2011 Progress Report: Rochester PM Center: Source-Specific Health Effects of Ultrafine/Fine Particles

EPA Grant Number: R832415
Center: Rochester PM Center
Center Director: Oberdörster, Günter
Title: Rochester PM Center: Source-Specific Health Effects of Ultrafine/Fine Particles
Investigators: Oberdörster, Günter , Finkelstein, Jacob N. , Frampton, Mark W. , Hopke, Philip K. , Peters, Annette , Utell, Mark J.
Institution: University of Rochester , Clarkson University , GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2010 (Extended to September 30, 2012)
Project Period Covered by this Report: July 1, 2010 through June 30,2011
Project Amount: $8,000,000
RFA: Particulate Matter Research Centers (2004) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Health Effects , Air

Objective:

Introduction

The Rochester Center on “Source-Specific Health Effects of Ultrafine/Fine Particles” focuses on characterization of ambient PM2.5 and PM0.1 and evaluation of their effects based on epidemiological, controlled clinical as well as animal and in vitro studies. Center investigators evaluate effects and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms by which ambient ultrafine (UF)/fine PM trigger adverse health effects in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems.  Our earlier findings of translocation of UFPs from deposition sites in the respiratory tract to other organs via blood circulation and via neurons to the central nervous system (CNS) provide plausible hypotheses for UFP-induced oxidative stress in those organs. Our studies are designed to integrate detailed physicochemical analyses of ambient PM with our epidemiological, clinical and toxicological studies when evaluating effects and mechanisms.

The Rochester PM Center consists of five Research Cores performing Core-specific yet highly integrated experiments by a multidisciplinary team of atmospheric scientists, chemists, epidemiologists, pulmonary, vascular and cardiac physicians and scientists, inhalation, neuro-, cellular and molecular toxicologists, and immunologists.

The objectives of the projects under these five integrated Research Cores that were conducted in the past project period by this multidisciplinary investigator team are provided below.

Core 1:  Exposure Assessment and PM Source Identification

Objective of Research:  Characterize the nature of the particle-bound reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting from major biogenic VOC reactions with ozone.

Core 2: Epidemiological Studies on Extra Pulmonary Effects of Fresh and Aged Urban Aerosols from Different Sources.

Objective:  The objective of the epidemiological study is to examine the effect of fine and ultrafine particles on systemic responses, endothelial and cardiac function. The study was conducted in Augsburg, Germany, between March 19, 2007, and December 17, 2008.

Core 3: Human Clinical Studies of Concentrated Ambient Ultrafine and Fine Particles

Objective:  The overall objective of our current and planned studies is to determine the pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of exposure to ultrafine and fine particulate matter (PM). 

Core 4Animal Models:  Cardiovascular Disease, CNS Injury and Ultrafine Particle Biokinetics.

The objectives of four projects performed in this reporting period are:

Objective 1:  Determine CNS effects of exposure to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles in a sensitive triple-transgenic Alzheimer Disease mouse model (3xTgAD).

Objective 2a:  Determine effects of early life exposure to ambient ultrafine particles of rats on the CNS.

Objective 2b:  Are ambient ultrafine particles a risk factor for Parkinson’s Disease?

Objective 3: Determine effects of early life exposure to ambient ultrafine particles and ozone mixtures on the early and late pulmonary responses of mice re-challenged with ovalbumina.

Objective 4:  Compare the usefulness of different modes of dosing the respiratory tract with PM, specifically ultrafine PM, to assess their inflammation potential.

Core 5:   Ultrafine Particle Cell Interactions In Vitro: Molecular Mechanisms Leading to Altered Gene Expression in Relation to Particle Composition

Objective:  To address specific mechanistic hypotheses, specifically related to oxidative stress induction, regarding the interactions between inhaled ultrafine particles and specific pulmonary cell populations.  

Progress Summary:

Core 1:  Exposure Assessment and PM Source Identification

Results:  The reactions of ozone with monoterpenes was found to proceed via the formation of multiple oxygen- and carbon-centered free radical species.  These radical species are highly reactive and thus, have generally not been measureable.  Radical-addition reactions, also called spin trapping techniques has been applied to products from the α-pinene/ozone reaction. The detection and identification of radicals with molecular weights 199, 183, 153, and 167 Da supported previously identified mechanisms and structures.

In other studies of the formation of secondary organic aerosol in indoor air through the ozonolysis of reactive terpenes that are components of household cleaning products, we examined the formation rates of particles and particle-bound ROS at low NOx concentrations.  We currently are continuing these studies at realistic NOx concentrations added to the ozone and terpene to explore the role of nitrate radicals in particle and ROS formation.

At the suggestion of the Center’s Science Advisory Committee, we have examined the ROS associated with main and side stream tobacco smoke.  For mainstream smoke from regular and light cigarettes, the total quantities of ROS were 120-150 nmol and 90-110 nmol, respectively.  For sidestream smoke, the values were 60-90 nmol and 30-70 nmol for regular and light cigarettes, respectively.  The goal is to express ambient ROS activity with cigarette smoke equivalents. 

With the data from this study, we can estimate the length of human exposure to ambient air that is equivalent to smoking or being exposed to the sidestream smoke of a Marlboro (red) cigarette. Thus, if one were to continuously breathe ambient air for a total of 2 to 3 days, the resulting ROS exposure would be equivalent to smoking one Marlboro (red) cigarette.  Air heavily impacted by traffic is more polluted, and one day of continuous ambient air exposure is equivalent to smoking one cigarette. 

Core 2: Epidemiological Studies on Extra Pulmonary Effects of Fresh and Aged Urban Aerosols from Different Sources.

Results:  Results showed clear increases in C-reactive protein (CRP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in association with air pollutants for the panel of genetically susceptible individuals, confirming the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a role in the mechanism linking air pollution and cardiovascular disease.

In addition, there was an immediate decrease in sCD40Ligand and PAI-1. These results point towards the coagulatory system. However, results are not quite conclusive as sCD40L promotes thrombus formation while PAI-1 inhibits fibrinolysis. Both markers showed a decrease for the same time lag. 

Diabetics and IGT (impaired glucose tolerance) subjects had substantially reduced effects for the blood markers compared to the panel of genetically susceptibles. Therefore, one can assume that there are different mechanisms involved in those two groups. This might either be due to the underlying disease, the medication intake or both. Moreover, separate analyses showed that the associations were mostly driven by the panel of people with impaired glucose tolerance, which consists of patients with the same underlying disease, yet without the heavy medication. This confirms our initial hypothesis that medication can blunt the small associations seen between air pollution and markers for cardiovascular diseases.

Effects were mostly seen for PM2.5 and less for UFP, and most clearly for inflammatory markers. We assume that the reason for this is the inflammatory potential of particulate mass, which possibly derives from secondary organic aerosols.

In an add-on study, effects of personally measured ultrafine particles (portable condensation particle counter) and ambient air pollution on heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters in diseased individuals (with T2DM and IGT) were examined.

In previous analyses, we observed effects of 5-minute averages of personally measured ultrafine particle number concentration (PNC) on 5-minute intervals of heart rate (HR) as well as standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) in 32 participants with T2DM and 32 participants with IGT. In particular, we detected a concurrent -0.56% (-1.02;-0.09%) decrease in SDNN in association with an increase of 16,000 personal PNC particles/cm³. Furthermore, an interquartile range (IQR) (12.3 µg/m³) increase in 1h-averages of ambient PM2.5 led to a -3.38% decrease in 1h-intervals of SDNN. We conducted several sensitivity analyses in order to test the robustness of these findings.

Effects of personal PNC on SDNN did not change when excluding participants taking statins or additionally adjusting for ambient 1h-averages of PM2.5. We observed slightly weaker PNC effects when excluding participants with an intake of beta-blockers or visits with cooking. However, PNC effects were stronger in participants who were not exposed to environmental tobacco smoke or when adjusting for personally measured 5 min-averages of noise exposure. The sensitivity analyses also showed only slight changes in PM2.5 effects on SDNN.

