Final Report: Southern California Particle Center (SCPC)

EPA Grant Number: R832413
Center: Southern California Particle Center
Center Director: Froines, John R.
Title: Southern California Particle Center (SCPC)
Investigators: Froines, John R. , Cho, Arthur K. , Delfino, Ralph , Fine, Philip M. , Fukuto, Jon , Harkema, Jack , Hinds, William C. , Kleinman, Michael T. , Kumagai, Yoshito , Lusis, Aldons , Nel, Andre E. , Neuhausen, Susan , Schauer, James J. , Sioutas, Constantinos , Staimer, Norbert , Stram, Dan , Vaziri, Nostratola
Institution: University of California - Los Angeles , Michigan State University , University of California - Irvine , University of Southern California , University of Tsukuba , University of Wisconsin
EPA Project Officer: Hunt, Sherri
Project Period: October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2010 (Extended to September 30, 2012)
Project Amount: $7,999,994
RFA: Particulate Matter Research Centers (2004) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Health Effects , Air

Objective:

The overall objective of the Southern California Particle Center (SCPC) is to bring together outstanding scientists to conduct high priority research to elucidate the underlying basis for health effects associated with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). The overall goal of the SCPC is to establish linkages between PM source emissions, underlying mechanisms of toxicity and resulting health effects. Fine and ultrafine particles derived from mobile sources continue to serve as foci for SCPC interdisciplinary studies that include exposure, toxicology, chemical characterization and epidemiology. Health effects research centers around identifying mechanisms of PM-induced cardiovascular effects and allergic airways disease and the exposure conditions and components that are associated with observed chemical and toxicological mechanisms.

The research of the Center is divided into five inter-related project areas. The primary objective of Project 1 is to examine the relationships between PM sources, exposure, and toxicity within the urban atmosphere. This project is an integral part of Projects 2, 3 and 4 by serving as the field operations to collect PM samples for toxicity testing and for providing concentrated ambient PM for animal exposure models. The primary objective of Project 2 is to elucidate the mechanism(s) of PM-induced asthma and atherosclerosis exacerbation in vitro and in vivo, using animal studies conducted in a mobile trailer, in vitro studies in representative tissue culture cells, and genomics and proteomics methodologies. In Project 3, the catalytic redox and electrophilic properties of ambient PM samples are characterized using cell-free chemical assays. The overall goal of Project 4 is to advance knowledge on the importance of particle size and composition to the induction of oxidative stress responses in a high-risk population of elderly people with coronary artery disease. Project 5 consists of three subprojects that either directly or indirectly seek to improve our ability to assess health risk of air pollution by chemical and biological assays used by SCPC.

The research conducted over the seven years within the auspices of the SCPC could not have occurred without the integrated nature of the investigations. The exposure/emissions/field sampling research under project 1 and 5 formed the basis for the chemical and biological studies that addressed the mechanism of the adverse health effects from exposure to air pollution. We would not have had characterization of PM and vapor phase co-pollutants and the subsequent biological and chemicals studies without the linkage between Project 1 and 5 and the other projects. The success of the SCPC relied heavily on the links between characterization, sample collection, and quantification. The overall research would have been impossible if carried out as disparate subprojects. This is a qualitative distinction not simply a quantitative comparison.

Projects 2, 3 and 4 all addressed issues of oxidative stress; the findings in each Project reinforced the findings of one another. Of major importance was the links between ultrafine particles in Project 2 with the recognition of prooxidant and electrophilic activity from PM and the vapor phase in Project 3. The collective results of our work indicated that a key mechanistic feature was the cellular uptake of ultrafine PM with the particles having adsorbed toxics and condensed phase toxics and the potential for metals and organic compounds becoming bioavailable in the respiratory cells. The recognition of the chemistry involving metals as prooxidant species and organic compounds as electrophiles had not been reported previously and these findings establish the logic of the chemistry that occurs with air pollution. The role of oxidative stress is central to toxicity. By oxidative stress we mean the changes in the oxidative characteristics of the cell. The covalent bonding with thiol groups of proteins or cofactors change the oxidative potential and this serves to create oxidative stress. The research results demonstrate fundamental basis for health effects from air pollution, and this has not previously been addressed until the creation of the PM Centers. These findings represent fundamental differences with the traditional views of PM toxicity, and provide logic for the mechanistic findings. Coupled with these findings was the recognition of the potential for adjuvant effects from ultrafine particles. The collective research results are described in more detail below where we describe the fundamental hypotheses of our Center.

Several principal hypotheses and themes provide a basis for integrated interdisciplinary research in the SCPC. As previously stated a principal hypothesis is that PM is capable of redox activity and electrophilic reactions, the redox and electrophilic properties vary with PM source, size fraction, volatility, and other physical properties, relevant to the toxicity of PM samples. In particular, organic components of the ultrafine fraction of ambient and source specific samples has been an ongoing focus. A second key hypothesis that follows upon the first is that induction of oxidative stress is a key mechanism of PM toxicity, a mechanism that promotes respiratory and cardiovascular inflammation as a major pathological feature underlying asthma and atherosclerosis. This hypothesis has been explored in the context of cellular studies, animal research and a human panel study. The individual project reports detail the major advances made in each project.

SCPC has pursued the hypothesis that ultrafine particles (UFP) possess distinct toxic properties compared to other size fractions. A highly sensitive mouse model system for studying the adjuvant effect of ambient PM on allergic sensitization was developed by Project 2 investigators in earlier years of the SCPC. Concentrated ambient PM samples were administered by intranasal instillation into ovalbumin sensitized mice, and were characterized with respect to chemical composition, chemical reactivity, and pro-oxidative effects in vitro. The findings demonstrate that ambient UFPs, but not F/UF, can act as an adjuvant to promote TH2 polarization and to enhance allergic sensitization. The adjuvant effect of UFP is associated with its ability to generate redox active species in the DTT assay. The key compositional difference between the size fractions was the much greater percentage of UFP mass from organic carbon. To pursue development of possible biomarkers for allergic inflammation, the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from sensitized mice with and without exposure to UFP is being analyzed to identify proteins that may be key markers for oxidative stress.

The five SCPC projects were intellectually and practically linked with one another. The projects were dependent on one another and this formed the basis for a collective effort. The outcome of the overall Center was dependent on the integration of the projects. The Center research outcome would not have been possible without links between projects. SCPC investigators were the recipients of major extramural funding from EPA, NIEHS, NIH, California Air Resources Board, South Coast Air Quality Management District and other sources. The overall productivity of the Center was therefore dependent on external sources. The additional funding would not have been possible were it not for the core funding of the SCPC. The research productivity is a reflection of the combined funding from multiple agencies and sources (Figure 1).

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

The primary objective of Project 1 was to examine the relationships between PM sources, exposure, and toxicity within the constraints of the urban atmosphere. This project was central to issues of emissions, field sampling and exposure. This project is an integral part of Projects 2, 3 and 4, by serving as the field operations to collect PM samples for toxicity testing and for providing elevated levels of ambient PM for animal exposure models described in these projects. The major themes are:

  1. Physical and chemical properties of PM emitted from different PM sources.
    • To determine their emission rates of PM species vs size
    • To evaluate how exposure to PM from these sources vary with respect to location, season, and particle size,
    • In conjunction with Projects 2, 3 and 4 to assess their relative toxicity by providing in vitro PM samples to the PIs of these projects
  2. Determine the characteristics of the volatile and non-volatile particle components of these sources. Provide in vitro samples to Projects 2- 3
  3. Measure exposure gradients and intra-community variability of PM from complex, unstudied sources such as airports and port activities.
  4. Collect concurrently samples for Projects 2-3To assess the contributions of outdoor sources to indoor exposure in support of Project 4.

The specific aims intrinsic to Project 2 are listed below. The success of this extensive project is due to the interaction with all of the Center’s projects, namely 1, 3 and 4. The findings are voluminous and will not be described further here. See the findings in the Project itself for more information.

A primary objective of this application was to determine, using in vitro and in vivo studies, the mechanism(s) by which ambient PM components contribute to asthma and atherogenesis. The principal hypothesis was that PM-induced oxidative stress initiates a series of biological effects that promote airway inflammation and atherosclerosis. Integral to this hypothesis is the role of antioxidant defense pathways that protect against the pro-inflammatory effects of PM. A failure to respond to oxidative stress by mounting an appropriate antioxidant defense could constitute the basis of PM susceptibility. Progress in studying the adjuvant effect of PM has led to a more in-depth elucidation in the mechanisms by which ambient PM contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic disease such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Our research on the impact of PM on cardiovascular system has increased our understanding in the mechanisms that are responsible for the proatherogenic effect of PM.

Aim 1: Normal and genetically susceptible mice were used to study the role of oxidative stress in PM-induced exacerbation of asthma and atherosclerosis

Aim 2: In vitro toxicology studies was employed to assess the effects of variation in ambient PM composition on the induction of oxidative stress and inflammation in tissue culture macrophages, airway epithelial cells, and endothelial cells.

