Final Report: Project 3 -- Inhalation Exposure Assessment of San Joaquin Valley Aerosol

EPA Grant Number: R832414C003
Subproject: this is subproject number 003 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R832414
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC)
Center Director: Wexler, Anthony S.
Title: Project 3 -- Inhalation Exposure Assessment of San Joaquin Valley Aerosol
Investigators: Pinkerton, Kent E. , Kleeman, Michael J.
Institution: University of California - Davis
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2010 (Extended to September 30, 2011)
RFA: Particulate Matter Research Centers (2004) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Health Effects , Air

Objective:

Epidemiological evidence suggests that the association between cardiac mortality and PM10 concentrations changes between the summer and winter months in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). This shift likely is caused by seasonal variation in the size and composition distribution of airborne particles. This project will perform inhalation exposure and particle characterization studies at rural and urban locations in different seasons to quantify the features of the airborne particles that are associated with adverse health effects.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

Progress by Specific Aim

1. Differences in particle concentration, size distribution, and composition that occur as a function of season and location in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) result in different health outcomes; these outcomes can be detected during inhalation exposure experiments.

A total of 14 field measurement and exposure studies in the SJV were completed during the course of our studies. Twelve studies were conducted in two urban sites located in Fresno, CA (500 East Shaw Avenue) and Sacramento, CA from 2006 to 2011, as well as rural sites located at Parlier, Tulare and Westside, CA during summer and winter seasons. Two studies were completed in Davis, CA. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, male C57/BL6 and male Balbc mice were exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). Animals typically were exposed for up to 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks. Fine/ultrafine ambient particles were collected and concentrated onsite using a Versatile Aerosol Concentrator Enhancement System (VACES).

CAPs samples collected for all studies during each exposure were analyzed for chemical composition. As a simple example of the analysis performed, size and composition analysis of airborne particulate matter samples collected during the first four experiments demonstrated organic carbon (OC) to be the dominant PM1.8 species during the summertime and NO32- the dominant species in the wintertime. Total number concentrations were larger during the summer sampling events. Fresh ~0.1 µm particles were emitted directly from combustion sources at the Fresno site from 9am-12pm each day while number concentrations at Westside were dominated by nucleation events that ultimately produced particles in the 0.2 – 0.3 µm size range. Most PM1.8 and PM 0.1 metal concentrations were greater during the summer events than the winter events for both sampling sites. PM1.8 Br, Cu, K, P, Sn, Sb, S, and Zn concentrations were greater at the urban Fresno site than the rural Westside site with most of these species having size distribution peaks in the 0.1 – 1 µm range. The urban site exhibited enrichment (12% - 17%) of As and Se in PM0.1 relative to PM1.8 while the rural site exhibited enrichment (11% - 30%) of K, Fe, Rb, and Ca in the PM0.1 size fraction.

The effect of temperature on the volatility of molecular markers used in source apportionment studies also was examined in detail. Two sampling legs were used to collect airborne particulate matter on quartz fiber filters. The first sampling leg operated at ambient temperature while the second sampling leg operated at ~8oC above ambient temperature. Several molecular markers used for the source apportionment of motor vehicle exhaust exhibited significant volatility during some of the sampling events.

Figure 1 illustrates that elemental carbon (EC) and OC are identical in ambient and heated sampling legs. Likewise, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations do not exhibit significant volatility at increased temperatures, but hopanes and steranes used as molecular markers for motor oil exhibit significant volatility at increased temperatures. These findings have implications for the use of hopanes and steranes in source apportionment calculations.

Figure 1. These findings have been published (please see publications) or are in the process of being prepared for submission to scientific, peer-reviewed journals.

2. The increased toxicity of airborne particles during the winter season in the SJV is associated with increased concentrations of ultrafine carbon particles.