A third objective was to measure immediate ozone effects on heart rate and repolarization parameters. Associations between 1h-averages of ozone and heart rate (HR), Bazett-corrected QT-interval (QTc), T-wave amplitude (Tamp) and T-wave complexity (Tcomp) in 64 individuals with T2D or IGT and in 46 healthy individuals with a potential genetic predisposition were investigated.

 We observed very short-term increases in HR, T-wave flattening and an increased T-wave complexity in association with increments in ozone. These associations were stronger in individuals with diabetes or a pre-state of diabetes. Changes in repolarization might contribute to the underlying pathophysiological changes associated with the link between elevated ozone levels and reported adverse cardiovascular outcomes such as myocardial infarctions and mortality.

A separate project on Ultrafine Particles and Cardiac Responses was performed  in the Rochester Cardiac Rehabilitation Center.  The objectives of the study were to assess the effects of ambient UFP exposure on biomarkers of pathophysiologic mechanisms thought to underlie previous reports of PM-mediated cardiovascular morbidity, in a panel of patients with coronary artery disease.  These were patients who have had a recent coronary event such as myocardial infarction or unstable angina leading to coronary stenting.

Association between air pollution and pre-exercise holter ECG recordings were analyzedChanges in each outcome associated with IQR increases in UFP, AMP, and PM2.5 concentration in the previous five 24-hour lag periods, as well as in the previous six showed that there was no clear pattern of response to any pollutant for MeanNN or SDNN in the pre-exercise resting period.  However, there was a significant (p<0.05) 2.67 ms increase in SDNN associated with each IQR increase in PM2.5 72-95 hours before the clinic visit. Also, IQR increases in AMP accumulation mode particles in both the previous 6 and 24 hours were associated with significant 3.65 and 4.33 ms decreases in rMSSD, respectively. Although not statistically significant, decreases in rMSSD also were associated with UFP and PM2.5 at the same lag times.  Although there was no pattern of QTc duration response to any pollutant, each IQR increase in AMP was associated with 0.78 ms and 1.05 ms increases in TpTe in the previous 24 hours and 24-47 hours, respectively, before the clinic session.

There were statistically significant 0.89 and 0.94 mmHg increases in systolic blood pressure (SBP) associated with IQR increases in UFP lagged 24-47 hours and PM2.5 lagged 0-5 hours, respectively, but little change in diastolic blood pressure (DBP).  However, each IQR increase in UFP lagged 96-119 hours was associated with significantly decreased DBP.

White blood cell counts did not respond to any lagged pollutant concentration, but IQR increases in UFP, AMP, and PM2.5 concentrations were associated with increases in CRP and fibrinogen at most lags, although not all were statistically significant. Each IQR increase in PM2.5 was associated with a significant 0.069 mg/L increase in CRP lagged 72-95 hours, while each IQR increase in AMP lagged 24-47 hours was associated with a significant 0.120 g/L increase in fibrinogen. Similar significant increases in fibrinogen were associated with IQR increases in UFP and PM2.5  concentrations at the same lag time.

Our findings of increased TpTe associated with AMP lagged 24-47 hours, decreased HRT associated with increased AMP lagged 72-95 hours, and increased fibrinogen associated with increased AMP lagged 24-47 hours, all appeared independent of other pollutants at the same lag times, as there were only small changes in the AMP effect estimates when controlling for either UFP or PM2.5.  In contrast, any change in these biomarkers associated with lagged UFP or PM2.5 was reduced or removed altogether when controlling for AMP. Similarly, the decreased rMSSD associated with UFP in the previous 5 hours and the increased SBP associated with increased PM2.5 lagged 0-5 hours both appeared independent of AMP, as the UFP/PM2.5 effect estimates were little changed from the single pollutant model to the two pollutant model including AMP.

The distribution of perceived exertion across 1,489 subject visits showed that there was no clear association between air pollution and this exertion score. The largest effect was a non-significant 0.05 decrease in perceived exertion score (95% CI = -0.12, 0.02) associated with each IQR increase in UFP lagged 48-71 hours.

Core 3: Human Clinical Studies of Concentrated Ambient Ultrafine and Fine Particles

Results:  The clinical studies in healthy humans and susceptible individuals performed in this research core focus on the effects of ambient ultrafine and fine particles on three major determinants of adverse cardiac events: 1) blood coagulation induced by effects on platelets and circulating microparticles, 2) cardiac output, and 3) cardiac rhythm and repolarization.

We hypothesize that the acute vascular effects of UFP exposure observed in our previous studies are a consequence of reduced NO bioavailability.  We have developed a new approach to test this hypothesis, that exposure to ultrafine particles will deliver a burden of ROS to the pulmonary vascular endothelium, altering the delivery of NO, specifically as nitrite, to the systemic vasculature. 

Preliminary findings showed that exposure to concentrated UFP did not cause symptoms or changes in heart rate or blood pressure.  Arterial punctures were well tolerated, and no subject withdrew from the study because of discomfort. The arterial-venous gradient for nitrite increased 3 hours after UFP relative to air exposure (air, 13.96 vs. UFP, 190.39 nm, p=0.06 by paired t-test), driven by an increase in arterial nitrite concentrations after UFP but not air exposure.  There were no significant effects on the reactive hyperemia index.  Thus, exposure to UFP non-significantly increased nitrite arterial-venous gradients 3 hours after exposure, without effects on vascular function. 

We now have completed subject exposures for this study,  and analysis of all data is in progress.

Core 4:  Animal Models:  Cardiovascular Disease, CNS Injury and Ultrafine Particle Biokinetics

Objective 1: Results:  Earlier studies in which 3xTg-AD mice were exposed for 12 days to ultrafine Mn oxide particles to examine progression of AD pathology showed that increased microglia and astrocyte activation in the hippocampus, compared to filtered air-exposed controls, was still found 2 months post-exposure.  In a follow-up pilot study, four different genotypes of transgenic mice were exposed to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles for 8 days, 4 h/day. The four genotypes included: non-transgenic (non-Tg), 3xTg-AD, TNFRI/II KO (knocked out TNF I and II receptors), and 3xTg-ADxTNFRI/II KO. Analyses of hippocampal sections at 2 months post-exposure showed that overall immunostaining for a microglial marker (Iba-1) was lower in TNFRI/II KO and 3xTg-ADxTNFRI/II KO mice as compared to non-Tg and 3xTg-AD mice.  When the immunostaining was evaluated on a cell-by-cell basis, it was found that there were fewer activated and more resting microglia in mice that lacked TNF receptors.  Because air-exposed controls were not available for comparisons, it is not possible to make final conclusions about the impact of HUCAP exposure, which will be the goal of future studies.

Objective 2a: Results:  The hypothesis that UFP may adversely influence the brain, particularly early in development, a period of brain vulnerability was tested in male and female C57BL6 mice exposed to concentrated ultrafine ambient particles at postnatal days (PN) 4-13, with a subset also re-exposed  as adults (Ad) at  56-60 days of age (PN + Ad).  Analyses of changes in blood corticosterone levels, behavioral studies including learning ability and locomotor activity as well as altered GFAP levels in specific brain regions indicate that ambient ultrafine particles can produce, differentially by gender, persistent behavioral, CNS and HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) dysfunction, even following PN only exposure. Given that such exposures are persistent and possibly life-long, these results also support the hypothesis of the potential for particulate air pollution to be a risk factor for neurodevelopmental and/or neurodegenerative disorders.