Aim 3: We will use serum samples collected from indoor exposed elderly human subjects with ischemic heart disease in Project 4 to determine how oxidation of HDL affects the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of this lipoprotein fraction

Project 3 was a unifying project in the SCPC from a mechanistic standpoint. Our underlying hypothesis is that acute adverse effects of air pollutants could be accounted for by chemical species capable of either or both of two basic reactions, prooxidant and electrophilic. The cellular responses to particles and air samples (vapor phase) are both pro and anti-inflammatory, i.e., when cells are exposed to particles and vapors, transcription factors associated with inflammation and with anti-inflammation, are activated simultaneously. The overall effect of ambient air will be determined by the nature and quantities of the responsible chemical species. Ambient air particulates are a complex mixture of metals and reactive organic compounds. Transition metals are prooxidants, i.e., they generate reactive oxygen species such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide through reactions with cellular antioxidants such as ascorbate. Quinones are prooxidants but are also electrophilic, i.e., they can form covalent bonds with protein side chain groups such as thiols. Other electrophiles such as organic compounds with α,β-unsaturated carbonyl functions are also present in ambient air samples. These chemical reactions, the formation of reactive oxygen by prooxidants and the formation of covalent bonds by electrophiles, are the major reactions associated with the adverse health effects of ambient particles, for as prooxidants they can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are associated with oxidative stress and, as electrophiles, can react with nucleophilic thiols to form covalent bonds with key biological molecules.

Prooxidant air pollutants will generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical, using cellular reducing agents or antioxidants. These ROS can convert protein thiolates to their sulfenates, and initiate cellular cascades that lead to inflammatory and adaptive responses. Electrophilic pollutants can conjugate with thiol proteins in an irreversible reaction, thereby inactivating the protein. Transcription factor regulators and many other regulator proteins contain cysteine thiols that are readily oxidized to the sulfenic acid state by ROS, most notably hydrogen peroxide. This process is reversed in cells by a chemical reaction involving glutathione as the reducing agent and is the major pathway for activation and inactivation of these proteins. Thiols are also nucleophilic and will form covalent bonds with electrophilic compounds such as quinones and α,β unsaturated carbonyl compounds. In this case, recovery of the thiols requires resynthesis of the irreversibly modified protein, which could have a lengthy time constant.

To test our hypothesis, we attempted to demonstrate:

  1. The presence of reactive organic chemical species in air pollutant mixtures.
  2. The ability of air pollutant mixtures to participate in toxicologically relevant reactions.
  3. The ability of cells, when exposed to air pollutants, respond in a dose dependent manner with changes consistent with the reported health effects

In summary, studies of the particle and vapor phase of ambient aerosols collected in the Los Angeles Basin have shown the following:

  1. That prooxidants are found almost completely in the particle phase and in the particle phase mostly metal based, as shown by sensitivity to DTPA.
  2. As the vapor phase is collected on XAD resins and extracted with dichloromethane or other organic solvent, the contents are organic. These compounds exhibit high levels of electrophilic activity with some prooxidant activity.
  3. Particles cause a concentration dependent increase in the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine, TNFα, with minimal or no effect on HO-1, while the vapors cause a concentration dependent induction of HO-1.
  4. The organic species associated with particles are prooxidant in character. One of the more active prooxidants, 9,10-phenanthroquinone is mostly found in the particle phase, while the more electrophilic naphthoquinones are found in the vapor phase.
  5. Ambient particles may contain significant levels of humic like substances which are both redox and electrophilically active. These species would have different toxicokinetic properties and the actions on cells could be different because of the manner they act on or enter cells.

Future studies will further characterize the chemical nature of prooxidants and electrophiles together with their biological effects with funding from other sources. We will also attempt to identify the molecular targets of air pollutants by further characterization of the cellular responses, examining transcription factors and gene expression.

See Appendix 1 for a description of the results of a joint project between the SCPC and the South Coast Air Quality Management District relating to toxicologic pathways of rail yard emissions on non-cancer health impacts. This project reflects the integration of our research with other funding sources. It would not have occurred without the collective effort associated with the EPA funding.

The overall goal of Project 4 was to advance knowledge on the importance of particle size and composition to the induction of oxidative stress responses. The findings in Project 4 are consistent with those of Projects 2 and 3. Project 4 was a cohort panel study with repeated measures of outcomes and exposures in 60 elderly subjects with a history of coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that circulating biomarkers of systemic responses related to oxidative stress (in up to 12 weekly blood samples) would be associated with exposure to indoor and outdoor home PM mass and total particle number concentration. Given the interplay between oxidative stress and inflammation, we anticipated this would support the view that PM leads to systemic inflammatory responses and adverse impacts on cardiovascular function (also measured in subjects). We further hypothesized that biomarkers would be more strongly associated with predicted indoor exposure to PM of outdoor origin (from source tracer analyses). We also evaluated effects of exposure to specific metals, elemental and organic carbon, estimates of primary and secondary organic aerosol fractions of PM, and specific organic components in PM that we used as source tracers. We further hypothesized that biomarker associations with ultrafine and fine PM would be better explained by an in vitro assay of PM oxidative potential. Individual susceptibility was also assessed, including medication use and polymorphisms in genes coding for proteins involved in oxidative stress responses.

Project 4 investigators prospectively followed a cohort panel of elderly people with coronary artery disease living in retirement communities of the Los Angeles air basin. They found positive associations of circulating biomarkers of inflammation and platelet activation in plasma with both quasi-ultrafine particle mass and markers of exposures linked to fossil fuel combustion (including PM2.5 carbonaceous aerosols), but not with transition metals, secondary (photochemically-related) organic carbon or ozone. In a majority subset of this panel, they also found that erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities decreased with exposure to the same air pollutants. Since the erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes were also inversely associated with circulating biomarkers of inflammation, it is possible that enzyme inactivation may play a role in the pro-inflammatory effects of air pollutants. In the same panel, Project 4 investigators found significant and large increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in relation to PM2.5 mass, black carbon, and primary organic carbon exposures. Blood pressure was more weakly associated with secondary organic carbon, and was not associated with ozone. In a parallel analysis of ambulatory electrocardiograph data from 38 of the subjects in the panel, Project 4 investigators found significant associations between the risk of ST segment depression ³1.0 mm with exposure to quasi-ultrafine particles and markers of primary products of fossil fuel combustion. ST segment depression was not associated with PM2.5, secondary organic carbon or ozone. These results suggest that primary products of fossil fuel combustion lead to an increased risk of myocardial ischemia.

Overall, these significant findings for quasi-ultrafine particles and markers of traffic-related particles support the hypothesis that redox-active and other particle components from the combustion of fossil fuel directly affect cardiovascular target sites resulting in systemic inflammation and platelet activation. As a possible result of this and other mechanisms, these same exposures are significantly associated with adverse cardiovascular responses including increased blood pressure and electrocardiographic evidence of cardiac ischemia.

The objectives of Project 5 are (1) to determine the relative contributions of gaseous and particle components of ambient air samples to oxidative stress related health effects and (2) to evaluate environmental factors that might affect the accuracy of the chemical and biological assays used by the SCPC. Subproject (2) includes efforts that either directly or indirectly seek to improve our ability to assess health risk of air pollution by chemical and biological assays.

In Subproject (1) we have completed taking a set of large simultaneous samples of both particulate and gas phase contaminants from the same volume of air. Both phases were used for the full slate of bioassays and detailed chemical analysis. Samples were taken at three different locations having a different mix of fresh, aged, and photochemically produced contaminants: a freeway adjacent site, an urban site and a receptor site. The assays of these samples are complete and are reported in the final project summary for Project 3. Subproject (2) previously included an evaluation of the aerosol concentrator for use with these assays. That investigation is now complete.

To reiterate, the research carried out in the SCPC could not have been accomplished without the strong linkages between projects. The success of the Center was based on integrative research and the findings were consistent with one another. The mechanistic hypotheses served to integrate the research and served the basis for exceptional new findings heretofore not recognized. This Center was a model for integrated research and provided major advances in our understanding of the health effects of PM and vapor phase co-pollutants.

Appendix 1: Toxicologic Pathways of Rail Yard Emission Exposure on Non-Cancer Health Impacts

Introduction

The goal of this project was to utilize both quantitative chemical and cellular assays to assess the potential health effects of ambient air samples collected in residential neighborhoods surrounding rail yards. In the study, ambient aerosols were collected, their particle and vapor phases assayed for prooxidant and electrophile content and their effects on inflammatory and cytoprotective proteins determined.

The project had three objectives:

  1. To determine the chemical properties of ambient air in residential neighborhoods near the three most polluted rail facilities in the state.
  2. To establish a cellular assay for a stress response and for an adaptive response to ambient air pollutants.
  3. To determine the cellular effects of the ambient air samples using the assays established in objective 2, and to analyze their quantitative relationship with the chemical assays performed in objective 1.
  4. Engage local community residents living near three (3) rail yard facilities to determine sampling locations and share research results.