A multi-pronged approach was applied in all CAPs studies to examine the cardiopulmonary consequences of particle exposure, i.e., using both whole body to 1) evaluate cellular and inflammatory indicators in the lungs by bronchopulmonary lavage and cytokine measurements, 2) measure vascular components in platelets and other blood elements, 3) examine heart tissues directly for histopathology and 4) measure neurological changes in gene expression for pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Analysis of the PM0.1 size fraction collected during all experiments conducted in Fresno, Parlier, Tulare and Westside, CA, has been performed. Work in Fresno and Westside demonstrated that ultrafine EC concentrations were three times higher at Fresno (urban site) than at Westside (rural site). A consistent seasonal signal was not apparent for any of our studies. Ultrafine OC concentrations were comparable at all sites and seasons, likely because of the partial ban on woodburning in the SJV that has been implemented. We concluded if ultrafine EC drives negative health effects, then the Fresno PM samples should exhibit greater toxicity than the Westside samples. If ultrafine OC drives negative health effects, then the toxicity of all samples may appear similar. We found in our studies that Westside particles appeared to demonstrate greater relative toxicity than Fresno PM (Plummer, et al., 2012 – please see publications).

3. The increased toxicity of airborne particles in the SJV during the winter season is associated with increased concentrations of accumulation mode ammonium/nitrate/sulfate particles.

Ambient and CAPs concentrations for the summer and winter seasons in Fresno and Westside are shown in the table below. RAAS represents the average ambient concentration of particles, while CAPs represents the enhanced concentration of particles to which the mice were exposed. The enhancement factor of ambient particles using the Virtual Aerosol Concentrator Exposure System (VACES) also is shown in the table below.

 

Fresno

West Side

Summer

Winter

Summer

Winter

Week 1

Week 2

Week 1

Week 2

Week 1

Week 2

Week 1

Week 2

RAAS (µg/m3)

18.551

21.245

23.667

10.981

7.542

11.523

15.389

14.736

CAPS (µg/m3)

207.222

360.556

129.630

97.222

106.481

145.370

88.889

82.407

Concentration Factor

11.170

16.971

5.477

8.853

14.119

12.616

5.776

5.592

The chemical speciation for the Fresno and Westside summer and winter studies is shown in the pie graphs for nitrates, sulfates, ammonium ions and other elements. As expected, the concentration of accumulation mode nitrate and sulfate is much larger in winter samples than in summer samples. Sulfate concentrations are consistently ~1 µg m-3 except for Fresno summer, which had a sulfate concentration approximately twice as large.

4. The health effects of San Joaquin Valley aerosol can be related directly to the emissions source of the fine and ultrafine particles.

Studies were designed to examine the pattern of the inflammatory response in the lungs and blood of mice progressively exposed to urban PM. Concurrent monitoring of PM concentration and chemical composition provided data for assessment of physicochemical parameters in the context of biologic responses. Male Balb/C mice inhaled concentrated ambient particulate matter (CAPs) for 6 hours/day for 3, 6, 9 and 12 days in Fresno, CA. Markers of pulmonary and cardiovascular inflammation, cell damage and cytotoxicity were measured 24 hours post-exposure. CAPs inhalation produced a duration-dependent inflammatory response in lungs and blood of healthy mice that was significantly influenced by particle mass concentration and chemical composition. These findings strongly demonstrate the importance of understanding the progressive impacts of particle inhalation on inflammation, a risk factor for pulmonary and cardiovascular disease development and exacerbation.

Conclusions:

Strong evidence exists for associations between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and adverse cardiopulmonary health effects. Numerous epidemiological studies have correlated increases in ambient PM mass concentration with increased incidence of emergency room visits, hospital admissions and mortality for cardiopulmonary conditions. However, these findings have been difficult to reproduce in experimental studies, suggesting that mass alone does not explain observed health effects. Current national ambient air quality standards are based on particle mass with no consideration for chemical composition. Thus, improved understanding of the relationship between PM exposure and cardiopulmonary health effects can support regulation for improved protection of human health. We have conducted numerous experimental studies in the San Joaquin Valley of California, a region that regularly exceeds the current mass-based standards for PM pollution. Studies were conducted both in the field using inhaled CAPs and in the laboratory to study PM-induced pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses, a hallmark of adverse cardiopulmonary conditions. Our objective was to investigate these responses in the context of season, location, PM mass and chemical composition. Inhalation studies indicated that chemical composition arising from differences in location and season were critical factors influencing PM toxicity. Further, associations between health effects and PM mass and chemical composition demonstrated that short-term changes in ambient PM concentrations may provide improved interpretation of experimental results. Associations between biological responses and specific chemical components suggest that different sources may have different toxicity. Potential source-specific regulation of the source emitting the most toxic PM components or precursors may have substantial human health benefit. Together, these findings provide biological plausibility for the epidemiological associations between PM exposure and adverse health effects.


