2008 Progress Report: Rochester PM Center: Source-Specific Health Effects of Ultrafine/Fine Particles

EPA Grant Number: R832415
Center: Rochester PM Center
Center Director: Oberdörster, Günter
Title: Rochester PM Center: Source-Specific Health Effects of Ultrafine/Fine Particles
Investigators: Oberdörster, Günter , Finkelstein, Jacob N. , Frampton, Mark W. , Hopke, Philip K. , Peters, Annette , Utell, Mark J.
Institution: University of Rochester , Clarkson University , GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2010 (Extended to September 30, 2012)
Project Period Covered by this Report: October 1, 2007 through September 30,2008
Project Amount: $8,000,000
RFA: Particulate Matter Research Centers (2004) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Health Effects , Air

Objective:

INTRODUCTION

The Rochester Center on “Source-Specific Health Effects of Ultrafine/Fine Particles” focuses on the fine (PM2.5) fraction which includes the ultrafine particle (UFP) fraction.  Our studies build on results achieved in the first round of the PM Center program with a specific emphasis to identify health hazards of source-specific physicochemical components of fine PM (e.g., UFP; organics) in epidemiological, controlled clinical, animal, and in vitro studies.  Our focus has shifted to sources and pathophysiological mechanisms by which ambient ultrafine (UF)/fine PM trigger adverse health effects in the cardiovascular system and central nervous system.

We are continuing our multidisciplinary team approach involving scientists from four different institutions, building on key findings of our earlier studies.  Ou studies have found that ambient PM have significant oxidative capacity, that UFP can induce significant effects not only in the respiratory tract but more importantly affect the vascular and cardiac system and that age and underlying disease (susceptibility factors) are critical modifying factors.  Furthermore, our demonstration of their efficient translocation from deposition sites in the respiratory tract to other organs such as heart and CNS provided plausible hypotheses for UFP-induced oxidative stress in those organs.  This could be particularly detrimental in susceptible individuals with dysfunctional vascular endothelium as the earliest manifestation of atherosclerotic vascular disease, such as seen in type 2 diabetes.  These hypotheses are tested in our present studies.

Using real-world UF and fine PM in our studies, our goal is to answer questions related to the fine PM standard such as:  Is there a need for a PM0.1 standard, in addition to the fine (PM2.5) standard?  If so, should the standard be expressed as particle number concentration?  Does the PM2.5 24-hour standard need to be changed to a shorter time (e.g., 8 hr.) standard?  And also, questions related to regulating emissions from specific sources:  Which sources can be identified as emitters of toxicologically important UF/fine particles?  Can specific engineering devices or modifications of technical processes be designed to lower toxicologically important components of UF/fine PM from respective sources?  For example, will the new particle filter trap technology for diesel engines be effective in preventing adverse health effects?

In order to answer these questions, our studies are designed to integrate detailed physicochemical analyses of ambient PM (including hourly size distribution of particle number concentrations for volatile and non-volatile fractions of ambient aerosols, particle mass for volatile and non-volatile fractions of ambient aerosols, particle bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), black smoke, particulate nitrate, sulfate, organic and elemental carbon, total oxidative capacity) with our epidemiological, clinical and toxicological studies when evaluating effects and mechanisms.  While most of these studies are performed using ambient UF/fine PM, we will also use model particles in in vitro and animal studies to address specific mechanistic questions.  The composition of the model particles will be based on our findings with real-world ambient UF/fine PM and on the results of source-apportionment analyses.

Objectives/Hypotheses

The objective in this second round of our Center’s multidisciplinary research is to conduct well-coordinated studies covering several aspects of the Source—Exposure—Dose—Response paradigm.  Our main focus regarding health effects are extrapulmonary organ systems, such as the vascular system, the heart and the CNS.  This focus is based on epidemiological and experimental findings, including our own, of extrapulmonary PM effects and awareness of newer results related to the pathophysiology of endothelial dysfunction and thrombus formation associated with cardiac events in susceptible parts of the population.  Furthermore, we are assessing the role of gene-environment interactions by adding whole genome-wide association analyses to the epidemiological approach.

Our approach involves five research cores performing specific yet highly integrated experiments by a multidisciplinary team of atmospheric scientists, chemists, epidemiologists, pulmonary, vascular and cardiac physicians and scientists, inhalation-, neuro-, cellular- and molecular- toxicologists, diabetologists, and immunologists.

The following summarizes studies of our five integrated research projects to be performed by our multidisciplinary investigator team in Research Cores 1-5.

Progress Summary:

Research Core 1: Exposure Assessment and PM Source Identification

This Core is essential to the other research cores by providing data on the physico-chemical characteristics of ambient PM for correlation with epidemiological, clinical and toxicological outcomes and samples of particulate matter for toxicological investigation.  Examples of the core’s activity over the past 2.5 years are the development of a Field Deployable ROS Monitor.  The Core previously developed a laboratory version of a continuous monitor for particle-bound reactive oxygen species (ROS) (Venkatachari and Hopke, 2008a).  This work demonstrated that it is possible to automate the use of dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) as a non-specific indicator of the oxidative capacity of particle surfaces.  To move this system into the field to permit routine monitoring of particle-bound ROS, a number of problems had to be resolved, including sensitivity, user-friendly operation, reproducibility, and stability.  The result has led to changes in the ROS continuous system.  Further testing of the system is in progress with the expectation that it will be deployed at the NYS DEC site in Rochester late in 2008 where it will operate for at least one year.  The initial plans were to operate it for a month in each quarter, but if the improvements we have made work as they appear to, it may be possible to operate the system continuously over the entire year.

Chemical Characterization of Particle-Bound ROS is another effort to correlate observed health effects with PM reactivity.  To understand the mechanisms of particle-bound ROS formation, identify its likely sources, and determine the chemical pathways that might be influenced by air quality management strategies, we have pursued the chemical characterization of the constituents in particle-bound ROS.  Using the a-pinene/ozone reaction to produce ROS, several new peroxide species have been separated and identified (Venkatachari and Hopke, 2008b).  However, more reactive radical species may be lost in the time it takes to get samples into the analytical instruments.  Further studies of more reactive by-products are underway using spin trapping agents that can help to stabilize these species.  The stabilized complexes can then be examined with high resolution electron spin resonance and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometery so that a better understanding of the nature of the particle-bound ROS will be obtained.

Research on the characterization of urban ultrafine and accumulation mode particles allows composition and size analysis in real time of single particles using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) that was further improved by this Core.  One objective of the research is to greatly expand the understanding of the chemical composition and impact of specific sources of ultrafine particles on human health, as determined in our epidemiological, clinical and toxicological studies.  Another is to develop new sampling methods coupling ATOFMS with high volume cascade impactors such that samples will be collected that represent material primarily from well defined specific sources.  These samples will permit improved characterization of the PM from specific sources as well as providing material for in vitro and in vivo testing of their toxicity in Cores 4 and 5.  Also, a new method for collecting size-resolved samples of ultrafine PM from ambient air directly into an aqueous solution has been developed.  This method gets around issues required with sample collection on filters, where PM species have been determined to be difficult to extract.

Core 2: Epidemiological studies on extra pulmonary effects of fresh and aged urban aerosols from different sources

The objective of the epidemiological study is to determine the effect of fine and ultrafine particles on an acute phase reaction in the blood and on its prothrombotic states. One study involves 240 participants in three panels consisting of subjects with 1) type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 2) impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 3) potential genetic susceptibility. Particles are measured at a central measurement site in Augsburg. In addition, for a subset of 90 individuals, personal measurements of ultrafine particles using a portable condensation particle counter (CPC) as well as of temperature, humidity and noise are undertaken. Furthermore, endothelial dysfunction as a key element of coronary vulnerability as well as cardiac function characterized by ECG measures are assessed in this subset.  The main phase started on the 19th of March 2007 and will presumably be terminated at the end of 2008.