Summary

  1. Collections.

    Two collection campaigns were conducted, one examined sites neighboring the three major railyards in Southern California, Commerce, Long Beach and San Bernardino (Three Communities study). The second study examined aerosols from neighborhoods surrounding the Commerce Railyard (Neighborhood Sites study). Large scale samples of particles, collected on Teflon filters and vapors, collected by XAD resin beds were obtained. . Collection sites were screened and chosen during community tours guided by East Yard Communities for Environmental Justice (EYCEJ) in Commerce, West Long Beach Neighborhood Association (WLBNA) in Long Beach and Center for Community Action and Environmental Justice (CCAEJ) in San Bernardino.

  2. Chemical characterization.

    The long (48 hour) collection protocol resulted in a mixing of up and down wind aerosols, and reduced differences in the samples collected. As a result, only trends between the sites could be noted. However, some differences in the chemical and biological properties of the ambient aerosols were observed:

    1. In the Three Communities study, particle prooxidant levels in the Commerce area tended to be higher than those for Long Beach and San Bernardino. In contrast, the electrophile content of vapor samples collected during the summer in San Bernardino was substantially higher than those for the other two sites (Table 1).
    2. The focus on neighboring sites of the Commerce Railyards (Neighborhood Sites) proved to be more effective in assessing the differences in chemical properties of railyard emissions. Particle prooxidants were higher near the railyards than in a background site upwind from the yards. Although a small fraction of the total, the vapor phase prooxidants were higher in those sites near high locomotive and railyard activities (Table 2).
    3. The particle prooxidants from all sites were mostly (>80%) metals, and most prooxidant activity was found in the particle phase, while most of the electrophiles were in the vapor phase (Table 1).

  3. Biological characterization

    The expression of two proteins, the inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and the cytoprotective or adaptive enzyme, hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) by macrophages in response to the particle and vapor phases of the ambient aerosols was monitored as measures of inflammatory and cytoprotective or adaptive responses, respectively. Quantitative enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) procedures were established in the laboratory for these proteins with the objective of direct comparison with chemical reactivities. Selected samples from each of the two studies were then analyzed by these procedures and the results showed:

    1. The summer samples from San Bernadino were the most active of the three community collections in terms of both TNFα and HO-1 expression, with TNFα induction caused only by the particles and HO-1 induction only by the vapor phase (table 1) . These results have been submitted for publication.
    2. Preliminary data from the Commerce railyard Neighborhood Sites study showed that aerosols from the sites closest to the railyards, which included a main yard site and a maintenance site, were the most active in inducing TNFα and were higher than a site reflecting truck traffic as well as the background site (table 2). As with the aerosols from the three community study, TNFα induction was caused only by particles and HO-1 induction only by vapors.
    3. A correlation analysis was performed on the neighborhood study to assess the contributions of the chemical reactivities to the biological responses. The results, (table 3), showed the important influence of vapor phase reactivities to the cellular effects. As the analysis is based on preliminary data, the values are subject to change, but the trends should be valid; they indicate that vapor phase electrophile content correlated with both HO-1 induction and PM based TNFα induction. The latter correlation was better than that with PM prooxidant or electrophile content. Based on these data, vapor phase electrophile content would appear to be a good predictor of both proinflammatory and adaptive responses.

Conclusions:

Conclusions and discussion

  1. The overall observations made in this project indicate that the particle phase of the aerosols studied is responsible for the inflammatory response, with the vapor phase inducing a cytoprotective or adaptive response. Results of the correlation analysis (table 3) show that the chemical reactivity contributions are less clear because of the strong influence of the vapor phase reactivities which correlate with both HO-1 and TNFα induction. Thus, although the PM are primarily prooxidant in content, PM prooxidant content does not correlate as well with PM TNFα induction as do both prooxidant and electrophile content of the vapor phase. One possible explanation may be the nature of the prooxidants in the two phases. The PM prooxidants are mostly metals, as shown by the almost complete loss of activity by a metal chelator, whereas the vapor phase contents are all organic compounds. If the effects are due to the organic species of both phases, correlation of TNFα induction with the vapor phase reactivities may result. This possibility is being investigated in solvent based fractionation of diesel exhaust particles.
  2. Results from the Commerce Neighborhood Sites study suggested that the aerosols closest to the railyard had the highest proinflammatory actions, with the area close to the maintenance yard the highest. The vapors from the same aerosols exhibited the same tendencies, i.e., those closest to the railyards induced the highest levels of HO-1.
  3. The distribution of the biological effects between the particle and vapor phase points out the importance of both phases in assessing the net health effects of ambient aerosols and the need for simultaneous monitoring of particles and vapors. The induction of the adaptive or cytoprotective protein, HO-1 by the vapor phase suggests that with repeated exposure, an attenuation of the inflammatory effects of particles may occur, thereby reducing the potential adverse health effects of the entire aerosol. This notion should be investigated as it would affect the interpretation of regulatory data based on particle count.
  4. In January 2011, a day-long closed-door seminar was held at UCLA to share study results with and answer questions from the three community groups. The agenda for this meeting can be seen in Appendix 1. In May, sampling and toxicological analysis results were publicly shared in the three communities at task force meetings, whose attendees included U.S. EPA, Department of Toxic Substances Control, South Coast Air Quality Management District, staff and board members, California Air Resources Board, County Enforcement staff, local decision makers, including the new city council members, community residents and participants in the rail yard study (i.e.: those who offered their property as a sampling site). Products of these meetings are available upon request.

Future directions and objectives

The data shown in tables 1 and 2 utilized samples collected in one week. Additional analyses will be performed to validate the conclusions made and to expand the correlation analysis to a larger number of samples.

Further studies of the properties of the samples need to be conducted. The issue of metal vs. organic based compounds in the particle phase will be addressed in organic solvent based extraction studies of these and other diesel exhaust samples to characterize the physical chemical properties of biologically active components of emissions. Feedback forms will be sent to the three community groups to learn from our interaction, hear what they found most useful and how they have advanced their rail yard pollution advocacy work as a result of our collective efforts.

Table 1 Aerosols from three communities: Chemical and biological properties


Site/Phase

DTT Prooxidants (total)

DTT Prooxidants (metals)

DHBA Prooxidants

GAPDH Electrophiles

HO-1 expression

TNF α expression

Units

nmoles/min*m3

nmoles/min*m3

nmoles/min*m3

NEM equivalents/m3

pg/mg protein/m3

pg/mg protein/m3

S-CM-2/particles

0.559
(0.475-.603)

0.559

0.379
(0.35-0.41)

0.033
± 0.022

NS

51.1
± 3.8

S-CM-2/vapors

0.066 
(0.048-0.083

ND

ND

0.444
(average of 2)

34.5
± 4.7

NS

S-LB-2/particles

0.371
(0.287-0.453)

0.371

0.606
(0.58-0.62)

0.000

NS

38.1
± 1.8

S-LB-2/vapors

0.083
(0.069-0.099)

ND

ND

0.564
± 0.019

43.2
± 12.1

NS

S-SB-2/particles

0.651
(0.553-0.783)

0.651

0.477
(0.45-0.50)

0.011
± .007

NS

463.9
±40.9

S-SB-2/vapors

0.149
(0.104-0.194)

ND

ND

1.440
± 0.155

181.0
± 32.2

NS

Variance estimate

95% CI

 

95% CI

SEM (N≥3)

SEM

SEM

The values are from samples collected at the indicated sites on June 29, 2010.  All values were normalized to volume of air in m3.  ND = not determined, NS = not significantly different from control.  The estimates of variances are shown in the bottom row.  The values for protein expression are the slopes of the log concentration vs. protein expressed dose response curves ± the estimated standard errors.

Table 2 Aerosols from neighborhoods near the Commerce Railyard


Site

DTT Prooxidants

Metal
DTT Prooxidants

TNFα
Expression

GAPDH
Electrophiles

HO-1 induction
(@ 0.5 m3/mL)

Site 1 (main yard) PM

0.606
(.54-.67)

0.606

44.01
± 4.56

0.116
± .006

 

Site 2 (maintenance) PM

0.496
(.48-.55)

0.412

59.70
± 13.88

0.122
± .008

 

Site 5 (trucks) PM

0.433
(.40-.47)

0.433

10.71
± .565

0.043
± .012

 

Site 6 (Bkg) PM

0.084
(.066-.102)

0.084

2.043
± .028

0.000
± .012

 

Site 1 (main yard) Vapors

.038
(.032-.044)

ND

NS

0.557
± .009

16.43

Site 2 (maintenance) Vapors

0.101
(.082-0.120)

ND

NS

1.178
± .015

44.39

Site 5 (trucks) Vapors

.038
(.031-.045)

ND

NS

0.277
± .023

17.47

Site 6 (Bkg) Vapors

.021
(.016-.027)

ND

NS

0.119
± .007

3.69


Results from a set of samples collected over the same period at the sites indicated are shown.  All values were normalized to volume of air in m3.  ND = not determined, NS = not significantly different from control.  The values for TNFα expression are the slopes of the log concentration vs. protein expressed dose response curves ± the estimated standard errors.  The values for HO-1 expression are the levels found after incubation of the cells with samples at a concentration of 0.5 m3/mL.