Journal Articles on this Report : 16 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 28 publications 21 publications in selected types All 17 journal articles
Other center views: All 128 publications 71 publications in selected types All 64 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Donaldson K, Borm PJA, Oberdorster G, Pinkerton KE, Stone V, Tran CL. Concordance between in vitro and in vivo dosimetry in the proinflammatory effects of low-toxicity, low-solubility particles: the key role of the proximal alveolar region. Inhalation Toxicology 2008;20(1):53-62. R832414 (Final)
R832414C003 (2008)
R832414C003 (2009)
R832414C003 (Final)
R829215 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: SemanticScholar-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Ham WA, Herner JD, Green PG, Kleeman MJ. Size distribution of health-relevant trace elements in airborne particulate matter during a severe winter stagnation event: implications for epidemiology and inhalation exposure studies. Aerosol Science and Technology 2010;44(9):753-765. R832414 (2010)
    R832414C003 (2010)
    R832414C003 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor Francis Online Full Text
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  • Abstract: informaworld
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  • Other: Taylor Francis Online Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Kleeman MJ, Riddle SG, Jakober CA. Size distribution of particle-phase molecular markers during a severe winter pollution episode. Environmental Science & Technology 2008;42(17):6469-6475. R832414 (2009)
    R832414C003 (2008)
    R832414C003 (2009)
    R832414C003 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: ACS Publications
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  • Journal Article Kleeman MJ, Riddle SG, Robert MA, Jakober CA, Fine PM, Hays MD, Schauer JJ, Hannigan MP. Source apportionment of fine (PM1.8) and ultrafine (PM0.1) airborne particulate matter during a severe winter pollution episode. Environmental Science & Technology 2009;43(2):272-279. R832414 (2010)
    R832414C003 (2009)
    R832414C003 (2010)
    R832414C003 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Environmental Science & Technology
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  • Journal Article Madl AK, Pinkerton KE. Health effects of inhaled engineered and incidental nanoparticles. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 2009;39(8):629-658. R832414 (2010)
    R832414C003 (2009)
    R832414C003 (2010)
    R832414C003 (Final)
    R829215 (Final)
    R831714 (2005)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Informa healthcare
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  • Journal Article Madl AK, Teague SV, Qu Y, Masiel D, Evans JE, Guo T, Pinkerton KE. Aerosolization system for experimental inhalation studies of carbon-based nanomaterials. Aerosol Science and Technology 2012;46(1):94-107. R832414C003 (Final)
    R829215 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Other: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Ngo MA, Pinkerton KE, Freeland S, Geller M, Ham W, Cliff S, Hopkins LE, Kleeman MJ, Kodavanti UP, Meharg E, Plummer L, Recendez JJ, Schenker MB, Sioutas C, Smiley-Jewell S, Haas C, Gutstein J, Wexler AS. Airborne particles in the San Joaquin Valley may affect human health. California Agriculture 2010;64(1):12-16. R832414 (2010)
    R832414C003 (2010)
    R832414C003 (Final)
    R826246 (Final)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2010)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: CaliforniaAgriculture-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: CaliforniaAgriculture-Abstract and Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Pham H, Bonham AC, Pinkerton KE, Chen CY. Central neuroplasticity and decreased heart rate variability after particulate matter exposure in mice. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(9):1448-1453. R832414 (2010)
    R832414C003 (2009)
    R832414C003 (2010)
    R832414C003 (Final)
    R831918 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: EHP
  • Abstract: EHP
  • Journal Article Plummer LE, Ham W, Kleeman MJ, Wexler A, Pinkerton KE. Influence of season and location on pulmonary response to California's San Joaquin Valley airborne particulate matter. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health-Part A 2012;75(5):253-271. R832414 (Final)
