, Risk Assessments, Physical Processes, atmospheric particulate matter, atmospheric particles, long term exposure, acute cardiovascular effects, airway disease, exposure, human exposure, ambient particle health effects, atmospheric aerosol particles, ultrafine particulate matter, aersol particles, particulate matter components, cardiovascular disease

    Relevant Websites:

    www.jhsph.edu/particulate_matterexit EPA

     

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2006 Progress Report
  • 2007 Progress Report
  • 2008 Progress Report
  • 2009 Progress Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R832417    Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R832417C001 Estimation of the Risks to Human Health of PM and PM Components
    R832417C002 PM Characterization and Exposure Assessment (Project 2)
    R832417C003 Biological Assessment of the Toxicity of PM and PM Components