As part of the ongoing Rochester Particle Center investigation more genotyping of the AIRGENE study, a multi-center European study on the impact of air pollution on inflammatory markers, was performed. The analyses on gene-environment interactions for inflammatory responses to PM air pollution are based on an extended candidate gene approach and include also studies on the impact of green vegetables. The approach involves selection of candidate Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) on their impact on mean biomarker level and its variability. 

Results so far indicate that PM10 modifies fibrinogen responses via TLR4 and TNF-a genes and that ultrafine particles modify IL-6 responses via the IL-18 gene.  Furthermore, 18 risk loci for type 2 diabetes and PM exposure were identified indicating an impact on adipokine function as markers of systemic responses for developing insulin resistance, and biomarkers of beta cell function establishing a link between oxidative stress and insulin secretion.  Results from these collaborative Rochester PM Center studies also indicate that green vegetable consumption might protect from air pollution effects.  The ongoing study investigates the influence of genetic disposition in healthy and diabetic participants and implications for air pollution research.  Such genome wide association studies revolutionize current pathomechanisms for diabetes and implicate a larger role for beta cell function, to be considered in air pollution studies.

Another panel study was designed to evaluate in a Cardiac Rehabilitation Center the influence of ambient ultrafine particle exposure on cardiac response parameters.  This multidisciplinary PM Center study involves close collaborations between pulmonologists, cardiologists, atmospheric scientists, biostatisticians and the support of the Center’s Support Cores.

Seventy-five patients from an active cardiac rehabilitation program within the University of Rochester Medical Center are offered enrollment in the health effects study as they enter the Cardiac Rehabilitation program. These are patients who have had a recent coronary event such as myocardial infarction or unstable angina leading to coronary stenting.  In addition to the regularly electrophysiologically monitored exercise of the rehabilitation program, subjects will undergo continuously recorded Holter ECG recordings performed and analyzed by the Cardiac Core allowing evaluation of a series of ECG parameters at rest, during exercise, and during immediate post-exercise period.  Venous blood samples will be obtained once per week and analyzed by the Vascular & Inflammation Core for acute phase reactants (fibrinogen and C-reactive protein).  Concurrently, ultrafine particle number and particle mass will be measured continuously at a central measuring site in downtown Rochester.  In addition, one-third of the patients are   asked to do personal particle count monitoring in their car to and from the rehab facility and in their homes for 48 hours using a portable nuclei counter. Levels of ambient ultrafine and fine particles will then be associated with health data from the cardiac rehabilitation panel study.

To date, 40 of the 75 patients have been enrolled.  To make the ambient measurements of ultrafine particles relevant to subject exposures, we are enrolling subjects who live within 5 miles of the central monitoring site or the Cardiac Rehab Center. Ultrafine particle exposures within and outside the Cardiac Rehab Center are being monitored continuously.

In our analytical plan, we will explore the relationship between closeness of home to roadway and traffic and clinical responses to ultrafine particles in the ongoing panel study.   A key strength of this study is the availability of longitudinal measurements on each subject, corresponding to their successive visits to the rehabilitation center.   In view of the complex relationship between UFP levels and weather (which may independently influence cardiac responses) it will be necessary to examine multivariable models including effects of variations in temperature and relative humidity as well as calendar (e.g. day of week) effects. The functional forms of the potential confounding effects will be explored using penalized spline methodology.

Core 3: Human Clinical Studies of Concentrated Ambient Ultrafine and Fine

Particles

These studies complement our epidemiological studies by focusing on type 2 diabetes as one of several susceptibility factors.  The clinical studies in healthy humans and susceptible individuals with diabetes proposed in this research core focus on the effects of ambient ultrafine and fine particles on three major determinants of adverse cardiac events: 1) blood coagulation induced by effects on platelets and circulating microparticles; 2) cardiac output; and 3) cardiac rhythm and repolarization.  We have initiated human clinical exposures to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles, using the Harvard concentrator and the human exposure chamber that was constructed at Rochester.  Designing these studies and installation and maintenance of the concentrator and exposure system requires close collaboration with Dr. Oberdörster, Research Core #1, and the Aerosol Generation & Analysis Core among PM Center investigators and with Center Support Cores.  We have now completed a clinical study of healthy never-smoking subjects inhaling concentrated ambient UFP using the concentrator. 

Preliminary findings suggest UFP exposure resulted in small increases in diastolic and mean blood pressure immediately after exposure, without changes in heart rate.  There were small reductions in the FEV1 and mid-expiratory flow rates after UFP exposure relative to air.  Flow cytometry analyses, measurement of markers of endothelial and vascular effects, and ECG analyses are underway. 

Before exposing subjects with diabetes to ambient concentrated ultrafine particles, we have completed a study of the effects of inhalation of laboratory-generated ultrafine carbon particles in subjects with diabetes.  Type 2 diabetics, age 30-60, without clinical cardiovascular disease and not on “statin” medications, were exposed to filtered air or 50 µg/m3 carbon UFP (count median diameter ~30 nm, GSD 1.8) by mouthpiece for two hours, in a randomized double-blind cross-over study.  Exposures were separated by at least two weeks.  Nineteen subjects completed the study. 

Compared with air exposure, UFP exposure increased platelet expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L), a marker of platelet activation and a key molecule in the development of atherosclerosis.  UFP exposure also increased platelet-associated tissue factor (TF) and increased the number of microparticles expressing TF.

Analysis of continuous ECG recordings suggests delayed effects of UFP exposure on heart rate.  We concluded that inhalation of carbon UFP for 2 hours may transiently activate vascular endothelium and/or platelets in subjects with type 2 diabetes. This finding supports the hypothesis that exposure to ambient UFP may increase the potential for vascular thrombosis in patients with severe vascular disease or ulcerated atherosclerotic plaques.

Analogous to our epidemiological studies, we plan to include also genetic analyses in our next studies involving exposure of diabetic subjects to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles.

Research Core 4: Animal Models:  Cardiovascular Disease, CNS Injury and Ultrafine Particle Biokinetics

The animal studies are designed to be complementary to the epidemiological and clinical studies and further test hypotheses derived from those studies, but also to explore novel areas of PM research such as effects on the brain, on the developing organism, or the impact of using cleaner fuel on diesel exhaust-induced health effects.  Thus, response measurements take into account endpoints determined in the epidemiological (Core 2) and clinical (Core 3) studies and coordinate mechanistic evaluations with Core 5 in vitro studies.  In addition, effects on the CNS will also be assessed.

Much of our recent studies have been done using JCR rats, a model of type II diabetes.  Although these rats are not hyperglycemic, the JCR cp/cp rats are obese, hyperlipidemic, hyperinsulinemic, and have atherosclerotic and ischemic lesions that are hallmark features of human type II diabetes.  We have completed two studies with the JCR rats, one in which they were exposed to freshly-generated exhaust emission aerosols (two fuel types) in a mobile laboratory and another where the rats were exposed to concentrated ambient UFP-containing aerosols using the Harvard ultrafine particle concentrator (HUCAPS). Endpoints related to lung inflammation, inflammatory cell activation, acute phase responses, and platelet activation were measured after exposure.  Groups of rats were also implanted with radiotransmitters to continuously monitor changes in heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, and activity associated with exposure to exhaust emissions or clean, filtered air.

