2009 Progress Report: Project 3 -- Inhalation Exposure Assessment of San Joaquin Valley Aerosol

EPA Grant Number: R832414C003
Subproject: this is subproject number 003 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R832414
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC)
Center Director: Wexler, Anthony S.
Title: Project 3 -- Inhalation Exposure Assessment of San Joaquin Valley Aerosol
Investigators: Pinkerton, Kent E. , Bonham, Ann , Kleeman, Michael J.
Current Investigators: Pinkerton, Kent E. , Kleeman, Michael J.
Institution: University of California - Davis
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2010 (Extended to September 30, 2011)
Project Period Covered by this Report: July 1, 2008 through June 30,2009
RFA: Particulate Matter Research Centers (2004) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Health Effects , Air

Objective:

Epidemiological evidence suggests that the association between cardiac mortality and PM 10 concentrations changes between the summer and winter months in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). This shift is likely caused by seasonal variation in the size and composition distribution of airborne particles. This project will perform inhalation exposure and particle characterization studies at rural and urban locations in different seasons to quantify the features of the airborne particles that are associated with adverse health effects

Progress Summary:

Progress by Specific Aim
 
1. Differences in particle concentration, size distribution, and composition that occur as a function of season and location in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) result in different health outcomes; these outcomes can be detected during inhalation exposure experiments.
 
We have now completed a total of six field measurement and exposure studies in the San Joaquin Valley.  These include an urban site located in Fresno, CA (500 East Shaw Avenue) for the summer and winter seasons in 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009, as well as a rural site located at Westside, CA also studied during the summer and winter seasons in 2007 and 2008.  The most recent field studies in Fresno were conducted September 5-16, 2006, February 13-24, 2007, .  The field studies in Westside were conducted August 14-25, 2007 and February 6-17, 2008.  In each study male C57/BL6 mice were exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for two weeks.  Fine/ultrafine ambient particles were collected and concentrated onsite using a Versatile Aerosol Concentrator Enhancement System (VACES).  CAPs samples collected during each exposure were analyzed for chemical composition.
Size and composition analysis of airborne particulate matter samples collected during the first 4 experiments reveals that OC was the dominant PM1.8 species during the summertime and NO32- was the dominant species in the wintertime. Total number concentrations were larger during the summer sampling events. Fresh ~0.1 µm particles were emitted directly from combustion sources at the Fresno site from 9am-12pm each day while number concentrations at Westside were dominated by nucleation events that ultimately produced particles in the 0.2 – 0.3 µm size range. Most PM1.8 and PM 0.1 metal concentrations were greater during the summer events than the winter events for both sampling sites. PM1.8 Br, Cu, K, P, Sn, Sb, S, and Zn concentrations were greater at the urban Fresno site than the rural Westside site with most of these species having size distribution peaks in the 0.1 – 1 µm range. The urban site exhibited enrichment (12% - 17%) of As and Se in PM0.1 relative to PM1.8 while the rural site exhibited enrichment (11% - 30%) of K, Fe, Rb, and Ca in the PM0.1 size fraction.
 
The results of these exposure studies are complete and peer-reviewed journal articles are in preparation documenting the results. 
 
2. The increased toxicity of airborne particles during the winter season in the SJV is associated with increased concentrations of ultrafine carbon particles.
 
A multi-pronged approach is being applied to examine the cardiopulmonary consequences of particle exposure, i.e., using both whole body to 1) evaluate cellular and inflammatory indicators in the lungs by bronchopulmonary lavage and cytokine measurements, 2) measure vascular components in platelets and other blood elements, 3) examine heart tissues directly for histopathology and 4) measure neurological changes in gene expression for pro-inflammatory cytokines.
 
Analysis of the PM0.1 size fraction collected during the first 4 experiments reveals that ultrafine EC concentrations were 3 times higher at Fresno than at Westside.  A consistent seasonal signal was not apparent.  Ultrafine OC concentrations were comparable at all sites and seasons, likely because of the partial ban on woodburning that has been implemented in the SJV.  If ultrafine EC drives negative health effects, then the Fresno PM samples should exhibit greater toxicity than the Westside samples.  If ultrafine OC drives negative health effects, then the toxicity of all samples may appear similar.
 