Objective 2b: Results:  Ultrafine particles may translocate from deposition sites on the nasal olfactory mucosa to the CNS. The hypothesis was tested that early life postnatal exposure to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles would sensitize the CNS to subsequent adult challenge with paraquat + maneb (PQ+MB), a well-established pesticide-based model of the Parkinson’s disease phenotype (PDP).  Mice exposed postnatally to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles were significantly more sensitive to the locomotor-reducing effects of PQ+MB than sham controls, or those exposed to UFP alone or PQ+MB alone. UFP and PQ+MB significantly altered catecholamine levels in both the nigrostriatal and mesocortical dopamine pathways. UFP had a particular influence on striatum, increasing NE, DOPAC, and DA turnover (DOPAC/DA) levels, while PQ+MB generally impacted midbrain, decreasing 5HT, DOPAC and dopamine turnover.  An interaction between UFP and PQ+MB on cortical 5-HT levels was evidenced as a significant 5-HT decrease in PQ+MB treated animals compared to both sham controls and UFP +PQ+MB treated mice.  Cortical DA also was increased in PQ+MB treated animals.  This and additional findings of effects on dopamine pathways and 5-HT levels indicate that early life UFP enhances locomotor reduction in response to PQ+MB challenge and changes striatal catecholamines (DAergic cell terminals), a region critical to PD, while PQ+MB in the same animals produces catecholamine changes in the ventral midbrain (DAergic cell bodies).  Conceivably, this concurrent damage to striatum and midbrain could increase nigral cell death and thereby contribute to a PDP; future analyses will include assessment of TH immunoreactivity and stereological analysis of DAergic cell counts in the SNpc and VTA.

Objective 3: Results:  Early life exposures may contribute to diseases, either during childhood or later in life. We hypothesized that early life exposure to ambient ultrafine particles alters lung response and structural development leading to increased sensitivity to low level environmental challenges as adults.

Balb C and NRF 2-/- mice were exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPS) and 0.3 ppm ozone mixture or vehicle (filtered air) from postnatal days 4-7 and 10-13 for 4 hours/day between 0800 and 1200 hr. Mice received re-exposure starting at either postnatal day 28 or 56.  At this time point mice were vehicle exposed or sensitized to either ova or ova + LPS for 3 days.  Mice then were allowed to recover for 10 days after which they were challenged with vehicle, ova or ova + LPS for an additional 3 days.  Mice were allowed to recover for 48 hours and then were examined.  Analysis of results is ongoing.  Endpoints to be examined will be lavage analysis, airway hyper-reactivity, and cytokine measurements from whole lung homogenates.

A parallel study of the same design in C57Bl6 mice has been performed.  Mice received adult re-exposure starting at 8 or 26 weeks post birth for an additional 4 days creating four exposure groups as follows: postnatal air/adult air, postnatal CAPS/adult CAPS, postnatal 0.3 ppm ozone /adult 0.3 ppm ozone, postnatal CAPS + ozone/adult CAPS + ozone.  A second group of mice will be exposed to influenza virus at the 26 week time point creating four exposure groups as follows:  postnatal CAPS + ozone /adult influenza, postnatal CAPS/adult influenza, postnatal 0.3 ppm/adult influenza, postnatal air/adult influenza.

Initial exposures and 8-week post-birth exposures have occurred and analysis is ongoing.  Twenty-six-week exposures and analysis will begin in December of this year.  Endpoints to be examined will be cytokine and antioxidant mRNA analysis and lavage analysis.  Histologic staining for surfactant and cytokines also will be done.  Final results will be reported next year.

Objective 4: Results:  Dosing the respiratory tract of laboratory rodents can be done by bolus-type delivery (intratracheal instillation, oro-pharyngeal aspiration or by inhalation).  We tested the hypothesis that bolus-type delivery induces a significant acute inflammatory response in the lung, which does not occur after inhalation exposure. To test this hypothesis, we performed a proof-of-principle study and used ultrafine TiO2 particles (~25 nm primary particle size) as surrogate particles.  We deposited 200 µg in the lower respiratory tract of rats either by intratracheal instillation or by 4-hr and 4-day whole-body inhalation.

The resulting inflammatory response 24 hrs post-exposure showed significant differences as determined by the appearance of neutrophils in the lung lavage fluid:  31% and 24% after 200 µg TiO2 instillation in saline and in DPPC/albumin, respectively, and only 6% after a 4-hr inhalation, and no significant inflammation after a 4-day inhalation (~200 µg deposited) of ultrafine TiO2.

These results suggest that results from bolus-type delivery of material to the respiratory tract have to be interpreted with caution.  In particular, high dose rate induced mechanisms are not operating in real-world inhalation exposures.  While results from bolus type administration of PM probably are still useful for toxicity ranking, provided a wide range of doses is tested, they cannot be used for quantitative risk assessment.

Core 5:   Ultrafine Particle Cell Interactions In Vitro: Molecular Mechanisms Leading to Altered Gene Expression in Relation to Particle Composition

Results:  During the past year we have focused on developing approaches that could be used to measure cellular responses to collected and fractionated sample of ambient ultrafine PM. Our strategy has been to use samples obtained from various sources using a novel growth tube device that would increase the yield of material available for testing. Each sample was adjusted to the same final concentration and evaluated in our indicator A549 cell line.  Physical and chemical ambient measurements of the samples collected between the ports of Long Beach and Los Angeles showed that the major sources of the particles were marine diesel combustion, local diesel pollution, nearby freeway pollution, biomass burning, and transport of pollution from California’s Central Valley.  The results indicate that ambient aerosol containing ultrafine PM from marine diesel engines is significantly more reactive inducing oxidative stress than ultrafine TiO2 particles.  Further analyses establishing dose-response curve need to be performed.

Difficulties the Center Has Encountered:

We had difficulties with breeding sufficient numbers of newborn mice to start planned exposures with ambient concentrated ultrafine particles for evaluating pulmonary responses at a young age, and we had to start over with a new breeder pair.  We are also still experiencing problems with collecting source-specific ambient ultrafine particles using a new growth tube/impinger system for studying potential responses in vitro.  A larger model of the growth tube has been developed to be used for collecting source-specific ultrafine particles. In our epidemiological cohort studies, we are still finalizing the proposed genetic analyses and completion of statistical analysis for publication of these studies. Similarly, the final analysis of the large data set of the Rochester Rehab Study in patients with recent coronary events now is performed.

Future Activities:

No workshops or outreach activities are planned.