For most of the lavage fluid and blood serum inflammatory markers, the obese insulin-resistant cp/cp rats had higher levels than in the lean rats.  We also observed a slight decrease in the number of circulating platelet microparticles in obese rats that were exposed to either the concentrated ambient ultrafine particles or exhaust emission aerosols.  Finally, samples obtained from the concentrator study revealed that the JCR cp/cp rats are iron overloaded and that HUCAPS exposure exacerbates this.  The specific implications of this iron overloaded state in JCR cp/cp rats in terms of responses to low-level ambient UFP exposure are not yet clear.  We also found a significant divergence in heart rate following on-road exposures between the air- and full exhaust-exposed rats that increased over time in the post-exposure period.  This data, as well as that from JCR rats exposed to concentrated ultrafine particle-containing atmospheres, is currently being analyzed further.

Our previous studies have demonstrated that inhaled poorly-soluble laboratory-generated UFP travel to the brain and that they cause oxidative stress and inflammation in those regions where particles accumulate.  Recent population-based studies have suggested a link between environmental exposures and the onset of symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases.  We have, therefore, hypothesized that ambient UFP are causally related to these effects due to their ability to accumulate in the brain and to induce oxidative stress.  We tested this hypothesis using a mouse model (transgenic R6/2) of early-onset neurodegeneration (in this case Huntington’s disease, HD).  We exposed the R6/2 mice, starting at 5-7 days of age, to concentrated ambient UFP for 4 hrs/day, 5 days/week, for a total of 6 weeks in whole-body exposure chambers.  About 1 week after the mouse pups were weaned, and then every week thereafter, locomotor function was evaluated.  Statistical analyses revealed that, unlike nontransgenic mice, the locomotor performance of the transgenic mice declined over time.  Serial coronal sections of brain tissue are now being evaluated for striatal atrophy and huntingtin protein (Htt) expression and aggregation.  Other tissues have also been saved so that we can examine Htt aggregation as a result of exposure in other tissues (e.g. lung, heart, pancreas).  These first results are encouraging, and additional studies with this and other mouse models of neurodegeneration are planned to study the potential impact of exposure to ambient PM.

Research Core 5: Ultrafine Particle Cell Interactions In Vitro: Molecular Mechanisms Leading to Altered Gene Expression in Relation to Particle Composition

Experiments in this core are intended to provide a mechanistic link and biological plausibility for the whole animal and controlled clinical (human) exposures, described in the other programs of this Particle Center. Our ability to use defined populations of cells and well characterized particles allow us to test specific hypothesis that arise from the in vivo studies described elsewhere.  A particular focus of the in vitro studies is to attempt to identify mechanisms that may be involved in the enhanced susceptibility of cells from diabetics. Also by working with our particle characterization and analytical cores we will attempt to correlate cellular effects with composition that is related to specific sources. 

A major thrust of the current research of this PM Center is to investigate the proposed increased sensitivity of diabetics to the effects of PM.  Our in vitro studies are designed to model this under controlled conditions.  As we reported previously, one of the hallmarks of the diabetic is the increased blood glucose and we have shown that culture of vascular endothelial cells in high glucose alters both the basal and particle induced cytokine responses. Using this model we have begun to address the response of pulmonary cells to particles collected by a high volume sampler in Rochester.   These would be similar to PM used in animal and human clinical studies carried out using the Harvard ultrafine particle concentrator.  Human respiratory epithelial cells exposed to collected ultrafine particles respond through increased production of IL-6. In contrast to previous work that focussed only on the production of NO and endothelium epithelial cells maintained under conditions of hypergycemia actually produce increased amounts of  IL-6.  This is in contrast to results where HUVEC were cultured under similar conditions. It is also evident that the ambient samples show a somewhat different response in these cells for this marker.  In collaboration with our Analysis core we will attempt to determine if differences in compostion can help explain the differences in activity.

One question raised in our proposed studies is the role of PM induced oxidative stress in the generation of cytokine or NO ( Nitric Oxide) responses. The human clinical studies have been measuring vascular reactivity as a measure of response to inhaled PM.  Included in that battery of outcomes was IL-6 and plasma Nitric Oxide (NO).  To examine this response in a mechanistic manner we measured changes in both of these outcomes in cells that have had their antioxidant status altered by culturing with exogenous antioxidants.

We plan to continue to characterize the response of the microvascular endothelium to particles and begin to model for the effects of diabetes on these responses, including cells of neuronal origin and possibly cardiac muscle. Measurement of prostaglandin production, and COX-2 activation will be evaluated with respect to its usefulness as a marker. 

In support of in vivo projects, we will evaluate in vitro effects of particles of differing composition originating from specific sources as collected by Core 1 in different parts of the country and followed by careful characterization of their physico-chemcial and ROS-inducing properties.  The goal is to correlate source specific properties with biological effects and elucidate underlying mechanisms.

Future Activities:

Figure 1 depicts how the five Research Cores of the Rochester PM Center interact with each other with respect to (i) parallel epidemiological, clinical, animal and in vitro studies with a common focus on cardiovascular health effects and underlying mechanisms, and (ii) sequential studies starting with in vitro investigations of the biological/toxicological activity of fine PM from different sources followed by selection of the most potent PM for subsequent in vivo studies when administered to rats.  Results of the in vivo and in vitro studies combined with results of detailed physicochemical analysis of the UF/fine PM from different sources will be used for correlating source specific and/or chemical specific adverse effects and toxicity.  Our integrated multidisciplinary approach is designed to explore the Source—Exposure—Dose—Response paradigm with the ultimate goal to correlate adverse pulmonary, vascular, cardiac and CNS effects of airborne fine/ultrafine PM and to uncover the mechanisms which cause these effects.  This interactive multidisciplinary team approach – made possible through a Center grant – proved to be very successful and resulted in many novel study designs and findings as evidenced by our publications.  These achievements would have been less likely with several smaller individual grants.

References:

Venkatachari, P., Hopke, P.K. (2008a) Development and Laboratory Testing of an Automated Monitor for the Measurement of Atmospheric Particle-bound Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), Aerosol Sci. Technol. 42:629–635 .

Venkatachari, P., Hopke, P.K. (2008c) Characterization of Products Formed in the Reaction of Ozone with α-Pinene: Case for Organic Peroxides, J. Environmental Monitoring 10, 966–974.