Table 3 Correlation analysis of the Neighborhood Sites data


Variable 1

Variable 2

Correlation coefficient

p Value

Vapor GAPDH

Vapor HO-1

0.961

0.038

Vapor GAPDH

PM TNF α

0.943

0.057

Vapor DTT

Vapor HO-1

0.989

0.011

Vapor DTT

PM TNF α

0.828

0.172

PM DTT

PM TNF α

0.757

0.243

PM DTT

Vapor HO-1

0.576

0.423

Vapor GAPDH

Vapor DTT

0.966

0.034

Vapor GAPDH

PM GAPDH

0.854

0.146

Vapor GAPDH

Total PM DTT

0.599

0.400

PM GAPDH

PM DTT

0.897

0.106

The data of table 2 were subjected to a correlation analysis.  Note the high correlation between vapor GAPDH and the cellular responses.  The somewhat higher correlation between the PM TNFa and vapor DTT compared with PM TNFa and PM DTT is consistent with the notion that organic species, reflected by their content in the vapor phase samples, are responsible for the biological effects.


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Journal Article Araujo JA, Barajas B, Kleinman M, Wang X, Bennett BJ, Gong KW, Navab M, Harkema J, Sioutas C, Lusis AJ, Nel AE. Ambient particulate pollutants in the ultrafine range promote early atherosclerosis and systemic oxidative stress. Circulation Research 2008;102(5):589-596. R832413 (2008)
R832413 (2009)
R832413 (2010)
R832413 (Final)
R832413C001 (2008)
R832413C001 (Final)
R832413C002 (2007)
R832413C002 (2008)
R832413C002 (2009)
R832413C002 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Arellanes C, Paulson SE, Fine PM, Sioutas C. Exceeding of Henry's law by hydrogen peroxide associated with urban aerosols. Environmental Science & Technology 2006;40(16):4859-4866. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Arhami M, Kuhn T, Fine PM, Defino RJ, Sioutas C. Effects of sampling artifacts and operating parameters on the performance of a semicontinuous particulate elemental carbon/organic carbon monitor. Environmental Science & Technology 2006;40(3):945-954. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Arhami M, Polidori A, Delfino RJ, Tjoa T, Sioutas C. Associations between personal, indoor, and residential outdoor pollutant concentrations: implications for exposure assessment to size-fractionated particulate matter. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2009;59(4):392-404. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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    R832413C004 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Arhami M, Sillanpaa M, Hu S, Olson MR, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Size-segregated inorganic and organic components of PM in the communities of the Los Angeles harbor. Aerosol Science and Technology 2009;43(2):145-160. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Other: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Arhami M, Minguillon MC, Polidori A, Schauer JJ, Delfino RJ, Sioutas C. Organic compound characterization and source apportionment of indoor and outdoor quasi-ultrafine particulate matter in retirement homes of the Los Angeles Basin. Indoor Air 2010;20(1):17-30. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C004 (2009)
    R832413C004 (2010)
    R832413C004 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Wiley-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Wiley-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Ayres JG, Borm P, Cassee FR, Castranova V, Donaldson K, Ghio A, Harrison RM, Hider R, Kelly F, Kooter IM, Marano F, Maynard RL, Mudway I, Nel A, Sioutas C, Smith S, Baeza-Squiban A, Cho A, Duggan S, Froines J. Evaluating the toxicity of airborne particulate matter and nanoparticles by measuring oxidative stress potential—a workshop report and consensus statement. Inhalation Toxicology 2008;20(1):75-99. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2008)
    R832413C003 (2008)
    R832413C003 (2009)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Informa-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Barone TL, Zhu Y. The morphology of ultrafine particles on and near major freeways. Atmospheric Environment 2008;42(28):6749-6758. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C005 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full-Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Biswas S, Ntziachristos L, Moore KF, Sioutas C. Particle volatility in the vicinity of a freeway with heavy-duty diesel traffic. Atmospheric Environment 2007;41(16):3479-3493. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2006)
    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Biswas S, Verma V, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Chemical speciation of PM emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with diesel particulate filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) retrofits. Atmospheric Environment 2009;43(11):1917-1925. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full TextPDF
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  • Journal Article Biswas S, Verma V, Schauer JJ, Cassee FR, Cho AK, Sioutas C. Oxidative potential of semi-volatile and non volatile particulate matter (PM) from heavy-duty vehicles retrofitted with emission control technologies. Environmental Science & Technology 2009;43(10):3905-3912. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C003 (2009)
    R832413C003 (2010)
    R832413C003 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: ACS-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Breysse PN, Delfino RJ, Dominici F, Elder ACP, Frampton MW, Froines JR, Geyh AS, Godleski JJ, Gold DR, Hopke PK, Koutrakis P, Li N, Oberdorster G, Pinkerton KE, Samet JM, Utell MJ, Wexler AS. US EPA particulate matter research centers: summary of research results for 2005–2011. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health 2013;6(2):333-355. R832413 (Final)
    R832415 (Final)
    R834798 (2013)
    R834798 (2014)
    R834798 (2015)
    R834798 (Final)
    R834798C001 (2013)
    R834798C001 (2014)
  • Abstract: Springer-Abstract
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  • Other: ResearchGate-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Campbell A, Araujo JA, Li H, Sioutas C, Kleinman M. Particulate matter induced enhancement of inflammatory markers in the brains of apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 2009;9(8):5099-5104. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Ingenta-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Chan RC-F, Wang M, Li N, Yanagawa Y, Onoe K, Lee JJ, Nel AE. Pro-oxidative diesel exhaust particle chemicals inhibit LPS-induced dendritic cell responses involved in T-helper differentiation. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2006;118(2):455-465. R832413 (2008)
    R832413C002 (2007)
    R832413C002 (2008)
    R832413C002 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C002 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect PDF
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  • Journal Article Chang J, Delfino RJ, Gillen D, Tjoa T, Nickerson B, Cooper D. Repeated respiratory hospital encounters among children with asthma and residential proximity to traffic. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2009;66(2):90-98. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: OEM-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Chatila TA, Li N, Garcia-Lloret M, Kim H-J, Nel AE. T-cell effector pathways in allergic diseases: transcriptional mechanisms and therapeutic targets. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2008;121(4):812-823. R832413 (2007)
    R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2010)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2007)
    R832413C002 (2008)
    R832413C002 (2009)
  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Cheung KL, Polidori A, Ntziachristos L, Tzamkiozis T, Samaras Z, Cassee FR, Gerlofs M, Sioutas C. Chemical characteristics and oxidative potential of particulate matter emissions from gasoline, diesel, and biodiesel cars. Environmental Science & Technology 2009;43(16):6334-6340. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: ACS-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Cheung KL, Ntziachristos L, Tzamkiozis T, Schauer JJ, Samaras Z, Moore KF, Sioutas C. Emissions of particulate trace elements, metals and organic species from gasoline, diesel, and biodiesel passenger vehicles and their relation to oxidative potential. Aerosol Science and Technology 2010;44(7):500-513. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2010)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Cho AK, Sioutas C, Miguel AH, Kumagai Y, Schmitz DA, Singh M, Eiguren-Fernandez A, Froines JR. Redox activity of airborne particulate matter at different sites in the Los Angeles Basin. Environmental Research 2005;99(1):40-47. R832413C003 (2010)
    R832413C003 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C001 (Final)
    R827352C013 (Final)
    R827352C014 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Other: ScienceDirect-PDF
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  • Journal Article Daher N, Ning Z, Cho AK, Shafer M, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Comparison of the chemical and oxidative characteristics of particulate matter (PM) collected by different methods: filters, impactors, and biosamplers. Aerosol Science and Technology 2011;45(11):1294-1304. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C003 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Other: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Delfino RJ, Staimer N, Gillen D, Tjoa T, Sioutas C, Fung K, George SC, Kleinman MT. Personal and ambient air pollution is associated with increased exhaled nitric oxide in children with asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(11):1736-1743. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Delfino RJ, Staimer N, Tjoa T, Gillen D, Kleinman MT, Sioutas C, Cooper D. Personal and ambient air pollution exposures and lung function decrements in children with asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008;116(4):550-558. R832413 (2007)
    R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Delfino RJ, Staimer N, Tjoa T, Polidori A, Arhami M, Gillen DL, Kleinman MT, Vaziri ND, Longhurst J, Zaldivar F, Sioutas C. Circulating biomarkers of inflammation, antioxidant activity, and platelet activation are associated with primary combustion aerosols in subjects with coronary artery disease. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008;116(7):898-906. R832413 (2007)
    R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C004 (2007)
    R832413C004 (2008)
    R832413C004 (2009)
    R832413C004 (2010)
    R832413C004 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Delfino RJ, Staimer N, Tjoa T, Gillen DL, Polidori A, Arhami M, Kleinman MT, Vaziri ND, Longhurst J, Sioutas C. Air pollution exposures and circulating biomarkers of effect in a susceptible population: clues to potential causal component mixtures and mechanisms. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(8):1232-1238. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C004 (2009)
    R832413C004 (2010)
    R832413C004 (Final)