Journal Articles: 143 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other center views: All 190 publications 156 publications in selected types All 143 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Azadniv M, Torres A, Boscia J, Speers DM, Frasier LM, Utell MJ, Frampton MW. Neutrophils in lung inflammation: which reactive oxygen species are being measured? Inhalation Toxicology 2001;13(6):485-495. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Beckett WS, Chalupa DF, Pauly-Brown A, Speers DM, Stewart JC, Frampton MW, Utell MJ, Huang L-S, Cox C, Zareba W, Oberdorster G. Comparing inhaled ultrafine versus fine zinc oxide particles in healthy adults:a human inhalation study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2005;171(10):1129-1135. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Berger A, Zareba W, Schneider A, Ruckerl R, Ibald-Mulli A, Cyrys J, Wichmann HE, Peters A. Runs of ventricular and supraventricular tachycardia triggered by air pollution in patients with coronary heart disease. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2006;48(11):1149-1158. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Bernard JJ, Seweryniak KE, Koniski AD, Spinelli SL, Blumberg N, Francis CW, Taubman MB, Palis J, Phipps RP. Foxp3 regulates megakaryopoiesis and platelet function. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2009;29(11):1874-1882. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Bezemer GFG, Bauer SM, Oberdorster G, Breysse PN, Pieters RHH, Georas SN, Williams MA. Activation of pulmonary dendritic cells and Th2-type inflammatory responses on instillation of engineered, environmental diesel emission source or ambient air pollutant particles in vivo. Journal of Innate Immunity 2011;3(2):150-166. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Breitner S, Stolzel M, Cyrys J, Pitz M, Wolke G, Kreyling W, Kuchenhoff H, Heinrich J, Wichmann H-E, Peters A. Short-term mortality rates during a decade of improved air quality in Erfurt, Germany. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(3):448-454. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Breysse PN, Delfino RJ, Dominici F, Elder ACP, Frampton MW, Froines JR, Geyh AS, Godleski JJ, Gold DR, Hopke PK, Koutrakis P, Li N, Oberdorster G, Pinkerton KE, Samet JM, Utell MJ, Wexler AS. US EPA particulate matter research centers:summary of research results for 2005–2011. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health 2013;6(2):333-355. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Bruske I, Hampel R, Socher MM, Ruckerl R, Schneider A, Heinrich J, Oberdorster G, Wichmann H-E, Peters A. Impact of ambient air pollution on the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Inhalation Toxicology 2010;22(3):245-252. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Bruske I, Hampel R, Baumgartner Z, Ruckerl R, Greven S, Koenig W, Peters A, Schneider A. Ambient air pollution and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in survivors of myocardial infarction. Environmental Health Perspectives 2011;119(7):921-926. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Cass GR, Hughes LA, Bhave P, Kleeman MJ, Allen JO, Salmon LG. The chemical composition of atmospheric ultrafine particles. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A-Mathematical Physical & Engineering Sciences 2000;358(1775):2581-2592. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Chalupa DC, Morrow PE, Oberdorster G, Utell MJ, Frampton MW. Ultrafine particle deposition in subjects with asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(8):879-882. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Couderc JP, Elder ACP, Cox C, Zareba W, Oberdorster G. Limitations of power-spectrum and time-domain analysis of heart rate variability in short-term ECG recorded using telemetry in unrestrained rats. Computers in Cardiology 2002;29:589-592. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Cyrys J, Heinrich J, Peters A, Kreyling WG, Wichmann H-E. Emissionen, immission und messungen feiner und ultrafeiner partikel (Immission, emissions, and measurements of fine and ultrafine particles). Umweltmedizin in Forschung und Praxis 2002;7(2):67-77. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Cyrys J, Peters A, Soentgen J, Wichmann HE. Low emission zones reduce PM10 mass concentrations and diesel soot in German cities. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2014;64(4):481-487. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Daigle CC, Chalupa DC, Gibb FR, Morrow PE, Oberdorster G, Utell MJ, Frampton MW. Ultrafine particle deposition in humans during rest and exercise. Inhalation Toxicology 2003;15(6):539-552. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Deffner V, Kuechenhoff H, Maier V, Pitz M, Cyrys J, Breitner S, Schneider A, Gu J, Geruschkat U, Peters A. Personal exposure to ultrafine particles: two-level statistical modeling of background exposure and time-activity patterns during three seasons. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2016;26(1):17-25. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Dillner AM, Schauer JJ, Christensen WF, Cass GR. A quantitative method for clustering size distributions of elements. Atmospheric Environment 2005;39(8):1525-1537. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Elder ACP, Gelein R, Azadniv M, Frampton M, Finkelstein J, Oberdorster G. Systemic interactions between inhaled ultrafine particles and endotoxin. Annals of Occupational Hygiene 2002;46(Suppl 1):231-234. R832415 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Elder ACP, Gelein R, Azadniv M, Frampton M, Finkelstein J, Oberdorster G. Systemic effects of inhaled ultrafine particles in two compromised, aged rat strains. Inhalation Toxicology 2004;16(6-7):461-471. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Elder ACP, Gelein R, Oberdorster G, Finkelstein J, Notter R, Wang Z. Efficient depletion of alveolar macrophages using intratracheally inhaled aerosols of liposome-encapsulated clodronate. Experimental Lung Research 2004;30(2):105-120. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Elder A, Gelein R, Finkelstein J, Phipps R, Frampton M, Utell M, Kittelson DB, Watts WF, Hopke P, Jeong C-H, Kim E, Liu W, Zhao W, Zhuo L, Vincent R, Kumarathasan P, Oberdorster G. On-road exposure to highway aerosols. 2. Exposures of aged, compromised rats. Inhalation Toxicology 2004;16(Suppl 1):41-53. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Elder A, Johnston C, Gelein R, Finkelstein J, Wang Z, Notter R, Oberdorster G. Lung inflammation induced by endotoxin is enhanced in rats depleted of alveolar macrophages with aerosolized clodronate. Experimental Lung Research 2005;31(6):527-546. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Elder A, Gelein R, Silva V, Feikert T, Opanashuk L, Carter J, Potter R, Maynard A, Ito Y, Finkelstein J, Oberdorster G. Translocation of inhaled ultrafine manganese oxide particles to the central nervous system. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(8):1172-1178. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Elder A, Couderc J-P, Gelein R, Eberly S, Cox C, Xia X, Zareba W, Hopke P, Watts W, Kittelson D, Frampton M, Utell M, Oberdorster G. Effects of on-road highway aerosol exposures on autonomic responses in aged, spontaneously hypertensive rats. Inhalation Toxicology 2007;19(1):1-12. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Fanning EW, Froines JR, Utell MJ, Lippmann M, Oberdorster G, Frampton M, Godleski J, Larson TV. Particulate Matter (PM) Research Centers (1999-2005) and the role of interdisciplinary center-based research. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(2):167-174. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Fensterer V, Kuchenhoff H, Maier V, Wichmann HE, Breitner S, Peters A, Gu JW, Cyrys J. Evaluation of the impact of low emission zone and heavy traffic ban in Munich (Germany) on the reduction of PM10 in ambient air. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2014;11(5):5094-5112. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Frampton MW. Systemic and cardiovascular effects of airway injury and inflammation: ultrafine particle exposure in humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 2001;109(Suppl 4):529-532. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Frampton MW, Stewart JC, Oberdorster G, Morrow PE, Chalupa D, Pietropaoli AP, Frasier LM, Speers DM, Cox C, Huang L-S, Utell MJ. Inhalation of ultrafine particles alters blood leukocyte expression of adhesion molecules in humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(1):51-58. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Frampton MW. Does inhalation of ultrafine particles cause pulmonary vascular effects in humans? Inhalation Toxicology 2007;19(Suppl 1):75-79. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Frampton MW, Bausch J, Chalupa D, Hopke PK, Little EL, Oakes D, Stewart JC, Utell MJ. Effects of outdoor air pollutants on platelet activation in people with type 2 diabetes. Inhalation Toxicology 2012;24(12):831-838. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Gu J, Pitz M, Breitner S, Birmili W, von Klot S, Schneider A, Soentgen J, Reller A, Peters A, Cyrys J. Selection of key ambient particulate variables for epidemiological studies--applying cluster and heatmap analyses as tools for data reduction. Science of the Total Environment 2012;435-436:541-550. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Hampel R, Schneider A, Bruske I, Zareba W, Cyrys J, Ruckerl R, Breitner S, Korb H, Sunyer J, Wichmann HE, Peters A. Altered cardiac repolarization in association with air pollution and air temperature among myocardial infarction survivors. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(12):1755-1761. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Hampel R, Breitner S, Ruckerl R, Frampton MW, Koenig W, Phipps RP, Wichmann HE, Peters A, Schneider A. Air temperature and inflammatory and coagulation responses in men with coronary or pulmonary disease during the winter season. Occupational & Environmental Medicine 2010;67(6):408-416. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Hampel R, Breitner S, Schneider A, Zareba W, Kraus U, Cyrys J, Geruschkat U, Belcredi P, Muller M, Wichmann HE, Peters A, Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) Study Group. Acute air pollution effects on heart rate variability are modified by SNPs involved in cardiac rhythm in individuals with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Environmental Research 2012;112:177-185. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Hampel R, Breitner S, Zareba W, Kraus U, Pitz M, Geruschkat U, Belcredi P, Peters A, Schneider A, Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg Study Group. Immediate ozone effects on heart rate and repolarisation parameters in potentially susceptible individuals. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2012;69(6):428-436. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Hampel R, Ruckerl R, Yli-Tuomi T, Breitner S, Lanki T, Kraus U, Cyrys J, Belcredi P, Bruske I, Laitinen TM, Timonen K, Wichmann HE, Peters A, Schneider A. Impact of personally measured pollutants on cardiac function. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 2014;217(4-5):460-464. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Han X, Gelein R, Corson N, Wade-Mercer P, Jiang J, Biswas P, Finkelstein JN, Elder A, Oberdorster G. Validation of an LDH assay for assessing nanoparticle toxicity. Toxicology 2011;287(1-3):99-104. R832415 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Han X, Corson N, Wade-Mercer P, Gelein R, Jiang J, Sahu M, Biswas P, Finkelstein JN, Elder A, Oberdorster G. Assessing the relevance of in vitro studies in nanotoxicology by examining correlations between in vitro and in vivo data. Toxicology 2012;297(1-3):1-9. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Henneberger A, Zareba W, Ibald-Mulli A, Ruckerl R, Cyrys J, Couderc J-P, Mykins B, Woelke G, Wichmann H-E, Peters A. Repolarization changes induced by air pollution in ischemic heart disease patients. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(4):440-446. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Hildebrandt K, Ruckerl R, Koenig W, Schneider A, Pitz M, Heinrich J, Marder V, Frampton M, Oberdorster G, Wichmann HE, Peters A. Short-term effects of air pollution: a panel study of blood markers in patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2009;6:25. R832415 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Hopke PK, Ito K, Mar T, Christiansen WF, Eatough DJ, Henry RC, Kim E, Laden F, Lall R, Larson TV, Liu H, Neas L, Pinto J, Stolzel M, Suh H, Paatero P, Thurston GD. PM source apportionment and health effects:1. Intercomparison of source apportionment results. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2006;16(3):275-286. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Ibald-Mulli A, Wichmann HE, Kreyling W, Peters A. Epidemiological evidence on health effects of ultrafine particles. Journal of Aerosol Medicine 2002;15(2):189-201. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Ito K, Christensen WF, Eatough DJ, Henry RC, Kim E, Laden F, Lall R, Larson TV, Neas L, Hopke PK, Thurston GD. PM source apportionment and health effects: 2. An investigation of intermethod variability in associations between source-apportioned fine particle mass and daily mortality in Washington, DC. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2006;16(4):300-310. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Jeong C-H, Hopke PK, Chalupa D, Utell M. Characteristics of nucleation and growth events of ultrafine particles measured in Rochester, NY. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(7):1933-1940. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Jeong C-H, Lee D-W, Kim E, Hopke PK. Measurement of real-time PM2.5 mass, sulfate, and carbonaceous aerosols at the multiple monitoring sites. Atmospheric Environment 2004;38(31):5247-5256. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Jeong C-H, Hopke PK, Kim E, Lee D-W. The comparison between thermal-optical transmittance elemental carbon and Aethalometer black carbon measured at multiple monitoring sites. Atmospheric Environment 2004;38(31):5193-5204. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Jeong C-H, Evans GJ, Hopke PK, Chalupa D, Utell MJ. Influence of atmospheric dispersion and new particle formation events on ambient particle number concentration in Rochester, United States, and Toronto, Canada. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2006;56(4):431-443. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Kim E, Larson TV, Hopke PK, Slaughter C, Sheppard LE, Claiborn C. Source identification of PM2.5 in an arid Northwest U.S. city by positive matrix factorization. Atmospheric Research 2003;66(4):291-305. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Kim E, Hopke PK, Larson TV, Maykut NN, Lewtas J. Factor analysis of Seattle fine particles. Aerosol Science and Technology 2004;38(7):724-738. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Kim E, Hopke PK, Larson TV, Covert DS. Analysis of ambient particle size distributions using Unmix and positive matrix factorization. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(1):202-209. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Kittelson DB, Watts WF, Johnson JP, Remerowki ML, Ische EE, Oberdorster G, Gelein RM, Elder A, Hopke PK, Kim E, Zhao W, Zhou L, Jeong C-H. On-road exposure to highway aerosols. 1. Aerosol and gas measurements. Inhalation Toxicology 2004;16(Suppl 1):31-39. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Kraus U, Breitner S, Schnelle-Kreis J, Cyrys J, Lanki T, Ruckerl R, Schneider A, Bruske I, Gu J, Devlin R, Wichmann H-E, Zimmermann R, Peters A. Particle-associated organic compounds and symptoms in myocardial infarction survivors. Inhalation Toxicology 2011;23(7):431-447. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Kreyling WG, Semmler M, Erbe F, Mayer P, Takenaka S, Schulz H, Oberdorster G, Ziesenis A. Translocation of ultrafine insoluble iridium particles from lung epithelium to extrapulmonary organs is size dependent but very low. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health-Part A 2002;65(20):1513-1530. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Lagudu UR, Raja S, Hopke PK, Chalupa DC, Utell MJ, Casuccio G, Lersch TL, West RR. Heterogeneity of coarse particles in an urban area. Environmental Science & Technology 2011;45(8):3288-3296. R832415 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Lanzinger S, Hampel R, Breitner S, Ruckerl R, Kraus U, Cyrys J, Geruschkat U, Peters A, Schneider A. Short-term effects of air temperature on blood pressure and pulse pressure in potentially susceptible individuals. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 2014;217(7):775-784. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Lippmann M, Frampton M, Schwartz J, Dockery D, Schlesinger R, Koutrakis P, Froines J, Nel A, Finkelstein J, Godleski J, Kaufman J, Koenig J, Larson T, Luchtel D, Liu L-JS, Oberdorster G, Peters A, Sarnat J, Sioutas C, Suh H, Sullivan J, Utell M, Wichmann E, Zelikoff J. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Particulate Matter Health Effects Research Centers Program: a midcourse report of status, progress, and plans. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003;111(8):1074-1092. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Ljungman P, Bellander T, Nyberg F, Lampa E, Jacquemin B, Kolz M, Lanki T, Mitropoulos J, Muller M, Picciotto S, Pistelli R, Ruckerl R, Koenig W, Peters A, AIRGENE Study Group. DNA variants, plasma levels and variability of Interleukin-6 in myocardial infarction survivors: results from the AIRGENE study. Thrombosis Research 2009;124(1):57-64. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Mar TF, Ito K, Koenig JQ, Larson TV, Eatough DJ, Henry RC, Kim E, Laden F, Lall R, Neas L, Stolzel M, Paatero P, Hopke PK, Thurston GD. PM source apportionment and health effects. 3. Investigation of inter-method variations in associations between estimated source contributions of PM2.5 and daily mortality in Phoenix, AZ. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2006;16(4):311-320. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Moffet RC, Shields LG, Berntsen J, Devlin RB, Prather KA. Characterization of an ambient coarse particle concentrator used for human exposure studies: aerosol size distributions, chemical composition, and concentration enrichment. Aerosol Science and Technology 2004;38(11):1123-1137. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Oberdorster G. Pulmonary effects of inhaled ultrafine particles. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 2001;74(1):1-8. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Oberdorster G, Utell MJ. Ultrafine particles in the urban air:to the respiratory tract—and beyond? Environmental Health Perspectives 2002;110(8):A440-A441. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Oberdorster G, Sharp Z, Atudorei V, Elder A, Gelein R, Lunts A, Kreyling W, Cox C. Extrapulmonary translocation of ultrafine carbon particles following whole-body inhalation exposure of rats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues 2002;65(20):1531-1543. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Oberdorster G, Sharp Z, Atudorei V, Elder A, Gelein R, Kreyling W, Cox C. Translocation of inhaled ultrafine particles to the brain. Inhalation Toxicology 2004;16(6-7):437-445. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Oberdorster G, Oberdorster E, Oberdorster J. Nanotoxicology:an emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine particles. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(7):823-839. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Oberdorster G, Stone V, Donaldson K. Toxicology of nanoparticles: a historical perspective. Nanotoxicology 2007;1(1):2-25. R832415 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Oberdorster G, Elder A, Rinderknecht A. Nanoparticles and the brain: cause for concern? Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 2009;9(8):4996-5007. R832415 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Oberdorster G. Safety assessment for nanotechnology and nanomedicine: concepts of nanotoxicology. Journal of Internal Medicine 2010;267(1):89-105. R832415 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Ogulei D, Hopke PK, Chalupa DC, Utell MJ. Modeling source contributions to submicron particle number concentrations measured in Rochester, New York. Aerosol Science and Technology 2007;41(2):179-201. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Pavlovic J, Hopke PK. Technical note: detection and identification of radical species formed from α-pinene/ozone reaction using DMPO spin trap. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 2009;9(6):23695-23717. R832415 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Pavlovic J, Hopke PK. Detection of radical species formed by the ozonolysis of α-pinene. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 2010;66(3):137-155. R832415 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Pavlovic J, Hopke PK. Chemical nature and molecular weight distribution of the water-soluble fine and ultrafine PM fractions collected in a rural environment. Atmospheric Environment 2012;59:264-271. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Pekkanen J, Peters A, Hoek G, Tiittanen P, Brunekreef B, de Hartog J, Heinrich J, Ibald-Mulli A, Kreyling WG, Lanki T, Timonen KL, Vanninen E. Particulate air pollution and risk of ST-segment depression during repeated submaximal exercise tests among subjects with coronary heart disease:the Exposure and Risk Assessment for Fine and Ultrafine Particles in Ambient Air (ULTRA) study. Circulation 2002;106(8):933-938. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Peters A, Heinrich J, Wichmann H-E. Gesundheitliche Wirkungen von Feinstaub: Epidemiologie der Kurzzeiteffekte (Health impact of exposure to fine particles: epidemiology of short-term effects). Umweltmedizin in Forschung und Praxis 2002;7(2):101-115. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Peters A, von Klot S, Heier M, Trentinaglia I, Hormann A, Wichmann HE, Lowel H, Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg Study Group. Exposure to traffic and the onset of myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 2004;351(17):1721-1730. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Peters A. Particulate matter and heart disease:evidence from epidemiological studies. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2005;207(2-Suppl):477-482. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Peters A, Greven S, Heid IM, Baldari F, Breitner S, Bellander T, Chrysohoou C, Illig T, Jacquemin B, Koenig W, Lanki T, Nyberg F, Pekkanen J, Pistelli R, Ruckerl R, Stefanadis C, Schneider A, Sunyer J, Wichmann HE, AIRGENE Study Group. Fibrinogen genes modify the fibrinogen response to ambient particulate matter. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2009;179(6):484-491. R832415 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Peters A. Air quality and cardiovascular health:smoke and pollution matter. Circulation 2009;120(11):924-927. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Peters A, Hampel R, Cyrys J, Breitner S, Geruschkat U, Kraus U, Zareba W, Schneider A. Elevated particle number concentrations induce immediate changes in heart rate variability: a panel study in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism or diabetes. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2015;12:7 (11 pp.). R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Pietropaoli AP, Frampton MW, Hyde RW, Morrow PE, Oberdorster G, Cox C, Speers DM, Frasier LM, Chalupa DC, Huang L-S, Utell MJ. Pulmonary function, diffusing capacity, and inflammation in healthy and asthmatic subjects exposed to ultrafine particles. Inhalation Toxicology 2004;16(Suppl 1):59-72. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Pitz M, Birmili W, Schmid O, Peters A, Wichmann HE, Cyrys J. Quality control and quality assurance for particle size distribution measurements at an urban monitoring station in Augsburg, Germany. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 2008;10(9):1017-1024. R832415 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Pui DYH, Qi C, Stanley N, Oberdorster G, Maynard A. Recirculating air filtration significantly reduces exposure to airborne nanoparticles. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008;116(7):863-866. R832415 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Reemtsma T, These A, Venkatachari P, Xia X, Hopke PK, Springer A, Linscheid M. Identification of fulvic acids and sulfated and nitrated analogues in atmospheric aerosol by electrospray ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry 2006;78(24):8299-8304. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Rich DQ, Zareba W, Beckett W, Hopke PK, Oakes D, Frampton MW, Bisognano J, Chalupa D, Bausch J, O’Shea K, Wang Y, Utell MJ. Are ambient ultrafine, accumulation mode, and fine particles associated with adverse cardiac responses in patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation? Environmental Health Perspectives 2012;120(8):1162-1169. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Riesenfeld E, Chalupa D, Gibb FR, Oberdo G, Gelein R, Morrow PE, Utell MJ, Frampton MW. Ultrafine particle concentrations in a hospital. Inhalation Toxicology 2000;12(Suppl 2):83-94. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Ruckerl R, Ibald-Mulli A, Koenig W, Schneider A, Woelke G, Cyrys J, Heinrich J, Marder V, Frampton M, Wichmann HE, Peters A. Air pollution and markers of inflammation and coagulation in patients with coronary heart disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2006;173(4):432-441. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Ruckerl R, Phipps RP, Schneider A, Frampton M, Cyrys J, Oberdorster G, Wichmann HE, Peters A. Ultrafine particles and platelet activation in patients with coronary heart disease – results from a prospective panel study. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2007;4:1. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Ruckerl R, Hampel R, Breitner S, Cyrys J, Kraus U, Carter J, Dailey L, Devlin RB, Diaz-Sanchez D, Koenig W, Phipps R, Silbajoris R, Soentgen J, Soukup J, Peters A, Schneider A. Associations between ambient air pollution and blood markers of inflammation and coagulation/fibrinolysis in susceptible populations. Environment International 2014;70:32-49. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Ruckerl R, Schneider A, Hampel R, Breitner S, Cyrys J, Kraus U, Gu J, Soentgen J, Koenig W, Peters A. Association of novel metrics of particulate matter with vascular markers of inflammation and coagulation in susceptible populations--results from a panel study. Environmental Research 2016;150:337-347. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Rushton EK, Jiang J, Leonard SS, Eberly S, Castranova V, Biswas P, Elder A, Han X, Gelein R, Finkelstein J, Oberdorster G. Concept of assessing nanoparticle hazards considering nanoparticle dosemetric and chemical/biological response metrics. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 2010;73(5-6):445-461. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Schauble CL, Hampel R, Breitner S, Ruckerl R, Phipps R, Diaz-Sanchez D, Devlin RB, Carter JD, Soukup J, Silbajoris R, Dailey L, Koenig W, Cyrys J, Geruschkat U, Belcredi P, Kraus U, Peters A, Schneider AE. Short-term effects of air temperature on blood markers of coagulation and inflammation in potentially susceptible individuals. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2012;69(9):670-678. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Schneider A, Neas L, Herbst MC, Case M, Williams RW, Cascio W, Hinderliter A, Holguin F, Buse JB, Dungan K, Styner M, Peters A, Devlin RB. Endothelial dysfunction: associations with exposure to ambient fine particles in diabetic individuals. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008;116(12):1666-1674. R832415 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Schneider A, Neas LM, Graff DW, Herbst MC, Cascio WE, Schmitt MT, Buse JB, Peters A, Devlin RB. Association of cardiac and vascular changes with ambient PM2.5 in diabetic individuals. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2010;7:14. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Schneider A, Hampel R, Ibald-Mulli A, Zareba W, Schmidt G, Schneider R, Ruckerl R, Couderc JP, Mykins B, Oberdorster G, Wolke G, Pitz M, Wichmann H-E, Peters A. Changes in deceleration capacity of heart rate and heart rate variability induced by ambient air pollution in individuals with coronary artery disease. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2010;7:29 (12 pp.). R832415 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Schneider A, Alexis NE, Diaz-Sanchez D, Neas LM, Harder S, Herbst MC, Cascio WE, Buse JB, Peters A, Devlin RB. Ambient PM2.5 exposure up-regulates the expression of costimulatory receptors on circulating monocytes in diabetic individuals. Environmental Health Perspectives 2011;119(6):778-783. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Semmler-Behnke M, Takenaka S, Fertsch S, Wenk A, Seitz J, Mayer P, Oberdorster G, Kreyling WG. Efficient elimination of inhaled nanoparticles from the alveolar region: evidence for interstitial uptake and subsequent reentrainment onto airways epithelium. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007;115(5):728-733. R832415 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Shah AP, Pietropaoli AP, Frasier LM, Speers DM, Chalupa DC, Delehanty JM, Huang L-S, Utell MJ, Frampton MW. Effect of inhaled carbon ultrafine particles on reactive hyperemia in healthy human subjects. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008;116(3):375-380. R832415 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Silva VM, Corson N, Elder A, Oberdorster G. The rat ear vein model for investigating in vivo thrombogenicity of ultrafine particles (UFP). Toxicological Sciences 2005;85(2):983-989. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Singal M, Finkelstein JN. Use of indicator cell lines for determining inflammatory gene changes and screening the inflammatory potential of particulate and non-particulate stimuli. Inhalation Toxicology 2005;17(9):415-425. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Singal M, Finkelstein JN. Amorphous silica particles promote inflammatory gene expression through the redox sensitive transcription factor, AP-1, in alveolar epithelial cells. Experimental Lung Research 2005;31(6):581-597. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Spencer MT, Prather KA. Using ATOFMS to determine OC/EC mass fractions in particles. Aerosol Science and Technology 2006;40(8):585-594. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Spencer MT, Shields LG, Sodeman DA, Toner SM, Prather KA. Comparison of oil and fuel particle chemical signatures with particle emissions from heavy and light duty vehicles. Atmospheric Environment 2006;40(27):5224-5235. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Spencer MT, Shields LG, Prather KA. Simultaneous measurement of the effective density and chemical composition of ambient aerosol particles. Environmental Science & Technology 2007;41(4):1303-1309. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Stewart JC, Villasmil ML, Frampton MW. Changes in fluorescence intensity of selected leukocyte surface markers following fixation. Cytometry Part A 2007;71A(6):379-385. R832415 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Stewart JC, Chalupa DC, Devlin RB, Frasier LM, Huang LS, Little EL, Lee SM, Phipps RP, Pietropaoli AP, Taubman MB, Utell MJ, Frampton MW. Vascular effects of ultrafine particles in persons with type 2 diabetes. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(12):1692-1698. R832415 (2011)
    R832415 (Final)
    R832415C003 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Stolzel M, Breitner S, Cyrys J, Pitz M, Wolke G, Kreyling W, Heinrich J, Wichmann H-E, Peters A. Daily mortality and particulate matter in different size classes in Erfurt, Germany. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2007;17(5):458-467. R832415 (2010)
    R832415 (Final)
    R832415C002 (2011)
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    R827354C002 (Final)
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  • Full-text: Nature Publishing - Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Su Y, Sipin MF, Furutani H, Prather KA. Development and characterization of an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer with increased detection efficiency. Analytical Chemistry 2004;76(3):712-719. R832415 (2010)
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  • Full-text: ACS-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Su Y, Sipin MF, Prather KA, Gelein RM, Lunts A, Oberdorster G. ATOFMS characterization of individual model aerosol particles used for exposure studies. Aerosol Science and Technology 2005;39(5):400-407. R832415 (2010)
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  • Full-text: Taylor & Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Su Y, Sipin MF, Spencer MT, Qin X, Moffet RC, Shields LG, Prather KA, Venkatachari P, Jeong C-H, Kim E, Hopke PK, Gelein RM, Utell MJ, Oberdorster G, Berntsen J, Devlin RB, Chen LC. Real-time characterization of the composition of individual particles emitted from ultrafine particle concentrators. Aerosol Science and Technology 2006;40(6):437-455. R832415 (2010)
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  • Full-text: Taylor & Francis - Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Thurston GD, Ito K, Mar T, Christensen WF, Eatough DJ, Henry RC, Kim E, Laden F, Lall R, Larson TV, Liu H, Neas L, Pinto J, Stolzel M, Suh H, Hopke PK. Workgroup report: Workshop on source apportionment of particulate matter health effects—intercomparison of results and implications. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(12):1768-1774. R832415 (2010)
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    R827355C008 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Thurston GD, Bekkedal MY, Roberts EM, Ito K, Pope III CA, Glenn BS, Ozkaynak H, Utell MJ. Use of health information in air pollution health research:past successes and emerging needs. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2009;19(1):45-58. R832415 (2010)
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    R832415C003 (2010)
    R832415C003 (2011)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Nature Publishing-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Toner SM, Shields LG, Sodeman DA, Prather KA. Using mass spectral source signatures to apportion exhaust particles from gasoline and diesel powered vehicles in a freeway study using UF-ATOFMS. Atmospheric Environment 2008;42(3):568-581. R832415 (2010)
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    R832415C001 (2011)
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    R827354C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Utell MJ, Frampton MW. Toxicologic methods: controlled human exposures. Environmental Health Perspectives 2000;108(Suppl 4):605-613. R832415 (2010)
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    R832415C003 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Utell MJ, Frampton MW. Acute health effects of ambient air pollution: the ultrafine particle hypothesis. Journal of Aerosol Medicine 2000;13(4):355-359. R832415 (2010)
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  • Abstract: MaryAnnLiebert-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Utell MJ, Frampton MW, Zareba W, Devlin RB, Cascio WE. Cardiovascular effects associated with air pollution:potential mechanisms and methods of testing. Inhalation Toxicology 2002;14(12):1231-1247. R832415 (2010)
    R832415 (2011)
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    R832415C003 (2011)
    R826781 (2001)
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    R827354C003 (2001)
    R827354C003 (2002)
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  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Taylor and Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Venkatachari P, Hopke PK, Grover BD, Eatough DJ. Measurement of particle-bound reactive oxygen species in rubidoux aerosols. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 2005;50(1):49-58. R832415 (2010)
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    R827354C001 (2003)
    R827354C001 (Final)
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
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  • Other: Environmental Expert-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Venkatachari P, Zhou L, Hopke PK, Felton D, Rattigan OV, Schwab JJ, Demerjian KL. Spatial and temporal variability of black carbon in New York City. Journal of Geophysical Research 2006;111(D10):D10S05 (9 pp.). R832415 (2011)
    R832415 (Final)
    R827354 (Final)
    R827354C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: Wiley Online-Full Text
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  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Venkatachari P, Zhou L, Hopke PK, Schwab JJ, Demerjian KL, Weimer S, Hogrefe O, Felton D, Rattigan O. An intercomparison of measurement methods for carbonaceous aerosol in the ambient air in New York City. Aerosol Science and Technology 2006;40(10):788-795. R832415 (2010)
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  • Full-text: Taylor & Francis-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Venkatachari P, Hopke PK, Brune WH, Ren X, Lesher R, Mao J, Mitchell M. Characterization of wintertime reactive oxygen species concentrations in Flushing, New York. Aerosol Science and Technology 2007;41(2):97-111. R832415 (2010)
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    R832415C001 (2011)
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  • Full-text: Taylor & Francis-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Venkatachari P, Hopke PK. Development and laboratory testing of an automated monitor for the measurement of atmospheric particle-bound reactive oxygen species (ROS). Aerosol Science and Technology 2008;42(8):629-635. R832415 (2007)
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    R832415C001 (2008)
    R832415C001 (2010)
    R832415C001 (2011)
  • Full-text: Taylor & Francis-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Venkatachari P, Hopke PK. Characterization of products formed in the reaction of ozone with α-pinene: case for organic peroxides. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 2008;10(8):966-974. R832415 (2010)
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    R832415C001 (2011)