    R832414C003 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Riddle SG, Robert MA, Jakober CA, Hannigan MP, Kleeman MJ. Size-resolved source apportionment of airborne particle mass in a roadside environment. Environmental Science & Technology 2008;42(17):6580-6586. R832414 (2009)
    R832414 (Final)
    R832414C003 (2008)
    R832414C003 (2009)
    R832414C003 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: ACS-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ACS-Abstract
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  • Other: ACS-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Schenker MB, Pinkerton KE, Mitchell D, Vallyathan V, Elvine-Kreis B, Green FHY. Pneumoconiosis from agricultural dust exposure among young California farmworkers. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(6):988-994. R832414 (2010)
    R832414C003 (2009)
    R832414C003 (2010)
    R832414C003 (Final)
    R826246 (Final)
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  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Journal Article Sekizawa S-i, Joad JP, Pinkerton KE, Bonham AC. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure differentially alters nucleus tractus solitarius neurons at two different ages in developing non-human primates. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2010;242(2):199-208. R832414 (2010)
    R832414C003 (2010)
    R832414C003 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Science Direct
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  • Abstract: Science Direct
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  • Other: Science Direct
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  • Journal Article Smith KR, Veranth JM, Kodavanti UP, Aust AE, Pinkerton KE. Acute pulmonary and systemic effects of inhaled coal fly ash in rats: comparison to ambient environmental particles. Toxicological Sciences 2006;93(2):390-399. R832414 (Final)
    R832414C003 (2006)
    R832414C003 (2007)
    R832414C003 (2008)
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    R829215 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: OUP-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Oxford-Abstract
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  • Other: OUP-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Wegesser TC, Pinkerton KE, Last JA. California wildfires of 2008: coarse and fine particulate matter toxicity. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(6):893-897. R832414 (2010)
    R832414C003 (2009)
    R832414C003 (2010)
    R832414C003 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: EHP
  • Abstract: EHP
  • Journal Article Wilson DW, Aung HH, Lame MW, Plummer L, Pinkerton KE, Ham W, Kleeman M, Norris JW, Tablin F. Exposure of mice to concentrated ambient particulate matter results in platelet and systemic cytokine activation. Inhalation Toxicology 2010;22(4):267-276. R832414 (2010)
    R832414 (Final)
    R832414C002 (Final)
    R832414C003 (2010)
    R832414C003 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Zhong C-Y, Zhou Y-M, Smith KR, Kennedy IM, Chen C-Y, Aust AE, Pinkerton KE. Oxidative injury in the lungs of neonatal rats following short-term exposure to ultrafine iron and soot particles. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A-Current Issues 2010;73(12):837-847. R832414 (2010)
    R832414C003 (2010)
    R832414C003 (Final)
    R829215 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: ResearchGate-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, PHYSICAL ASPECTS, Air, particulate matter, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Risk Assessments, Physical Processes, ambient aerosol, lung injury, long term exposure, lung disease, acute cardiovascular effects, airway disease, exposure, airborne particulate matter, San Joaquin Valley, cardiac arrest, human exposure, inhalation, ambient particle health effects, PM, concentrated air particles, cardiovascular disease, human health risk

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2006 Progress Report
  • 2007 Progress Report
  • 2008 Progress Report
  • 2009 Progress Report
  • 2010 Progress Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R832414    San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC)

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R832414C001 Project 1 -- Pulmonary Metabolic Response
    R832414C002 Endothelial Cell Responses to PM—In Vitro and In Vivo
    R832414C003 Project 3 -- Inhalation Exposure Assessment of San Joaquin Valley Aerosol
    R832414C004 Project 4 -- Transport and Fate Particles
    R832414C005 Project 5 -- Architecture Development and Particle Deposition