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  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Delfino RJ, Chang J, Wu J, Ren C, Tjoa T, Nickerson B, Cooper D, Gillen DL. Repeated hospital encounters for asthma in children and exposure to traffic-related air pollution near the home. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 2009;102(2):138-144. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Other: AAA&I-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Delfino RJ, Brummel S, Wu J, Stern H, Ostro B, Lipsett M, Winer A, Street DH, Zhang L, Tjoa T, Gillen DL. The relationship of respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions to the southern California wildfires of 2003. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2009;66(3):189-197 R832413 (2008)
    not available
    Journal Article Delfino RJ, Staimer N, Tjoa T, Arhami M, Polidori A, Gillen DL, Kleinman MT, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Association of biomarkers of systemic inflammation with organic components and source tracers in quasi-ultrafine particles. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(6):756-762. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2010)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C004 (2010)
    R832413C004 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Journal Article Delfino RJ, Tjoa T, Gillen DL, Staimer N, Polidori A, Arhami M, Jamner L, Sioutas C, Longhurst J. Traffic-related air pollution and blood pressure in elderly subjects with coronary artery disease. Epidemiology 2010;21(3):396-404. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (2010)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C004 (2010)
    R832413C004 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: UC Irvine-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: LWW-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Delfino RJ, Staimer N, Tjoa T, Arhami M, Polidori A, Gillen DL, George SC, Shafer MM, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Associations of primary and secondary organic aerosols with airway and systemic inflammation in an elderly panel cohort. Epidemiology 2010;21(6):892-902. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2010)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C004 (2010)
    R832413C004 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Abstract: Epidemiology-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Delfino RJ, Gillen DL, Tjoa T, Staimer N, Polidori A, Arhami M, Sioutas C, Longhurst J. Electrocardiographic ST-segment depression and exposure to traffic-related aerosols in elderly subjects with coronary artery disease. Environmental Health Perspectives 2011;119(2):196-202. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2010)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C004 (2010)
    R832413C004 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Journal Article Delfino RJ, Staimer N, Vaziri ND. Air pollution and circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health 2011;4(1):37-52. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C004 (2010)
    R832413C004 (Final)
  • Full-text: Springer-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Springer-Abstract
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  • Journal Article DiStefano E, Eiguren-Fernandez A, Delfino RJ, Sioutas C, Froines JR, Cho AK. Determination of metal-based hydroxyl radical generating capacity of ambient and diesel exhaust particles. Inhalation Toxicology 2009;21(9):731-738. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C003 (2009)
    R832413C003 (2010)
    R832413C004 (2010)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Informa-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Doherty SP, Prophete C, Maciejczyk P, Salnikow K, Gould T, Larson T, Koenig J, Jaques P, Sioutas C, Zelikoff JT, Lippmann M, Cohen MD. Detection of changes in alveolar macrophage iron status induced by select PM2.5-associated components using iron-response protein binding activity. Inhalation Toxicology 2007;19(6-7):553-562. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R827351 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827355 (2004)
    R827355 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Informa-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Eiguren-Fernandez A, Avol EL, Thurairatnam S, Hakami M, Froines JR, Miguel AH. Seasonal influence on vapor-and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in school communities located in Southern California. Aerosol Science & Technology 2007;41(4):438-446. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C003 (2007)
    R832413C003 (2008)
    R832413C003 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C009 (Final)
    R827352C013 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Eiguren-Fernandez A, Miguel AH, Lu R, Purvis K, Grant B, Mayo P, Di Stefano E, Cho AK, Froines J. Atmospheric formation of 9,10-phenanthraquinone in the Los Angeles air basin. Atmospheric Environment 2008;42(10):2312-2319. R832413 (2007)
    R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C003 (2007)
    R832413C003 (2008)
    R832413C003 (2009)
    R832413C003 (2010)
    R832413C003 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Eiguren-Fernandez A, Miguel AH, Di Stefano E, Schmitz DA, Cho AK, Thurairatnam S, Avol L, Froines JR. Atmospheric distribution of gas-and particle-phase quinones in Southern California. Aerosol Science and Technology 2008;42(10):854-861. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C003 (2009)
    R832413C003 (2010)
    R832413C003 (Final)
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Eiguren-Fernandez A, Shinyashiki M, Schmitz DA, DiStefano E, Hinds W, Kumagai Y, Cho AK, Froines JR. Redox and electrophilic properties of vapor-and particle-phase components of ambient aerosols. Environmental Research 2010;110(3):207-212. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C003 (2010)
    R832413C003 (Final)
    R832413C005 (2010)
    R832413C005 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Fine PM, Sioutas C, Solomon PA. Secondary particulate matter in the United States: insights from the Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2008;58(2):234-253. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Fruin SA, Hudda N, Sioutas C, Delfino RJ. Predictive model for vehicle air exchange rates based on a large, representative sample. Environmental Science & Technology 2011;45(8):3569-3575. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Abstract: ACS-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Fruin S, Westerdahl D, Sax T, Sioutas C, Fine PM. Measurements and predictors of on-road ultrafine particle concentrations and associated pollutants in Los Angeles. Atmospheric Environment 2008;42(2):207-219. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Fung DC, Zhang QF, Hinds WC, Zhy YF. Particle concentration on freeways: affecting factors and a simple model development. Aerosol and Air Quality Research 2013;13(6):1693-1701. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C005 (2010)
  • Full-text: AAQR-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: AAQR-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Geller MD, Ntziachristos L, Mamakos A, Samaras Z, Schmitz DA, Froines JR, Sioutas C. Physicochemical and redox characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from gasoline and diesel passenger cars. Atmospheric Environment 2006;40(36):6988-7004. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Geller M, Biswas S, Sioutas C. Determination of particle effective density in urban environments with a differential mobility analyzer and aerosol particle mass analyzer. Aerosol Science and Technology 2006;40(9):709-723. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article George S, Pokhrel S, Xia T, Gilbert B, Ji Z, Schowalter M, Rosenauer A, Damoiseaux R, Bradley KA, Madler L, Nel AE. Use of a rapid cytotoxicity screening approach to engineer a safer zinc oxide nanoparticle through iron doping. ACS Nano 2010;4(1):15-29. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2010)
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  • Associated PubMed link
  • Abstract: ACS-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Gerlofs-Nijland ME, Totlandsdal AI, Kilinc E, Boere AJ, Fokkens PH, Leseman DL, Sioutas C, Schwarze PE, Spronk HM, Hadoke PW, Miller MR, Cassee FR. Pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of traffic-related particulate matter: 4-week exposure of rats to roadside and diesel engine exhaust particles. Inhalation Toxicology 2010;22(14):1162-1173. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Informa-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Gong Jr. H, Linn WS, Clark KW, Anderson KR, Sioutas C, Alexis NE, Cascio WE, Devlin RB. Exposures of healthy and asthmatic volunteers to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles in Los Angeles. Inhalation Toxicology 2008;20(6):533-545. R832413 (2007)
    R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Informa-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Gong KW, Zhao W, Li N, Barajas B, Kleinman M, Sioutas C, Horvath S, Lusis AJ, Nel A, Araujo JA. Air-pollutant chemicals and oxidized lipids exhibit genome-wide synergistic effects on endothelial cells. Genome Biology 2007;8(7):R149. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2007)
    R832413C002 (2008)
    R832413C002 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Full-text: GenomeBiology-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: GenomeBiology-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Gorham KA, Sulbaek Andersen MP, Meinardi S, Delfino RJ, Staimer N, Tjoa T, Rowland FS, Blake DR. Ethane and n-pentane in exhaled breath are biomarkers of exposure not effect. Biomarkers 2009;14(1):17-25. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C004 (2009)
    R832413C004 (2010)
    R832413C004 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: UC Irvine-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Informa-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Han B, Kim H-J, Kim Y-J, Sioutas C. Unipolar charging of fine and ultra-fine particles using carbon fiber ionizers. Aerosol Science and Technology 2008;42(10):793-800. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Han B, Hudda N, Ning Z, Sioutas C. Enhanced unipolar charging of concentration-enriched particles using water-based condensational growth. Journal of Aerosol Science 2008;39(9):770-784. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Han B, Hudda N, Ning Z, Kim H-J, Kim Y-J, Sioutas C. A novel bipolar charger for submicron aerosol particles using carbon fiber ionizers. Journal of Aerosol Science 2009;40(4):285-294. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Han B, Hudda N, Ning Z, Kim Y-J, Sioutas C. Efficient collection of atmospheric aerosols with a particle concentrator-electrostatic precipitator sampler. Aerosol Science and Technology 2009;43(8):757-766. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Hiyoshi K, Takano H, Inoue K, Ichinose T, Yanagisawa R, Tomura S, Cho AK, Froines JR, Kumagai Y. Effects of a single intratracheal administration of phenanthraquinone on murine lung. Journal of Applied Toxicology 2005;25(1):47-51. R832413C003 (2010)
    R827352 (2004)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C001 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Wiley-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Hsu A, Mendez L, Shah J, Sioutas C, Kleinman M, Campbell A. Nanoparticles in air pollution and innate immune responses within the CNS. International Journal of Neuroprotection and Neuroregeneration 2007;3(2):107-113. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Abstract: University of South Carolina-Citation