Journal Articles: 143 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other center views: All 190 publications 156 publications in selected types All 143 journal articles
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Journal Article Azadniv M, Torres A, Boscia J, Speers DM, Frasier LM, Utell MJ, Frampton MW. Neutrophils in lung inflammation: which reactive oxygen species are being measured? Inhalation Toxicology 2001;13(6):485-495. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Beckett WS, Chalupa DF, Pauly-Brown A, Speers DM, Stewart JC, Frampton MW, Utell MJ, Huang L-S, Cox C, Zareba W, Oberdorster G. Comparing inhaled ultrafine versus fine zinc oxide particles in healthy adults:a human inhalation study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2005;171(10):1129-1135. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Berger A, Zareba W, Schneider A, Ruckerl R, Ibald-Mulli A, Cyrys J, Wichmann HE, Peters A. Runs of ventricular and supraventricular tachycardia triggered by air pollution in patients with coronary heart disease. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2006;48(11):1149-1158. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Bernard JJ, Seweryniak KE, Koniski AD, Spinelli SL, Blumberg N, Francis CW, Taubman MB, Palis J, Phipps RP. Foxp3 regulates megakaryopoiesis and platelet function. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2009;29(11):1874-1882. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Bezemer GFG, Bauer SM, Oberdorster G, Breysse PN, Pieters RHH, Georas SN, Williams MA. Activation of pulmonary dendritic cells and Th2-type inflammatory responses on instillation of engineered, environmental diesel emission source or ambient air pollutant particles in vivo. Journal of Innate Immunity 2011;3(2):150-166. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Breitner S, Stolzel M, Cyrys J, Pitz M, Wolke G, Kreyling W, Kuchenhoff H, Heinrich J, Wichmann H-E, Peters A. Short-term mortality rates during a decade of improved air quality in Erfurt, Germany. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(3):448-454. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Breysse PN, Delfino RJ, Dominici F, Elder ACP, Frampton MW, Froines JR, Geyh AS, Godleski JJ, Gold DR, Hopke PK, Koutrakis P, Li N, Oberdorster G, Pinkerton KE, Samet JM, Utell MJ, Wexler AS. US EPA particulate matter research centers: summary of research results for 2005–2011. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health 2013;6(2):333-355. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Bruske I, Hampel R, Socher MM, Ruckerl R, Schneider A, Heinrich J, Oberdorster G, Wichmann H-E, Peters A. Impact of ambient air pollution on the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Inhalation Toxicology 2010;22(3):245-252. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Bruske I, Hampel R, Baumgartner Z, Ruckerl R, Greven S, Koenig W, Peters A, Schneider A. Ambient air pollution and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in survivors of myocardial infarction. Environmental Health Perspectives 2011;119(7):921-926. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Cass GR, Hughes LA, Bhave P, Kleeman MJ, Allen JO, Salmon LG. The chemical composition of atmospheric ultrafine particles. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A-Mathematical Physical & Engineering Sciences 2000;358(1775):2581-2592. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Chalupa DC, Morrow PE, Oberdorster G, Utell MJ, Frampton MW. Ultrafine particle deposition in subjects with asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(8):879-882. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Couderc JP, Elder ACP, Cox C, Zareba W, Oberdorster G. Limitations of power-spectrum and time-domain analysis of heart rate variability in short-term ECG recorded using telemetry in unrestrained rats. Computers in Cardiology 2002;29:589-592. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Cyrys J, Heinrich J, Peters A, Kreyling WG, Wichmann H-E. Emissionen, immission und messungen feiner und ultrafeiner partikel (Immission, emissions, and measurements of fine and ultrafine particles). Umweltmedizin in Forschung und Praxis 2002;7(2):67-77. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Cyrys J, Peters A, Soentgen J, Wichmann HE. Low emission zones reduce PM10 mass concentrations and diesel soot in German cities. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2014;64(4):481-487. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Daigle CC, Chalupa DC, Gibb FR, Morrow PE, Oberdorster G, Utell MJ, Frampton MW. Ultrafine particle deposition in humans during rest and exercise. Inhalation Toxicology 2003;15(6):539-552. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Deffner V, Kuechenhoff H, Maier V, Pitz M, Cyrys J, Breitner S, Schneider A, Gu J, Geruschkat U, Peters A. Personal exposure to ultrafine particles: two-level statistical modeling of background exposure and time-activity patterns during three seasons. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2016;26(1):17-25. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Dillner AM, Schauer JJ, Christensen WF, Cass GR. A quantitative method for clustering size distributions of elements. Atmospheric Environment 2005;39(8):1525-1537. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Elder ACP, Gelein R, Azadniv M, Frampton M, Finkelstein J, Oberdorster G. Systemic interactions between inhaled ultrafine particles and endotoxin. Annals of Occupational Hygiene 2002;46(Suppl 1):231-234. R832415 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Elder ACP, Gelein R, Azadniv M, Frampton M, Finkelstein J, Oberdorster G. Systemic effects of inhaled ultrafine particles in two compromised, aged rat strains. Inhalation Toxicology 2004;16(6-7):461-471. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Elder ACP, Gelein R, Oberdorster G, Finkelstein J, Notter R, Wang Z. Efficient depletion of alveolar macrophages using intratracheally inhaled aerosols of liposome-encapsulated clodronate. Experimental Lung Research 2004;30(2):105-120. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Elder A, Gelein R, Finkelstein J, Phipps R, Frampton M, Utell M, Kittelson DB, Watts WF, Hopke P, Jeong C-H, Kim E, Liu W, Zhao W, Zhuo L, Vincent R, Kumarathasan P, Oberdorster G. On-road exposure to highway aerosols. 2. Exposures of aged, compromised rats. Inhalation Toxicology 2004;16(Suppl 1):41-53. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Elder A, Johnston C, Gelein R, Finkelstein J, Wang Z, Notter R, Oberdorster G. Lung inflammation induced by endotoxin is enhanced in rats depleted of alveolar macrophages with aerosolized clodronate. Experimental Lung Research 2005;31(6):527-546. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Elder A, Gelein R, Silva V, Feikert T, Opanashuk L, Carter J, Potter R, Maynard A, Ito Y, Finkelstein J, Oberdorster G. Translocation of inhaled ultrafine manganese oxide particles to the central nervous system. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(8):1172-1178. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Elder A, Couderc J-P, Gelein R, Eberly S, Cox C, Xia X, Zareba W, Hopke P, Watts W, Kittelson D, Frampton M, Utell M, Oberdorster G. Effects of on-road highway aerosol exposures on autonomic responses in aged, spontaneously hypertensive rats. Inhalation Toxicology 2007;19(1):1-12. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Fanning EW, Froines JR, Utell MJ, Lippmann M, Oberdorster G, Frampton M, Godleski J, Larson TV. Particulate Matter (PM) Research Centers (1999-2005) and the role of interdisciplinary center-based research. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(2):167-174. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Fensterer V, Kuchenhoff H, Maier V, Wichmann HE, Breitner S, Peters A, Gu JW, Cyrys J. Evaluation of the impact of low emission zone and heavy traffic ban in Munich (Germany) on the reduction of PM10 in ambient air. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2014;11(5):5094-5112. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Frampton MW. Systemic and cardiovascular effects of airway injury and inflammation: ultrafine particle exposure in humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 2001;109(Suppl 4):529-532. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Frampton MW, Stewart JC, Oberdorster G, Morrow PE, Chalupa D, Pietropaoli AP, Frasier LM, Speers DM, Cox C, Huang L-S, Utell MJ. Inhalation of ultrafine particles alters blood leukocyte expression of adhesion molecules in humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(1):51-58. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Frampton MW. Does inhalation of ultrafine particles cause pulmonary vascular effects in humans? Inhalation Toxicology 2007;19(Suppl 1):75-79. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Frampton MW, Bausch J, Chalupa D, Hopke PK, Little EL, Oakes D, Stewart JC, Utell MJ. Effects of outdoor air pollutants on platelet activation in people with type 2 diabetes. Inhalation Toxicology 2012;24(12):831-838. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Gu J, Pitz M, Breitner S, Birmili W, von Klot S, Schneider A, Soentgen J, Reller A, Peters A, Cyrys J. Selection of key ambient particulate variables for epidemiological studies--applying cluster and heatmap analyses as tools for data reduction. Science of the Total Environment 2012;435-436:541-550. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Hampel R, Schneider A, Bruske I, Zareba W, Cyrys J, Ruckerl R, Breitner S, Korb H, Sunyer J, Wichmann HE, Peters A. Altered cardiac repolarization in association with air pollution and air temperature among myocardial infarction survivors. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(12):1755-1761. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Hampel R, Breitner S, Ruckerl R, Frampton MW, Koenig W, Phipps RP, Wichmann HE, Peters A, Schneider A. Air temperature and inflammatory and coagulation responses in men with coronary or pulmonary disease during the winter season. Occupational & Environmental Medicine 2010;67(6):408-416. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Hampel R, Breitner S, Schneider A, Zareba W, Kraus U, Cyrys J, Geruschkat U, Belcredi P, Muller M, Wichmann HE, Peters A, Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) Study Group. Acute air pollution effects on heart rate variability are modified by SNPs involved in cardiac rhythm in individuals with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Environmental Research 2012;112:177-185. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Hampel R, Breitner S, Zareba W, Kraus U, Pitz M, Geruschkat U, Belcredi P, Peters A, Schneider A, Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg Study Group. Immediate ozone effects on heart rate and repolarisation parameters in potentially susceptible individuals. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2012;69(6):428-436. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Hampel R, Ruckerl R, Yli-Tuomi T, Breitner S, Lanki T, Kraus U, Cyrys J, Belcredi P, Bruske I, Laitinen TM, Timonen K, Wichmann HE, Peters A, Schneider A. Impact of personally measured pollutants on cardiac function. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 2014;217(4-5):460-464. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Han X, Gelein R, Corson N, Wade-Mercer P, Jiang J, Biswas P, Finkelstein JN, Elder A, Oberdorster G. Validation of an LDH assay for assessing nanoparticle toxicity. Toxicology 2011;287(1-3):99-104. R832415 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Han X, Corson N, Wade-Mercer P, Gelein R, Jiang J, Sahu M, Biswas P, Finkelstein JN, Elder A, Oberdorster G. Assessing the relevance of in vitro studies in nanotoxicology by examining correlations between in vitro and in vivo data. Toxicology 2012;297(1-3):1-9. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Henneberger A, Zareba W, Ibald-Mulli A, Ruckerl R, Cyrys J, Couderc J-P, Mykins B, Woelke G, Wichmann H-E, Peters A. Repolarization changes induced by air pollution in ischemic heart disease patients. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(4):440-446. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Hildebrandt K, Ruckerl R, Koenig W, Schneider A, Pitz M, Heinrich J, Marder V, Frampton M, Oberdorster G, Wichmann HE, Peters A. Short-term effects of air pollution: a panel study of blood markers in patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2009;6:25. R832415 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Hopke PK, Ito K, Mar T, Christiansen WF, Eatough DJ, Henry RC, Kim E, Laden F, Lall R, Larson TV, Liu H, Neas L, Pinto J, Stolzel M, Suh H, Paatero P, Thurston GD. PM source apportionment and health effects:1. Intercomparison of source apportionment results. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2006;16(3):275-286. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Ibald-Mulli A, Wichmann HE, Kreyling W, Peters A. Epidemiological evidence on health effects of ultrafine particles. Journal of Aerosol Medicine 2002;15(2):189-201. R832415 (2010)
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  • Abstract: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc Publishers - Abstract
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  • Journal Article Ito K, Christensen WF, Eatough DJ, Henry RC, Kim E, Laden F, Lall R, Larson TV, Neas L, Hopke PK, Thurston GD. PM source apportionment and health effects: 2. An investigation of intermethod variability in associations between source-apportioned fine particle mass and daily mortality in Washington, DC. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2006;16(4):300-310. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Jeong C-H, Hopke PK, Chalupa D, Utell M. Characteristics of nucleation and growth events of ultrafine particles measured in Rochester, NY. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(7):1933-1940. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Jeong C-H, Lee D-W, Kim E, Hopke PK. Measurement of real-time PM2.5 mass, sulfate, and carbonaceous aerosols at the multiple monitoring sites. Atmospheric Environment 2004;38(31):5247-5256. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Jeong C-H, Hopke PK, Kim E, Lee D-W. The comparison between thermal-optical transmittance elemental carbon and Aethalometer black carbon measured at multiple monitoring sites. Atmospheric Environment 2004;38(31):5193-5204. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Jeong C-H, Evans GJ, Hopke PK, Chalupa D, Utell MJ. Influence of atmospheric dispersion and new particle formation events on ambient particle number concentration in Rochester, United States, and Toronto, Canada. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2006;56(4):431-443. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Kim E, Larson TV, Hopke PK, Slaughter C, Sheppard LE, Claiborn C. Source identification of PM2.5 in an arid Northwest U.S. city by positive matrix factorization. Atmospheric Research 2003;66(4):291-305. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Kim E, Hopke PK, Larson TV, Maykut NN, Lewtas J. Factor analysis of Seattle fine particles. Aerosol Science and Technology 2004;38(7):724-738. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Kim E, Hopke PK, Larson TV, Covert DS. Analysis of ambient particle size distributions using Unmix and positive matrix factorization. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(1):202-209. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Kittelson DB, Watts WF, Johnson JP, Remerowki ML, Ische EE, Oberdorster G, Gelein RM, Elder A, Hopke PK, Kim E, Zhao W, Zhou L, Jeong C-H. On-road exposure to highway aerosols. 1. Aerosol and gas measurements. Inhalation Toxicology 2004;16(Suppl 1):31-39. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Kraus U, Breitner S, Schnelle-Kreis J, Cyrys J, Lanki T, Ruckerl R, Schneider A, Bruske I, Gu J, Devlin R, Wichmann H-E, Zimmermann R, Peters A. Particle-associated organic compounds and symptoms in myocardial infarction survivors. Inhalation Toxicology 2011;23(7):431-447. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Kreyling WG, Semmler M, Erbe F, Mayer P, Takenaka S, Schulz H, Oberdorster G, Ziesenis A. Translocation of ultrafine insoluble iridium particles from lung epithelium to extrapulmonary organs is size dependent but very low. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health-Part A 2002;65(20):1513-1530. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Lagudu UR, Raja S, Hopke PK, Chalupa DC, Utell MJ, Casuccio G, Lersch TL, West RR. Heterogeneity of coarse particles in an urban area. Environmental Science & Technology 2011;45(8):3288-3296. R832415 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Lanzinger S, Hampel R, Breitner S, Ruckerl R, Kraus U, Cyrys J, Geruschkat U, Peters A, Schneider A. Short-term effects of air temperature on blood pressure and pulse pressure in potentially susceptible individuals. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 2014;217(7):775-784. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Lippmann M, Frampton M, Schwartz J, Dockery D, Schlesinger R, Koutrakis P, Froines J, Nel A, Finkelstein J, Godleski J, Kaufman J, Koenig J, Larson T, Luchtel D, Liu L-JS, Oberdorster G, Peters A, Sarnat J, Sioutas C, Suh H, Sullivan J, Utell M, Wichmann E, Zelikoff J. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Particulate Matter Health Effects Research Centers Program: a midcourse report of status, progress, and plans. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003;111(8):1074-1092. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Ljungman P, Bellander T, Nyberg F, Lampa E, Jacquemin B, Kolz M, Lanki T, Mitropoulos J, Muller M, Picciotto S, Pistelli R, Ruckerl R, Koenig W, Peters A, AIRGENE Study Group. DNA variants, plasma levels and variability of Interleukin-6 in myocardial infarction survivors: results from the AIRGENE study. Thrombosis Research 2009;124(1):57-64. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Mar TF, Ito K, Koenig JQ, Larson TV, Eatough DJ, Henry RC, Kim E, Laden F, Lall R, Neas L, Stolzel M, Paatero P, Hopke PK, Thurston GD. PM source apportionment and health effects. 3. Investigation of inter-method variations in associations between estimated source contributions of PM2.5 and daily mortality in Phoenix, AZ. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2006;16(4):311-320. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Moffet RC, Shields LG, Berntsen J, Devlin RB, Prather KA. Characterization of an ambient coarse particle concentrator used for human exposure studies: aerosol size distributions, chemical composition, and concentration enrichment. Aerosol Science and Technology 2004;38(11):1123-1137. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Oberdorster G. Pulmonary effects of inhaled ultrafine particles. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 2001;74(1):1-8. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Oberdorster G, Utell MJ. Ultrafine particles in the urban air:to the respiratory tract—and beyond? Environmental Health Perspectives 2002;110(8):A440-A441. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Oberdorster G, Sharp Z, Atudorei V, Elder A, Gelein R, Lunts A, Kreyling W, Cox C. Extrapulmonary translocation of ultrafine carbon particles following whole-body inhalation exposure of rats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues 2002;65(20):1531-1543. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Oberdorster G, Sharp Z, Atudorei V, Elder A, Gelein R, Kreyling W, Cox C. Translocation of inhaled ultrafine particles to the brain. Inhalation Toxicology 2004;16(6-7):437-445. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Oberdorster G, Oberdorster E, Oberdorster J. Nanotoxicology:an emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine particles. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(7):823-839. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Oberdorster G, Stone V, Donaldson K. Toxicology of nanoparticles: a historical perspective. Nanotoxicology 2007;1(1):2-25. R832415 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Oberdorster G, Elder A, Rinderknecht A. Nanoparticles and the brain: cause for concern? Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 2009;9(8):4996-5007. R832415 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Oberdorster G. Safety assessment for nanotechnology and nanomedicine: concepts of nanotoxicology. Journal of Internal Medicine 2010;267(1):89-105. R832415 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Ogulei D, Hopke PK, Chalupa DC, Utell MJ. Modeling source contributions to submicron particle number concentrations measured in Rochester, New York. Aerosol Science and Technology 2007;41(2):179-201. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Pavlovic J, Hopke PK. Technical note: detection and identification of radical species formed from α-pinene/ozone reaction using DMPO spin trap. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 2009;9(6):23695-23717. R832415 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Pavlovic J, Hopke PK. Detection of radical species formed by the ozonolysis of α-pinene. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 2010;66(3):137-155. R832415 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Pavlovic J, Hopke PK. Chemical nature and molecular weight distribution of the water-soluble fine and ultrafine PM fractions collected in a rural environment. Atmospheric Environment 2012;59:264-271. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Pekkanen J, Peters A, Hoek G, Tiittanen P, Brunekreef B, de Hartog J, Heinrich J, Ibald-Mulli A, Kreyling WG, Lanki T, Timonen KL, Vanninen E. Particulate air pollution and risk of ST-segment depression during repeated submaximal exercise tests among subjects with coronary heart disease:the Exposure and Risk Assessment for Fine and Ultrafine Particles in Ambient Air (ULTRA) study. Circulation 2002;106(8):933-938. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Peters A, Heinrich J, Wichmann H-E. Gesundheitliche Wirkungen von Feinstaub: Epidemiologie der Kurzzeiteffekte (Health impact of exposure to fine particles: epidemiology of short-term effects). Umweltmedizin in Forschung und Praxis 2002;7(2):101-115. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Peters A, von Klot S, Heier M, Trentinaglia I, Hormann A, Wichmann HE, Lowel H, Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg Study Group. Exposure to traffic and the onset of myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 2004;351(17):1721-1730. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Peters A. Particulate matter and heart disease:evidence from epidemiological studies. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2005;207(2-Suppl):477-482. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Peters A, Greven S, Heid IM, Baldari F, Breitner S, Bellander T, Chrysohoou C, Illig T, Jacquemin B, Koenig W, Lanki T, Nyberg F, Pekkanen J, Pistelli R, Ruckerl R, Stefanadis C, Schneider A, Sunyer J, Wichmann HE, AIRGENE Study Group. Fibrinogen genes modify the fibrinogen response to ambient particulate matter. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2009;179(6):484-491. R832415 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Peters A. Air quality and cardiovascular health:smoke and pollution matter. Circulation 2009;120(11):924-927. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Peters A, Hampel R, Cyrys J, Breitner S, Geruschkat U, Kraus U, Zareba W, Schneider A. Elevated particle number concentrations induce immediate changes in heart rate variability: a panel study in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism or diabetes. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2015;12:7 (11 pp.). R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Pietropaoli AP, Frampton MW, Hyde RW, Morrow PE, Oberdorster G, Cox C, Speers DM, Frasier LM, Chalupa DC, Huang L-S, Utell MJ. Pulmonary function, diffusing capacity, and inflammation in healthy and asthmatic subjects exposed to ultrafine particles. Inhalation Toxicology 2004;16(Suppl 1):59-72. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Pitz M, Birmili W, Schmid O, Peters A, Wichmann HE, Cyrys J. Quality control and quality assurance for particle size distribution measurements at an urban monitoring station in Augsburg, Germany. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 2008;10(9):1017-1024. R832415 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Pui DYH, Qi C, Stanley N, Oberdorster G, Maynard A. Recirculating air filtration significantly reduces exposure to airborne nanoparticles. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008;116(7):863-866. R832415 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Reemtsma T, These A, Venkatachari P, Xia X, Hopke PK, Springer A, Linscheid M. Identification of fulvic acids and sulfated and nitrated analogues in atmospheric aerosol by electrospray ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry 2006;78(24):8299-8304. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Rich DQ, Zareba W, Beckett W, Hopke PK, Oakes D, Frampton MW, Bisognano J, Chalupa D, Bausch J, O’Shea K, Wang Y, Utell MJ. Are ambient ultrafine, accumulation mode, and fine particles associated with adverse cardiac responses in patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation? Environmental Health Perspectives 2012;120(8):1162-1169. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Riesenfeld E, Chalupa D, Gibb FR, Oberdo G, Gelein R, Morrow PE, Utell MJ, Frampton MW. Ultrafine particle concentrations in a hospital. Inhalation Toxicology 2000;12(Suppl 2):83-94. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Ruckerl R, Ibald-Mulli A, Koenig W, Schneider A, Woelke G, Cyrys J, Heinrich J, Marder V, Frampton M, Wichmann HE, Peters A. Air pollution and markers of inflammation and coagulation in patients with coronary heart disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2006;173(4):432-441. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Ruckerl R, Phipps RP, Schneider A, Frampton M, Cyrys J, Oberdorster G, Wichmann HE, Peters A. Ultrafine particles and platelet activation in patients with coronary heart disease – results from a prospective panel study. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2007;4:1. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Ruckerl R, Hampel R, Breitner S, Cyrys J, Kraus U, Carter J, Dailey L, Devlin RB, Diaz-Sanchez D, Koenig W, Phipps R, Silbajoris R, Soentgen J, Soukup J, Peters A, Schneider A. Associations between ambient air pollution and blood markers of inflammation and coagulation/fibrinolysis in susceptible populations. Environment International 2014;70:32-49. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Ruckerl R, Schneider A, Hampel R, Breitner S, Cyrys J, Kraus U, Gu J, Soentgen J, Koenig W, Peters A. Association of novel metrics of particulate matter with vascular markers of inflammation and coagulation in susceptible populations--results from a panel study. Environmental Research 2016;150:337-347. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Rushton EK, Jiang J, Leonard SS, Eberly S, Castranova V, Biswas P, Elder A, Han X, Gelein R, Finkelstein J, Oberdorster G. Concept of assessing nanoparticle hazards considering nanoparticle dosemetric and chemical/biological response metrics. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 2010;73(5-6):445-461. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Schauble CL, Hampel R, Breitner S, Ruckerl R, Phipps R, Diaz-Sanchez D, Devlin RB, Carter JD, Soukup J, Silbajoris R, Dailey L, Koenig W, Cyrys J, Geruschkat U, Belcredi P, Kraus U, Peters A, Schneider AE. Short-term effects of air temperature on blood markers of coagulation and inflammation in potentially susceptible individuals. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2012;69(9):670-678. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Schneider A, Neas L, Herbst MC, Case M, Williams RW, Cascio W, Hinderliter A, Holguin F, Buse JB, Dungan K, Styner M, Peters A, Devlin RB. Endothelial dysfunction: associations with exposure to ambient fine particles in diabetic individuals. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008;116(12):1666-1674. R832415 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Schneider A, Neas LM, Graff DW, Herbst MC, Cascio WE, Schmitt MT, Buse JB, Peters A, Devlin RB. Association of cardiac and vascular changes with ambient PM2.5 in diabetic individuals. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2010;7:14. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Schneider A, Hampel R, Ibald-Mulli A, Zareba W, Schmidt G, Schneider R, Ruckerl R, Couderc JP, Mykins B, Oberdorster G, Wolke G, Pitz M, Wichmann H-E, Peters A. Changes in deceleration capacity of heart rate and heart rate variability induced by ambient air pollution in individuals with coronary artery disease. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2010;7:29 (12 pp.). R832415 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Schneider A, Alexis NE, Diaz-Sanchez D, Neas LM, Harder S, Herbst MC, Cascio WE, Buse JB, Peters A, Devlin RB. Ambient PM2.5 exposure up-regulates the expression of costimulatory receptors on circulating monocytes in diabetic individuals. Environmental Health Perspectives 2011;119(6):778-783. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Semmler-Behnke M, Takenaka S, Fertsch S, Wenk A, Seitz J, Mayer P, Oberdorster G, Kreyling WG. Efficient elimination of inhaled nanoparticles from the alveolar region: evidence for interstitial uptake and subsequent reentrainment onto airways epithelium. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007;115(5):728-733. R832415 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Shah AP, Pietropaoli AP, Frasier LM, Speers DM, Chalupa DC, Delehanty JM, Huang L-S, Utell MJ, Frampton MW. Effect of inhaled carbon ultrafine particles on reactive hyperemia in healthy human subjects. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008;116(3):375-380. R832415 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Silva VM, Corson N, Elder A, Oberdorster G. The rat ear vein model for investigating in vivo thrombogenicity of ultrafine particles (UFP). Toxicological Sciences 2005;85(2):983-989. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Singal M, Finkelstein JN. Use of indicator cell lines for determining inflammatory gene changes and screening the inflammatory potential of particulate and non-particulate stimuli. Inhalation Toxicology 2005;17(9):415-425. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Singal M, Finkelstein JN. Amorphous silica particles promote inflammatory gene expression through the redox sensitive transcription factor, AP-1, in alveolar epithelial cells. Experimental Lung Research 2005;31(6):581-597. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Spencer MT, Prather KA. Using ATOFMS to determine OC/EC mass fractions in particles. Aerosol Science and Technology 2006;40(8):585-594. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Spencer MT, Shields LG, Sodeman DA, Toner SM, Prather KA. Comparison of oil and fuel particle chemical signatures with particle emissions from heavy and light duty vehicles. Atmospheric Environment 2006;40(27):5224-5235. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Spencer MT, Shields LG, Prather KA. Simultaneous measurement of the effective density and chemical composition of ambient aerosol particles. Environmental Science & Technology 2007;41(4):1303-1309. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Stewart JC, Villasmil ML, Frampton MW. Changes in fluorescence intensity of selected leukocyte surface markers following fixation. Cytometry Part A 2007;71A(6):379-385. R832415 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Stewart JC, Chalupa DC, Devlin RB, Frasier LM, Huang LS, Little EL, Lee SM, Phipps RP, Pietropaoli AP, Taubman MB, Utell MJ, Frampton MW. Vascular effects of ultrafine particles in persons with type 2 diabetes. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(12):1692-1698. R832415 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Stolzel M, Breitner S, Cyrys J, Pitz M, Wolke G, Kreyling W, Heinrich J, Wichmann H-E, Peters A. Daily mortality and particulate matter in different size classes in Erfurt, Germany. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2007;17(5):458-467. R832415 (2010)
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  • Full-text: Nature Publishing - Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Su Y, Sipin MF, Furutani H, Prather KA. Development and characterization of an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer with increased detection efficiency. Analytical Chemistry 2004;76(3):712-719. R832415 (2010)
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  • Full-text: ACS-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Su Y, Sipin MF, Prather KA, Gelein RM, Lunts A, Oberdorster G. ATOFMS characterization of individual model aerosol particles used for exposure studies. Aerosol Science and Technology 2005;39(5):400-407. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Su Y, Sipin MF, Spencer MT, Qin X, Moffet RC, Shields LG, Prather KA, Venkatachari P, Jeong C-H, Kim E, Hopke PK, Gelein RM, Utell MJ, Oberdorster G, Berntsen J, Devlin RB, Chen LC. Real-time characterization of the composition of individual particles emitted from ultrafine particle concentrators. Aerosol Science and Technology 2006;40(6):437-455. R832415 (2010)
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  • Full-text: Taylor & Francis - Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Thurston GD, Ito K, Mar T, Christensen WF, Eatough DJ, Henry RC, Kim E, Laden F, Lall R, Larson TV, Liu H, Neas L, Pinto J, Stolzel M, Suh H, Hopke PK. Workgroup report: Workshop on source apportionment of particulate matter health effects—intercomparison of results and implications. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(12):1768-1774. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Thurston GD, Bekkedal MY, Roberts EM, Ito K, Pope III CA, Glenn BS, Ozkaynak H, Utell MJ. Use of health information in air pollution health research:past successes and emerging needs. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2009;19(1):45-58. R832415 (2010)
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    R832415C003 (2010)
    R832415C003 (2011)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Nature Publishing-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Toner SM, Shields LG, Sodeman DA, Prather KA. Using mass spectral source signatures to apportion exhaust particles from gasoline and diesel powered vehicles in a freeway study using UF-ATOFMS. Atmospheric Environment 2008;42(3):568-581. R832415 (2010)
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  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Utell MJ, Frampton MW. Toxicologic methods: controlled human exposures. Environmental Health Perspectives 2000;108(Suppl 4):605-613. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Utell MJ, Frampton MW. Acute health effects of ambient air pollution: the ultrafine particle hypothesis. Journal of Aerosol Medicine 2000;13(4):355-359. R832415 (2010)
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  • Abstract: MaryAnnLiebert-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Utell MJ, Frampton MW, Zareba W, Devlin RB, Cascio WE. Cardiovascular effects associated with air pollution:potential mechanisms and methods of testing. Inhalation Toxicology 2002;14(12):1231-1247. R832415 (2010)
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    R832415C003 (2011)
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    R827354C003 (2002)
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  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Taylor and Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Venkatachari P, Hopke PK, Grover BD, Eatough DJ. Measurement of particle-bound reactive oxygen species in rubidoux aerosols. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 2005;50(1):49-58. R832415 (2010)
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  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
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  • Other: Environmental Expert-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Venkatachari P, Zhou L, Hopke PK, Felton D, Rattigan OV, Schwab JJ, Demerjian KL. Spatial and temporal variability of black carbon in New York City. Journal of Geophysical Research 2006;111(D10):D10S05 (9 pp.). R832415 (2011)
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  • Full-text: Wiley Online-Full Text
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  • Journal Article Venkatachari P, Zhou L, Hopke PK, Schwab JJ, Demerjian KL, Weimer S, Hogrefe O, Felton D, Rattigan O. An intercomparison of measurement methods for carbonaceous aerosol in the ambient air in New York City. Aerosol Science and Technology 2006;40(10):788-795. R832415 (2010)
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  • Full-text: Taylor & Francis-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Venkatachari P, Hopke PK, Brune WH, Ren X, Lesher R, Mao J, Mitchell M. Characterization of wintertime reactive oxygen species concentrations in Flushing, New York. Aerosol Science and Technology 2007;41(2):97-111. R832415 (2010)
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  • Full-text: Taylor & Francis-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Venkatachari P, Hopke PK. Development and laboratory testing of an automated monitor for the measurement of atmospheric particle-bound reactive oxygen species (ROS). Aerosol Science and Technology 2008;42(8):629-635. R832415 (2007)
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    R832415C001 (2008)
    R832415C001 (2010)
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  • Full-text: Taylor & Francis-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Venkatachari P, Hopke PK. Characterization of products formed in the reaction of ozone with α-pinene: case for organic peroxides. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 2008;10(8):966-974. R832415 (2010)