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  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: RSC-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Venkatachari P, Hopke PK. Development and evaluation of a particle-bound reactive oxygen species generator. Journal of Aerosol Science 2008;39(2):168-174. R832415 (2010)
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    R832415C001 (2011)
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  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Veranth JM, Gelein R, Oberdorster G. Vaporization – condensation generation of ultrafine hydrocarbon particulate matter for inhalation toxicology studies. Aerosol Science and Technology 2003;37(7):603-609. R832415 (2010)
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    R832415C004 (2011)
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  • Full-text: Taylor & Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article von Klot S, Peters A, Aalto P, Bellander T, Berglind N, D'Ippoliti D, Elosua R, Hormann A, Kulmala M, Lanki T, Lowel H, Pekkanen J, Picciotto S, Sunyer J, Forastiere F. Ambient air pollution is associated with increased risk of hospital cardiac readmissions of myocardial infarction survivors in five European cities. Circulation 2005;112(20):3073-3079. R832415 (2010)
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    R827354C002 (Final)
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  • Full-text: Circulation - Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article von Klot S, Cyrys J, Hoek G, Kuhnel B, Pitz M, Kuhn U, Kuch B, Meisinger C, Hormann A, Wichmann HE, Peters A. Estimated personal soot exposure is associated with acute myocardial infarction onset in a case-crossover study. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 2011;53(5):361-368. R832415 (Final)
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  • Full-text: PCD-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Wang Y, Hopke PK, Chalupa DC, Utell MJ. Long-term study of urban ultrafine particles and other pollutants. Atmospheric Environment 2011;45(40):7672-7680. R832415 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Wang Y, Hopke PK, Sun L, Chalupa DC, Utell MJ. Laboratory and field testing of an automated atmospheric particle-bound reactive oxygen species sampling-analysis system. Journal of Toxicology 2011;2011:419476 (10 pp). R832415 (2011)
    R832415 (Final)
    R832415C003 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Wang Y, Hopke PK, Chalupa DC, Utell MJ. Effect of the shutdown of a coal-fired power plant on urban ultrafine particles and other pollutants. Aerosol Science and Techology 2011;45(10):1245-1249. R832415 (2011)
    R832415 (Final)
    R832415C001 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Wang Y, Hopke PK, Utell MJ. Urban-scale spatial-temporal variability of black carbon and winter residential wood combustion particles. Aerosol and Air Quality Research 2011;11(5):473-481. R832415 (2011)
    R832415 (Final)
    R832415C003 (2011)
  • Full-text: AAQR-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Wang Y, Hopke PK, Rattigan OV, Xia X, Chalupa DC, Utell MJ. Characterization of residential wood combustion particles using the two-wavelength aethalometer. Environmental Science & Technology 2011;45(17):7387-7393. R832415 (2011)
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    R832415C001 (2011)
    R832415C003 (2011)
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  • Full-text: ACS-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Wang Y, Hopke PK, Rattigan OV, Chalupa DC, Utell MJ. Multiple-year black carbon measurements and source apportionment using Delta-C in Rochester, New York. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2012;62(8):880-887. R832415 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: ResearchGate-Full Text
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  • Journal Article Wang Y, Hopke PK, Xia X, Rattigan OV, Chalupa DC, Utell MJ. Source apportionment of airborne particulate matter using inorganic and organic species as tracers. Atmospheric Environment 2012;55:525-532. R832415 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Wang Y, Hopke PK, Rattigan OV. A new indicator of fireworks emissions in Rochester, New York. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 2012;184(12):7293-7297. R832415 (Final)
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  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Yue W, Schneider A, Stolzel M, Ruckerl R, Cyrys J, Pan X, Zareba W, Koenig W, Wichmann H-E, Peters A. Ambient source-specific particles are associated with prolonged repolarization and increased levels of inflammation in male coronary artery disease patients. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 2007;621(1-2):50-60. R832415 (2010)
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    R832415C003 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Yue W, Schneider A, Ruckerl R, Koenig W, Marder V, Wang S, Wichmann H-E, Peters A, Zareba W. Relationship between electrocardiographic and biochemical variables in coronary artery disease. International Journal of Cardiology 2007;119(2):185-191. R832415 (2010)
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    R832415C003 (2011)
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  • Abstract: Elsevier-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Yue W, Stolzel M, Cyrys J, Pitz M, Heinrich J, Kreyling WG, Wichmann H-E, Peters A, Wang S, Hopke PK. Source apportionment of ambient fine particle size distribution using positive matrix factorization in Erfurt, Germany. Science of the Total Environment 2008;398(1-3):133-144. R832415 (2007)
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    R832415C001 (2008)
    R832415C001 (2010)
    R832415C001 (2011)
    R832415C002 (2006)
    R832415C002 (2008)
    R832415C002 (2010)
    R832415C002 (2011)
    R827354 (Final)
    R834797 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Zareba W, Nomura A, Couderc JP. Cardiovascular effects of air pollution:what to measure in ECG? Environmental Health Perspectives 2001;109(Suppl 4):533-538. R832415 (2010)
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    R832415C003 (2011)
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    R827354C004 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zareba W, Couderc JP, Oberdorster G, Chalupa D, Cox C, Huang L-S, Peters A, Utell MJ, Frampton MW. ECG parameters and exposure to carbon ultrafine particles in young healthy subjects. Inhalation Toxicology 2009;21(3):223-233. R832415 (2008)
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    R832415C002 (2010)
    R832415C002 (2011)
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    R832415C003 (2011)
    R832415C004 (2009)
    R832415C004 (2010)
    R832415C004 (2011)
    R827354 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zauscher MD, Moore MJK, Lewis GS, Hering SV, Prather KA. Approach for measuring the chemistry of individual particles in the size range critical for cloud formation. Analytical Chemistry 2011;83(6):2271-2278. R832415 (Final)
  • Abstract: ACS-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Zauscher MD, Wang Y, Moore MJK, Gaston CJ, Prather KA. Air quality impact and physicochemical aging of biomass burning aerosols during the 2007 San Diego Wildfires. Environmental Science and Technology 2013;47(14):7633-7643. R832415 (Final)
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  • Abstract: ACS-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Zhao J, Hopke PK. Concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke. Aerosol Science and Technology 2012;46(2):191-197. R832415 (Final)
  • Abstract: Taylor & Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Zhao W, Hopke PK, Qin X, Prather KA. Predicting bulk ambient aerosol compositions from ATOFMS data with ART-2a and multivariate analysis. Analytica Chimica Acta 2005;549(1-2):179-187. R832415 (2010)
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    R831083 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Zhou L, Kim E, Hopke PK, Stanier C, Pandis SN. Mining airborne particulate size distribution data by positive matrix factorization. Journal of Geophysical Research 2005;110(D7):D07S19 (15 pp.). R832415 (2010)
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  • Full-text: Wiley Online-Full Text HTML
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  • Other: University of Iowa-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Zhou L, Hopke PK, Venkatachari P. Cluster analysis of single particle mass spectra at Flushing, NY. Analytica Chimica Acta 2006;555(1):47-56. R832415 (2010)
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, Air, particulate matter, Health Risk Assessment, Risk Assessments, Biochemistry, cardiopulmonary responses, chemical characteristics, fine particles, human health effects, atmospheric particles, airway epithelial cells, airway disease, animal model, airborne particulate matter, air pollution, pariculate matter, human exposure, aerosol composition, epidemiological studies, atmospheric chemistry

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2006 Progress Report
  • 2007 Progress Report
  • 2008 Progress Report
  • 2009 Progress Report
  • 2010 Progress Report
  • Final Report
  • Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R832415C001 Characterization and Source Apportionment
    R832415C002 Epidemiological Studies on Extra Pulmonary Effects of Fresh and Aged Urban Aerosols from Different Sources
    R832415C003 Human Clinical Studies of Concentrated Ambient Ultrafine and Fine Particles
    R832415C004 Animal models: Cardiovascular Disease, CNS Injury and Ultrafine Particle Biokinetics
    R832415C005 Ultrafine Particle Cell Interactions In Vitro: Molecular Mechanisms Leading To Altered Gene Expression in Relation to Particle Composition