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  • Journal Article Hu S, Polidori A, Arhami M, Shafer MM, Schauer JJ, Cho A, Sioutas C. Redox activity and chemical speciation of size fractioned PM in the communities of the Los Angeles-Long Beach harbor. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2008;8(21):6439-6451. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C003 (2010)
    R832413C003 (Final)
  • Full-text: ACP-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Hudda N, Cheung K, Moore KF, Sioutas C. Inter-community variability in total particle number concentrations in the eastern Los Angeles air basin. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2010;10(23):11385-11399. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Hudda N, Eckel SP, Knibbs LD, Sioutas C, Delfino RJ, Fruin SA. Linking in-vehicle ultrafine particle exposures to on-road concentrations. Atmospheric Environment 2012;59:578-586. R832413 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full-Text
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  • Journal Article Hudda N, Fruin S, Delfino RJ, Sioutas C. Efficient determination of vehicle emission factors by fuel use category using on-road measurements: downward trends on Los Angeles freight corridor I-710. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2013;13(1):347-357. R832413 (Final)
  • Full-text: ACP-PDF
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  • Journal Article Inoue K-I, Takano H, Ichinose T, Tomura S, Yanagisawa R, Sakurai M, Sumi D, Cho AK, Hiyoshi K, Kumagai Y. Effects of naphthoquinone on airway responsiveness in the presence or absence of antigen in mice. Archives of Toxicology 2007;81(8):575-581. R832413 (2007)
    R832413 (2008)
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    R832413C003 (2007)
    R832413C003 (2008)
    R832413C003 (2010)
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  • Abstract: Springer-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Iwamoto N, Sumi D, Ishii T, Uchida K, Cho AK, Froines JR, Kumagai Y. Chemical knockdown of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B by 1,2-naphthoquinone through covalent modification causes persistent transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2007;282(46):33396-33404. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C003 (2007)
    R832413C003 (2008)
    R832413C003 (2010)
    R832413C003 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Iwamoto N, Nishiyama A, Eiguren-Fernandez A, Hinds W, Kumagai Y, Froines JR, Cho AK, Shinyashiki M. Biochemical and cellular effects of electrophiles present in ambient air samples. Atmospheric Environment 2010;44(12):1483-1489. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C003 (2010)
    R832413C003 (Final)
    R832413C005 (2010)
    R832413C005 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Jung EJ, Avliyakulov NK, Boontheung P, Loo JA, Nel AE. Pro-oxidative DEP chemicals induce heat shock proteins and an unfolding protein response in a bronchial epithelial cell line as determined by DIGE analysis. Proteomics 2007;7(21):3906-3918. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (Final)
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  • Abstract: Wiley-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Kam W, Liacos JW, Schauer JJ, Delfino RJ, Sioutas C. Size-segregated composition of particulate matter (PM) in major roadways and surface streets. Atmospheric Environment 2012;55:90-97. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Kang X, Li N, Wang M, Boontheung P, Sioutas C, Harkema JR, Bramble LA, Nel AE, Loo JA. Adjuvant effects of ambient particulate matter monitored by proteomics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Proteomics 2010;10(3):520-531. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2010)
    R832413C002 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Kikuno S, Taguchi K, Iwamoto N, Yamano S, Cho AK, Froines JR, Kumagai Y. 1,2-Naphthoquinone activates vanilloid receptor 1 through increased protein tyrosine phosphorylation, leading to contraction of guinea pig trachea. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2006;210(1-2):47-54. R832413C003 (2010)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Kim YH, Sioutas C, Fine P, Shing KS. Effect of albumin on physical characteristics of drug particles produced by supercritical fluid technology. Powder Technology 2008;182(3):354-363. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Kleinman MT, Hamade A, Meacher D, Oldham M, Sioutas C, Chakrabarti B, Stram D, Froines JR, Cho AK. Inhalation of concentrated ambient particulate matter near a heavily trafficked road stimulates antigen-induced airway responses in mice. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2005;55(9):1277-1288. R832413C003 (2010)
    R827352 (2004)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C001 (Final)
    R827352C005 (Final)
    R827352C014 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Journal Article Kleinman MT, Sioutas C, Froines JR, Fanning E, Hamade A, Mendez L, Meacher D, Oldham M. Inhalation of concentrated ambient particulate matter near a heavily trafficked road stimulates antigen-induced airway responses in mice. Inhalation Toxicology 2007;19(Suppl 1):117-126. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C003 (2007)
    R827352 (Final)
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  • Abstract: informa-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Kleinman MT, Araujo J, Nel A, Sioutas C, Campbell A, Cong PQ, Li H, Bondy SC. Inhaled ultrafine particulate matter affects CNS inflammatory processes and may act via MAP kinase signaling pathways. Toxicology Letters 2008;178(2):127-130. R832413 (2007)
    R832413 (2008)
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    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Krudysz MA, Froines JR, Fine PM, Sioutas C. Intra-community spatial variation of size-fractionated PM mass, OC, EC, and trace elements in the Long Beach, CA area. Atmospheric Environment 2008;42(21):5374-5389. R832413 (2007)
    R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C003 (2007)
    R832157 (2007)
    R832157 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Krudysz MA, Dutton SJ, Brinkman GL, Hannigan MP, Fine PM, Sioutas C, Froines JR. Intra-community spatial variation of size-fractionated organic compounds in Long Beach, California. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health 2009;2(2):69-88. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832157 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Krudysz M, Moore K, Geller M, Sioutas C, Froines J. Intra-community spatial variability of particulate matter size distributions in Southern California/Los Angeles. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2009;9(3):1061-1075. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832157 (Final)
  • Full-text: ACP-Full-text PDF
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  • Journal Article Kumagai Y, Shinkai Y, Miura T, Cho AK. The chemical biology of naphthoquinones and its environmental implications. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2012;52:221-247. R832413 (Final)
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  • Abstract: AnnualReviews-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Lee ES, Xu B, Zhu Y. Measurements of ultrafine particles carrying different number of charges in on- and near-freeway environments. Atmospheric Environment 2012;60:564-572. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C005 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Lee ES, Polidori A, Koch M, Fine PM, Mehadi A, Hammond D, Wright JN, Miguel AH, Ayala A, Zhu Y. Water-based condensation particle counters comparison near a major freeway with significant heavy-duty diesel traffic. Atmospheric Environment 2013;68:151-161. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C005 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Li N, Nel AE. The cellular impacts of diesel exhaust particles: beyond inflammation and death. European Respiratory Journal 2006;27(4):667-668. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2006)
    R832413C002 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Li N, Xia T, Nel AE. The role of oxidative stress in ambient particulate matter-induced lung diseases and its implications in the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 2008;44(9):1689-1699. R832413 (2007)
    R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2010)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2007)
    R832413C002 (2008)
    R832413C002 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Li N, Wang M, Bramble LA, Schmitz DA, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C, Harkema JR, Nel AE. The adjuvant effect of ambient particulate matter is closely reflected by the particulate oxidant potential. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(7):1116-1123. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (2010)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2009)
    R832413C002 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Li N, Harkema JR, Lewandowski RP, Wang M, Bramble LA, Gookin GR, Ning Z, Kleinman MT, Sioutas C, Nel AE. Ambient ultrafine particles provide a strong adjuvant effect in the secondary immune response: implication for traffic-related asthma flares. American Journal of Physiology 2010;299(3):L374-L383. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2010)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2010)
    R832413C002 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Li R, Ning Z, Cui J, Khalsa B, Ai L, Takabe W, Beebe T, Majumdar R, Sioutas C, Hsiai T. Ultrafine particles from diesel engines induce vascular oxidative stress via JNK activation. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 2009;46(6):775-782. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Li R, Ning Z, Majumdar R, Cui J, Takabe W, Jen N, Sioutas C, Hsiai T. Ultrafine particles from diesel vehicle emissions at different driving cycles induce differential vascular pro-inflammatory responses: implication of chemical components and NF-κB signaling. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2010;7:6. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2010)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Li R, Ning Z, Cui J, Yu F, Sioutas C, Hsiai T. Diesel exhaust particles modulate vascular endothelial cell permeability: implication of ZO-1 expression. Toxicology Letters 2010;197(3):163-168. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2010)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Liacos JW, Kam W, Delfino RJ, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Characterization of organic, metal and trace element PM2.5 species and derivation of freeway-based emission rates in Los Angeles, CA. Science of the Total Environment 2012;435-436:159-166. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Lin P, Yu JZ. Generation of reactive oxygen species mediated by humic-like substances in atmospheric aerosols. Environmental Science & Technology 2011;45(24):10362-10368. R832413C003 (Final)