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    R832415C001 (2011)
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  • Abstract: RSC-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Venkatachari P, Hopke PK. Development and evaluation of a particle-bound reactive oxygen species generator. Journal of Aerosol Science 2008;39(2):168-174. R832415 (2010)
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    R832415C001 (2011)
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  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Veranth JM, Gelein R, Oberdorster G. Vaporization – condensation generation of ultrafine hydrocarbon particulate matter for inhalation toxicology studies. Aerosol Science and Technology 2003;37(7):603-609. R832415 (2010)
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  • Full-text: Taylor & Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article von Klot S, Peters A, Aalto P, Bellander T, Berglind N, D'Ippoliti D, Elosua R, Hormann A, Kulmala M, Lanki T, Lowel H, Pekkanen J, Picciotto S, Sunyer J, Forastiere F. Ambient air pollution is associated with increased risk of hospital cardiac readmissions of myocardial infarction survivors in five European cities. Circulation 2005;112(20):3073-3079. R832415 (2010)
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  • Full-text: Circulation - Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article von Klot S, Cyrys J, Hoek G, Kuhnel B, Pitz M, Kuhn U, Kuch B, Meisinger C, Hormann A, Wichmann HE, Peters A. Estimated personal soot exposure is associated with acute myocardial infarction onset in a case-crossover study. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 2011;53(5):361-368. R832415 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Wang Y, Hopke PK, Chalupa DC, Utell MJ. Long-term study of urban ultrafine particles and other pollutants. Atmospheric Environment 2011;45(40):7672-7680. R832415 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Wang Y, Hopke PK, Sun L, Chalupa DC, Utell MJ. Laboratory and field testing of an automated atmospheric particle-bound reactive oxygen species sampling-analysis system. Journal of Toxicology 2011;2011:419476 (9 pp). R832415 (2011)
    R832415 (Final)
    R832415C003 (2011)
    R831078 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Wang Y, Hopke PK, Chalupa DC, Utell MJ. Effect of the shutdown of a coal-fired power plant on urban ultrafine particles and other pollutants. Aerosol Science and Techology 2011;45(10):1245-1249. R832415 (2011)
    R832415 (Final)
    R832415C001 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Wang Y, Hopke PK, Utell MJ. Urban-scale spatial-temporal variability of black carbon and winter residential wood combustion particles. Aerosol and Air Quality Research 2011;11(5):473-481. R832415 (2011)
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    R832415C003 (2011)
    R831078 (Final)
  • Full-text: AAQR-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Wang Y, Hopke PK, Rattigan OV, Xia X, Chalupa DC, Utell MJ. Characterization of residential wood combustion particles using the two-wavelength aethalometer. Environmental Science & Technology 2011;45(17):7387-7393. R832415 (2011)
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    R832415C001 (2011)
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  • Full-text: ACS-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Wang Y, Hopke PK, Rattigan OV, Chalupa DC, Utell MJ. Multiple-year black carbon measurements and source apportionment using Delta-C in Rochester, New York. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2012;62(8):880-887. R832415 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: ResearchGate-Full Text
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  • Journal Article Wang Y, Hopke PK, Xia X, Rattigan OV, Chalupa DC, Utell MJ. Source apportionment of airborne particulate matter using inorganic and organic species as tracers. Atmospheric Environment 2012;55:525-532. R832415 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Wang Y, Hopke PK, Rattigan OV. A new indicator of fireworks emissions in Rochester, New York. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 2012;184(12):7293-7297. R832415 (Final)
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  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Yue W, Schneider A, Stolzel M, Ruckerl R, Cyrys J, Pan X, Zareba W, Koenig W, Wichmann H-E, Peters A. Ambient source-specific particles are associated with prolonged repolarization and increased levels of inflammation in male coronary artery disease patients. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 2007;621(1-2):50-60. R832415 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Yue W, Schneider A, Ruckerl R, Koenig W, Marder V, Wang S, Wichmann H-E, Peters A, Zareba W. Relationship between electrocardiographic and biochemical variables in coronary artery disease. International Journal of Cardiology 2007;119(2):185-191. R832415 (2010)
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    R832415C003 (2011)
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  • Abstract: Elsevier-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Yue W, Stolzel M, Cyrys J, Pitz M, Heinrich J, Kreyling WG, Wichmann H-E, Peters A, Wang S, Hopke PK. Source apportionment of ambient fine particle size distribution using positive matrix factorization in Erfurt, Germany. Science of the Total Environment 2008;398(1-3):133-144. R832415 (2007)
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    R832415C001 (2008)
    R832415C001 (2010)
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    R832415C002 (2006)
    R832415C002 (2008)
    R832415C002 (2010)
    R832415C002 (2011)
    R827354 (Final)
    R834797 (2016)
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  • Journal Article Zareba W, Nomura A, Couderc JP. Cardiovascular effects of air pollution:what to measure in ECG? Environmental Health Perspectives 2001;109(Suppl 4):533-538. R832415 (2010)
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    R832415C003 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Zareba W, Couderc JP, Oberdorster G, Chalupa D, Cox C, Huang L-S, Peters A, Utell MJ, Frampton MW. ECG parameters and exposure to carbon ultrafine particles in young healthy subjects. Inhalation Toxicology 2009;21(3):223-233. R832415 (2008)
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    R832415C002 (2010)
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    R832415C003 (2011)
    R832415C004 (2009)
    R832415C004 (2010)
    R832415C004 (2011)
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  • Journal Article Zauscher MD, Moore MJK, Lewis GS, Hering SV, Prather KA. Approach for measuring the chemistry of individual particles in the size range critical for cloud formation. Analytical Chemistry 2011;83(6):2271-2278. R832415 (Final)
  • Abstract: ACS-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Zauscher MD, Wang Y, Moore MJK, Gaston CJ, Prather KA. Air quality impact and physicochemical aging of biomass burning aerosols during the 2007 San Diego Wildfires. Environmental Science and Technology 2013;47(14):7633-7643. R832415 (Final)
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  • Abstract: ACS-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Zhao J, Hopke PK. Concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke. Aerosol Science and Technology 2012;46(2):191-197. R832415 (Final)
  • Abstract: Taylor & Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Zhao W, Hopke PK, Qin X, Prather KA. Predicting bulk ambient aerosol compositions from ATOFMS data with ART-2a and multivariate analysis. Analytica Chimica Acta 2005;549(1-2):179-187. R832415 (2010)
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    R831083 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Zhou L, Kim E, Hopke PK, Stanier C, Pandis SN. Mining airborne particulate size distribution data by positive matrix factorization. Journal of Geophysical Research 2005;110(D7):D07S19 (15 pp.). R832415 (2010)
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  • Full-text: Wiley Online-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Zhou L, Hopke PK, Venkatachari P. Cluster analysis of single particle mass spectra at Flushing, NY. Analytica Chimica Acta 2006;555(1):47-56. R832415 (2010)
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    RFA, Scientific Discipline, Health, Air, particulate matter, Health Risk Assessment, Risk Assessments, Biochemistry, airway epithelial cells, atmospheric particles, cardiopulmonary responses, chemical characteristics, fine particles, human health effects, airborne particulate matter, animal model, airway disease, air pollution, pariculate matter, aerosol composition, human exposure, epidemiological studies, atmospheric chemistry

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2006 Progress Report
  • 2007 Progress Report
  • 2009 Progress Report
  • 2010 Progress Report
  • 2011 Progress Report
  • Final Report
  • Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R832415C001 Characterization and Source Apportionment
    R832415C002 Epidemiological Studies on Extra Pulmonary Effects of Fresh and Aged Urban Aerosols from Different Sources
    R832415C003 Human Clinical Studies of Concentrated Ambient Ultrafine and Fine Particles
    R832415C004 Animal models: Cardiovascular Disease, CNS Injury and Ultrafine Particle Biokinetics
    R832415C005 Ultrafine Particle Cell Interactions In Vitro: Molecular Mechanisms Leading To Altered Gene Expression in Relation to Particle Composition