3. The increased toxicity of airborne particles in the SJV during the winter season is associated with increased concentrations of accumulation mode ammonium/nitrate/sulfate particles.
 
Ambient and CAPs concentrations for the summer (2006) and winter (2007) Fresno and the summer (2007) and winter (2008) Westside Concentrated Ambient Particles (CAPs) exposures have been determined.  These values are shown in the table below.  RAAS represents the average ambient concentration of particles, while CAPs represents the enhanced concentration of particles to which the mice were exposed.  The enhancement factor of ambient particles using the Virtual Aerosol Concentrator Exposure System (VACES) is also shown in the table below.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fresno
West Side
 
Summer
Winter
Summer
Winter
 
Week 1
Week 2
Week 1
Week 2
Week 1
Week 2
Week 1
Week 2
RAAS (ug/m3)
18.551
21.245
23.667
10.981
7.542
11.523
15.389
14.736
CAPS (ug/m3)
207.222
360.556
129.630
97.222
106.481
145.370
88.889
82.407
Concentration Factor
11.170
16.971
5.477
8.853
14.119
12.616
5.776
5.592
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sampling Volume
 
 
 
 
 
 
Andersen Volume
18
m3
 
 
 
 
 
 
Concentrator Volume
1.08
m3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The chemical speciation for the Fresno and Westside summer and winter studies is also complete for nitrates, sulfates, and ammonium ion.  As expected, the concentration of accumulation mode nitrate and sulfate is much larger in winter samples than in summer samples.  Sulfate concentrations are consistently ~1 µg m-3 except for Fresno summer, which had a sulfate concentration approximately twice as large. 
 
4. The health effects of San Joaquin Valley aerosol can be directly related to the emissions source of the fine and ultrafine particles.
 
We have completed the lung cytokine analysis of the summer (2006) and winter (2007) Fresno and the summer (2007) and winter (2008) Westside Concentrated Ambient Particles (CAPs) exposures.  Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis for these same locations and seasons demonstrated no significant changes in total cells recovered from the lungs, but a statistically significant increase in neutrophil counts for both summer and winter seasons in Westside.  For the lung cytokine assays, the following patterns were observed:
 
Fresno summer: Significant decreases in IL-1β, IL-6 IL-10, INF-gamma, and MCP-1 were observed following CAPs exposure in lung homogenates. 
Fresno winter:  No significant changes were noted in the levels of cytokines in lung
homogenates following CAPs exposure compared with controls.
Westside summer: Demonstrated no statistically significant changes in cytokines following CAPs exposure.
Westside winter: Demonstrated significant increases in cytokine levels in lung homogenates for TNFa, IL-1a, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-12, GM-CSF, INF-gamma, MCP-1 and MIP-1a following
CAPs exposure.   
 
Supernatant from BAL is being analyzed for protein content and the presence of cytokines.  In collaboration with the Wilson laboratory, optimal conditions for cytokine measurement are under way. 
 
Lung tissues have been reoriented and embedded to enhance 1) airway analysis of central and distal airways.  Staining is complete to examine for the presence and frequency of alcian blue/periodic acid Schiff (AB/PAS) positive airway epitheial cells.
 
With the completion of the first four CAPs studies for summer and winter seasons in both an urban and rural area of the San Joaquin Valley, we are now in the process of establishing potential relationships between biological responses observed and the emission sources for fine and ultrafine particles. 
 
Size-resolved particulate matter samples collected during each exposure experiment have been analyzed for organic molecular markers by extracting them with organic solvents followed by analysis using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS).  The information obtained from this analysis has been combined with size-resolved source profiles to determine size-resolved source contributions to airborne particulate matter using the chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model.  The preliminary results are illustrated in the Figures below.
 
Figure 1: Preliminary source apportionment of ultrafine (PM0.1) airborne particulate matter during the first 4 exposure experiments.