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  • Abstract: ACS Publications-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Liong M, Lu J, Kovochich M, Xia T, Ruehm SG, Nel AE, Tamanoi F, Zink JI. Multifunctional inorganic nanoparticles for imaging, targeting, and drug delivery. ACS Nano 2008;2(5):889-896. R832413 (2010)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Majestic BJ, Schauer JJ, Shafer MM, Turner JR, Fine PM, Singh M, Sioutas C. Development of a wet-chemical method for the speciation of iron in atmospheric aerosols. Environmental Science & Technology 2006;40(7):2346-2351. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
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  • Abstract: ES&T-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Majestic BJ, Schauer JJ, Shafer MM, Fine PM, Singh M, Sioutas C. Trace metal analysis of atmospheric particulate matter:a comparison of personal and ambient samplers. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science 2008;7(4):289-298. R832413 (2007)
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    R832413C001 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Melega WP, Jorgensen MJ, Lacan G, Way BM, Pham J, Morton G, Cho AK, Fairbanks LA. Long-term methamphetamine administration in the vervet monkey models aspects of a human exposure: Brain neurotoxicity and behavioral profiles. Neuropsychopharmacology 2008;33(6):1441-1452. R832413 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Minguillon MC, Arhami M, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Seasonal and spatial variations of sources of fine and quasi-ultrafine particulate matter in neighborhoods near the Los Angeles-Long Beach harbor. Atmospheric Environment 2008;42(32):7317-7328. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
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    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Moore KF, Ning Z, Ntziachristos L, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Daily variation in the properties of urban ultrafine aerosol—Part I: physical characterization and volatility. Atmospheric Environment 2007;41(38):8633-8646. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
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    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Moore K, Krudysz M, Pakbin P, Hudda N, Sioutas C. Intra-community variability in total particle number concentrations in the San Pedro harbor area (Los Angeles, California). Aerosol Science and Technology 2009;43(6):587-603. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832157 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Morgan TE, Davis DA, Iwata N, Tanner JA, Snyder D, Ning Z, Kam W, Hsu YT, Winkler JW, Chen JC, Petasis NA, Baudry M, Sioutas C, Finch CE. Glutamatergic neurons in rodent models respond to nanoscale particulate urban air pollutants in vivo and in vitro. Environmental Health Perspectives 2011;119(7):1003-1009. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Nel AE, Madler L, Velegol D, Xia T, Hoek EM, Somasundaran P, Klaessig F, Castranova V, Thompson M. Understanding biophysicochemical interactions at the nano-bio interface. Nature Materials 2009;8(7):543-557. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Nel A, Xia T, Madler L, Li N. Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel. Science 2006;311(5761):622-627. R832413 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Ngo MA, Pinkerton KE, Freeland S, Geller M, Ham W, Cliff S, Hopkins LE, Kleeman MJ, Kodavanti UP, Meharg E, Plummer L, Recendez JJ, Schenker MB, Sioutas C, Smiley-Jewell S, Haas C, Gutstein J, Wexler AS. Airborne particles in the San Joaquin Valley may affect human health. California Agriculture 2010;64(1):12-16. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2010)
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    R832414 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Ning Z, Moore KF, Polidori A, Sioutas C. Field validation of the new miniature Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System (mVACES). Aerosol Science and Technology 2006;40(12):1098-1110. R832413 (2007)
    R832413 (2008)
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    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
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  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Ning Z, Geller MD, Moore KF, Sheesley R, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Daily variation in chemical characteristics of urban ultrafine aerosols and inference of their sources. Environmental Science & Technology 2007;41(17):6000-6006. R832413 (2008)
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    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Ning Z, Polidori A, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Emission factors of PM species based on freeway measurements and comparison with tunnel and dynamometer studies. Atmospheric Environment 2008;42(13):3099-3114. R832413 (2007)
    R832413 (2008)
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    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Ning Z, Sillanpaa M, Pakbin P, Sioutas C. Field evaluation of a new particle concentrator-electrostatic precipitator system for measuring chemical and toxicological properties of particulate matter. Particle and Fibre Technology 2008;5:15. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
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    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Ning Z, Hudda N, Daher N, Kam W, Herner J, Kozawa K, Mara S, Sioutas C. Impact of roadside noise barriers on particle size distributions and pollutants concentrations near freeways. Atmospheric Environment 2010;44(26):3118-3127. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Ning Z, Sioutas C. Atmospheric processes influencing aerosols generated by combustion and the inference of their impact on public exposure: a review. Aerosol and Air Quality Research 2010;10(1):43-58. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2010)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Ntziachristos L, Ning Z, Geller MD, Sioutas C. Particle concentration and characteristics near a major freeway with heavy-duty diesel traffic. Environmental Science & Technology 2007;41(7):2223-2230. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2006)
    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Ntziachristos L, Froines JR, Cho AK, Sioutas C. Relationship between redox activity and chemical speciation of size-fractionated particulate matter. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2007;4:5. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
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    R832413C003 (2008)
    R832413C003 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Ntziachristos L, Ning Z, Geller MD, Sheesley RJ, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Fine, ultrafine and nanoparticle trace element compositions near a major freeway with a high heavy-duty diesel fraction. Atmospheric Environment 2007;41(27):5684-5696. R832413 (2007)
    R832413 (2008)
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    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Ntziachristos L, Polidori A, Phuleria H, Geller MD, Sioutas C. Application of a diffusion charger for the measurement of particle surface concentration in different environments. Aerosol Science and Technology 2007;41(6):571-580. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2006)
    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Pakbin P, Ning Z, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Characterization of particle bound organic carbon from diesel vehicles equipped with advanced emission control technologies. Environmental Science & Technology 2009;43(13):4679-4686. R832413 (Final)
    R835172 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Pakbin P, Ning Z, Eiguren-Fernandez A, Sioutas C. Modification of the Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System (VACES) for conducting inhalation exposures to semi-volatile vapor phase pollutants. Journal of Aerosol Science 2011;42(9):555-566. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Phalen RF, Oldham MJ, Nel AE. Tracheobronchial particle dose considerations for in vitro toxicology studies. Toxicological Sciences 2006;92(1):126-132. R832413 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C016 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Phuleria HC, Geller MD, Fine PM, Sioutas C. Size-resolved emissions of organic tracers from light- and heavy-duty vehicles measured in a California roadway tunnel. Environmental Science & Technology 2006;40(13):4109-4118. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
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  • Abstract: ES&T-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Phuleria HC, Sheesley RJ, Schauer JJ, Fine PM, Sioutas C. Roadside measurements of size-segregated particulate organic compounds near gasoline and diesel-dominated freeways in Los Angeles, CA. Atmospheric Environment 2007;41(22):4653-4671. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Polidori A, Arhami M, Sioutas C, Delfino RJ, Allen R. Indoor/outdoor relationships, trends, and carbonaceous content of fine particulate matter in retirement homes of the Los Angeles Basin. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2007;57(3):366-379. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
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    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Polidori A, Hu S, Biswas S, Delfino RJ, Sioutas C. Real-time characterization of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient aerosols and from motor-vehicle exhaust. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2008;8(5):1277-1291. R832413 (2007)
    R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
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    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Polidori A, Cheung KL, Arhami M, Delfino RJ, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Relationships between size-fractionated indoor and outdoor trace elements at four retirement communities in southern California. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2009;9(14):4521-4536. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C004 (2009)
    R832413C004 (2010)
    R832413C004 (Final)
    R833743 (Final)
  • Full-text: ACP-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Prophete C, Maciejczyk P, Salnikow K, Gould T, Larson T, Koenig J, Jaques P, Sioutas C, Lippmann M, Cohen M. Effects of select PM-associated metals on alveolar macrophage phosphorylated ERK1 and -2 and iNOS expression during ongoing alteration in iron homeostasis. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues 2006;69(10):935-951. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R827351 (Final)
    R827351C008 (Final)
    R827351C010 (Final)
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    R827352C014 (Final)
    R827355 (Final)
    R827355C008 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Quiros DC, Zhang Q, Choi W, He M, Paulson SE, Winer AM, Wang R, Zhu Y. Air quality impacts of a scheduled 36-h closure of a major highway. Atmospheric Environment 2013;67:404-414. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C005 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Riedl MA, Nel AE. Importance of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis and treatment of asthma. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2008;8(1):49-56. R832413 (Final)