Summary of the Particle Size and Composition Exposure Experiments To Date
 
Samples of airborne particulate matter have now been collected during seven ambient exposure experiments.  Figure 1 illustrates the PM concentrations measured during the first 6 experiments along with the continuous trace of PM concentrations measured at the nearby EPA Fresno sampling site. 
Figure 2: PM2.5 concentrations during sampling events (light blue dots) and PM2.5 measured at nearby Fresno site.
 
Analysis of the PM size and composition distribution has been completed for the first 4 experiments as documented in the accompanying draft manuscript.  In summary, Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactors were used to collect PM1.8 samples in six size fractions to determine size distributions for 23 trace species (Li, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Sn, Sb, Ba), elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and 8 major water-soluble ions (Cl-, NO32-, SO42-, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg+, Ca2+). Average PM1.8 MOUDI mass concentrations for Fresno summer and Fresno winter were 15.4 µg/m3 and 14.5 µg/m3 while Westside summer and winter mass concentrations were 7.6 µg/m3 and 15.1 µg/m3, respectively. OC was the dominant PM1.8 species during the summertime and NO32- was the dominant species in the wintertime. Total number concentrations were larger during the summer sampling events. Fresh ~0.1 µm particles were emitted directly from combustion sources at the Fresno site from 9am-12pm each day while number concentrations at Westside were dominated by nucleation events that ultimately produced particles in the 0.2 – 0.3 µm size range. Most PM1.8 and PM 0.1 metal concentrations were greater during the summer events than the winter events for both sampling sites. PM1.8 Br, Cu, K, P, Sn, Sb, S, and Zn concentrations were greater at the urban Fresno site than the rural Westside site with most of these species having size distribution peaks in the 0.1 – 1 µm range. The urban site exhibited enrichment (12% - 17%) of As and Se in PM0.1 relative to PM1.8 while the rural site exhibited enrichment (11% - 30%) of K, Fe, Rb, and Ca in the PM0.1 size fraction. Deposition patterns in the human respiratory system were highly correlated with PM1.8 concentrations suggesting that bulk PM1.8 measurements may be used to generate exposure estimates of various PM components.
 
Analysis of the trace organic content of the airborne particulate matter has been completed and a manuscript is currently in preparation describing source contributions to PM1.8 and PM0.1.
 
Most recent Fresno field studies with concentrated ambient particles:
 
Urban Summer 2008 and Winter 2009 CAPS Exposures
-Total Cell numbers and Cell Differentials completed
-Working with cryosection techniques to assess levels of proinflammatory cytokines in epithelium, based on results from bioplex performed for the first four CAPS studies in urban Fresno and rural Westside.
 
Results (CAPs studies of 2008 and 2009:
Total Cells:  Significant increases in total cells recruited during Winter 2008 study but not Summer 2009 study.  Overall there were more cells recruited during the Winter compared with the summer field study (note the scale on the bar graphs)
 
 
 
Cell Differential:
Majority of cells present were alveolar macrophages.  No significance between FA and CAPS animals. Note differing scales.
 
 
Neutrophil Recruitment:
Trends toward increases do not reach significance (Summer p value = 0.08 and Winter pvalue = 0.27)
 

Preparation for intranasal/intratracheal instillation of ambient PM
-Iron/soot instillations
             IT vs IN
Statistical analysis using Anova shows that there is statistically significant increase in the number of neutrophils recruited when comparing control animals to animals instilled intranasally with 15ug of iron soot in suspension. The increase is also statistically significant compared to intratracheal animals.
 
More studies are planned to explore the responses following intranasal instillation of a small dose of particles using C57 Black 6 mice.
 

Future Activities:

For the next reporting period, our plans are to (1) examine the effects of progressive exposure to CAPs in the Fresno urban region for the summer and to examine progressive exposure effects to CAPs in the rural Westside region and 2) to create an allergic mouse model for incorporation into future CAPs studies, including the upcoming Fresno studies for the summer and winter seasons.


Journal Articles on this Report : 8 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 28 publications 21 publications in selected types All 17 journal articles
Other center views: All 128 publications 71 publications in selected types All 64 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Donaldson K, Borm PJA, Oberdorster G, Pinkerton KE, Stone V, Tran CL. Concordance between in vitro and in vivo dosimetry in the proinflammatory effects of low-toxicity, low-solubility particles: the key role of the proximal alveolar region. Inhalation Toxicology 2008;20(1):53-62. R832414 (Final)
R832414C003 (2008)
R832414C003 (2009)
R832414C003 (Final)
R829215 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: SemanticScholar-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Kleeman MJ, Riddle SG, Jakober CA. Size distribution of particle-phase molecular markers during a severe winter pollution episode. Environmental Science & Technology 2008;42(17):6469-6475. R832414 (2009)
    R832414C003 (2008)
    R832414C003 (2009)
    R832414C003 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: ACS Publications
    Exit
  • Journal Article Kleeman MJ, Riddle SG, Robert MA, Jakober CA, Fine PM, Hays MD, Schauer JJ, Hannigan MP. Source apportionment of fine (PM1.8) and ultrafine (PM0.1) airborne particulate matter during a severe winter pollution episode. Environmental Science & Technology 2009;43(2):272-279. R832414 (2010)
    R832414C003 (2009)
    R832414C003 (2010)
    R832414C003 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Environmental Science & Technology
    Exit
  • Journal Article Madl AK, Pinkerton KE. Health effects of inhaled engineered and incidental nanoparticles. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 2009;39(8):629-658. R832414 (2010)
    R832414C003 (2009)
    R832414C003 (2010)
    R832414C003 (Final)
    R829215 (Final)
    R831714 (2005)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Informa healthcare
    Exit
  • Journal Article Pham H, Bonham AC, Pinkerton KE, Chen CY. Central neuroplasticity and decreased heart rate variability after particulate matter exposure in mice. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(9):1448-1453. R832414 (2010)
    R832414C003 (2009)
    R832414C003 (2010)
    R832414C003 (Final)
    R831918 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: EHP
  • Abstract: EHP
  • Journal Article Riddle SG, Robert MA, Jakober CA, Hannigan MP, Kleeman MJ. Size-resolved source apportionment of airborne particle mass in a roadside environment. Environmental Science & Technology 2008;42(17):6580-6586. R832414 (2009)
    R832414 (Final)
    R832414C003 (2008)
    R832414C003 (2009)
    R832414C003 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: ACS-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: ACS-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ACS-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Schenker MB, Pinkerton KE, Mitchell D, Vallyathan V, Elvine-Kreis B, Green FHY. Pneumoconiosis from agricultural dust exposure among young California farmworkers. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(6):988-994. R832414 (2010)
    R832414C003 (2009)
    R832414C003 (2010)
    R832414C003 (Final)
    R826246 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Wegesser TC, Pinkerton KE, Last JA. California wildfires of 2008: coarse and fine particulate matter toxicity. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(6):893-897. R832414 (2010)
    R832414C003 (2009)
    R832414C003 (2010)
    R832414C003 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: EHP
  • Abstract: EHP
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, PHYSICAL ASPECTS, Air, particulate matter, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Risk Assessments, Physical Processes, ambient aerosol, lung injury, long term exposure, lung disease, acute cardiovascular effects, airway disease, exposure, airborne particulate matter, San Joaquin Valley, cardiac arrest, human exposure, inhalation, ambient particle health effects, PM, concentrated air particles, cardiovascular disease, human health risk

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2006 Progress Report
  • 2007 Progress Report
  • 2008 Progress Report
  • 2010 Progress Report
  • Final Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R832414    San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC)

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R832414C001 Project 1 -- Pulmonary Metabolic Response
    R832414C002 Endothelial Cell Responses to PM—In Vitro and In Vivo
    R832414C003 Project 3 -- Inhalation Exposure Assessment of San Joaquin Valley Aerosol
    R832414C004 Project 4 -- Transport and Fate Particles
    R832414C005 Project 5 -- Architecture Development and Particle Deposition