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  • Abstract: Lippincott-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Rodriguez CE, Fukuto JM, Taguchi K, Froines J, Cho AK. The interactions of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a potential site for toxic actions. Chemico-Biological Interactions 2005;155(1-2):97-110. R832413C003 (2010)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Sardar SB, Geller MD, Sioutas C, Solomon PA. Development and evaluation of a high-volume dichotomous sampler for chemical speciation of coarse and fine particles. Journal of Aerosol Science 2006;37(11):1455-1466. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Shinyashiki M, Rodriguez CE, Di Stefano EW, Sioutas C, Delfino RJ, Kumagai Y, Froines JR, Cho AK. On the interaction between glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and airborne particles: evidence for electrophilic species. Atmospheric Environment 2008;42(3):517-529. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C003 (2007)
    R832413C003 (2008)
    R832413C003 (2010)
    R832413C003 (Final)
    R832413C004 (2009)
    R832413C004 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Shinyashiki M, Eiguren-Fernandez A, Schmitz DA, Di Stefano E, Li N, Linak WP, Cho S-H, Froines JR, Cho AK. Electrophilic and redox properties of diesel exhaust particles. Environmental Research 2009;109(3):239-244. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C003 (2009)
    R832413C003 (2010)
    R832413C003 (Final)
    R832413C004 (2010)
  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Journal Article Sillanpaa M, Geller MD, Phuleria HC, Sioutas C. High collection efficiency electrostatic precipitator for in vitro cell exposure to concentrated ambient particulate matter (PM). Journal of Aerosol Science 2008;39(4):335-347. R832413 (2007)
    R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Singh M, Phuleria HC, Bowers K, Sioutas C. Seasonal and spatial trends in particle number concentrations and size distributions at the Children’s Health Study sites in southern California. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2006;16(1):3-18. R832413 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Nature-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Snyder DC, Dallmann TR, Schauer JJ, Holloway T, Kleeman MJ, Geller MD, Sioutas C. Direct observation of the break-up of a nocturnal inversion layer using elemental mercury as a tracer. Geophysical Research Letters 2008;35(17):L17812. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: Wiley Online-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Solomon PA, Hopke PK, Froines J, Scheffe R. Key scientific findings and policy- and health-relevant insights from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies: an integration and synthesis of results. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2008;58(13 SI):S3-S92. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Solomon PA, Sioutas C. Continuous and semicontinuous monitoring techniques for particulate matter mass and chemical components: a synthesis of findings from EPA's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2008;58(2):164-195. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Staimer N, Nguyen TB, Nizkorodov SA, Delfino RJ. Glutathione peroxidase inhibitory assay for electrophilic pollutants in diesel exhaust and tobacco smoke. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2012;403(2):431-441. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C004 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Taguchi K, Fujii S, Yamano S, Cho AK, Kamisuki S, Nakai Y, Sugawara F, Froines JR, Kumagai Y. An approach to evaluate two-electron reduction of 9,10-phenanthraquinone and redox activity of the hydroquinone associated with oxidative stress. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 2007;43(5):789-799. R832413C003 (2010)
    R827352 (Final)
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  • Full-text: Science Direct - Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Taguchi K, Shimada M, Fujii S, Sumi D, Pan X, Yamano S, Nishiyama T, Hiratsuka A, Yamamoto M, Cho AK, Froines JR, Kumagai Y. Redox cycling of 9,10-phenanthraquinone to cause oxidative stress is terminated through its monoglucuronide conjugation in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 2008;44(8):1645-1655. R832413 (2007)
    R832413 (2008)
    R832413C003 (2007)
    R832413C003 (2008)
    R832413C003 (2009)
    R832413C003 (2010)
  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Journal Article Tzamkiozis T, Stoeger T, Cheung K, Ntziachristos L, Sioutas C, Samaras Z. Monitoring the inflammatory potential of exhaust particles from passenger cars in mice. Inhalation Toxicology 2010;22(Suppl 2):59-69. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Abstract: Informa-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Verma V, Ning Z, Cho AK, Schauer JJ, Shafer MM, Sioutas C. Redox activity of urban quasi-ultrafine particles from primary and secondary sources. Atmospheric Environment 2009;43(40):6360-6368. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2010)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C003 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Verma V, Polidori A, Schauer JJ, Shafer MM, Cassee FR, Sioutas C. Physicochemical and toxicological profiles of particulate matter in Los Angeles during the October 2007 Southern California wildfires. Environmental Science & Technology 2009;43(3):954-960. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Verma V, Shafer MM, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Contribution of transition metals in the reactive oxygen species activity of PM emissions from retrofitted heavy-duty vehicles. Atmospheric Environment 2010;44(39):5165-5173. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Verma V, Pakbin P, Cheung KL, Cho AK, Schauer JJ, Shafer MM, Kleinman MT, Sioutas C. Physicochemical and oxidative characteristics of semi-volatile components of quasi-ultrafine particles in an urban atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment 2011;45(4):1025-1033. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Wang Y, Zhu Y, Salinas R, Ramirez D, Karnae S, John K. Roadside measurements of ultrafine particles at a busy urban intersection. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2008;58(11):1449-1457. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C005 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Westerdahl D, Fruin SA, Fine PL, Sioutas C. The Los Angeles International Airport as a source of ultrafine particles and other pollutants to nearby communities. Atmospheric Environment 2008;42(13):3143-3155. R832413 (2007)
    R832413 (2008)
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    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R831861 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Wold LE, Simkhovich BZ, Kleinman MT, Nordlie MA, Dow JS, Sioutas C, Kloner RA. In vivo and in vitro models to test the hypothesis of particle-induced effects on cardiac function and arrhythmias. Cardiovascular Toxicology 2006;6(1):69-78. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
    R831952 (2005)
    R831952 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Springer-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Xia T, Kovochich M, Brant J, Hotze M, Sempf J, Oberley T, Sioutas C, Yeh JI, Wiesner MR, Nel AE. Comparison of the abilities of ambient and manufactured nanoparticles to induce cellular toxicity according to an oxidative stress paradigm. Nano Letters 2006;6(8):1794-1807. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2006)
    R832413C002 (2008)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C002 (Final)
    R827352C014 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: UCLA-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: ACS-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Xia T, Kovochich M, Nel A. The role of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in mediating particulate matter injury. Clinics in Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2006;5(4):817-836. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2007)
    R832413C002 (2008)
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  • Abstract: MdConsult-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Xia T, Kovochich M, Nel AE. Impairment of mitochondrial function by particulate matter (PM) and their toxic components: implications for PM-induced cardiovascular and lung disease. Frontiers in Bioscience 2007;12(4):1238-1246. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2007)
    R832413C002 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Xia T, Kovochich M, Liong M, Zink JI, Nel AE. Cationic polystyrene nanosphere toxicity depends on cell-specific endocytic and mitochondrial injury pathways. ACS Nano 2008;2(1):85-96. R832413 (2010)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2009)
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  • Abstract: ACS-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Xia T, Kovochich M, Liong M, Madler L, Gilbert B, Shi H, Yeh JI, Zink JI, Nel AE. Comparison of the mechanism of toxicity of zinc oxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles based on dissolution and oxidative stress properties. ACS Nano 2008;2(10):2121-2134. R832413 (2010)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Xia T, Li N, Nel AE. Potential health impact of nanoparticles. Annual Review of Public Health 2009;30:137-150. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2010)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2009)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: AnnualReviews-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Xia T, Kovochich M, Liong M, Meng H, Kabehie S, George S, Zink JI, Nel AE. Polyethyleneimine coating enhances the cellular uptake of mesoporous silica nanoparticles and allows safe delivery of siRNA and DNA constructs. ACS Nano 2009;3(10):3273-3286. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Xiao GG, Wang M, Li N, Loo JHA, Nel AE. Use of proteomics to demonstrate a heirarchical oxidative stress response to diesel exhaust particle chemicals in a macrophage cell line. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2003;278(50):50781-50790. R832413C002 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Yacobi NR, Phuleria HC, Demaio L, Liang CH, Peng C-A, Sioutas C, Borok Z, Kim K-J, Crandall ED. Nanoparticle effects on rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayer barrier properties. Toxicology in Vitro 2007;21(8):1373-1381. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zhang L, Wang M, Kang X, Boontheung P, Li N, Nel AE, Loo JA. Oxidative stress and asthma: proteome analysis of chitinase-like proteins and FIZZ1 in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Journal of Proteome Research 2009;8(4):1631-1638. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zhu Y, Kuhn T, Mayo P, Hinds WC. Comparison of daytime and nighttime concentration profiles and size distributions of ultrafine particles near a major highway. Environmental Science & Technology 2006;40(8):2531-2536. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C005 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C006 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zhu Y, Yu N, Kuhn T, Hinds WC. Field comparison of P-trak and condensation particle counters. Aerosol Science and Technology 2006;40(6):422-430. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C005 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C006 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Zhu Y, Eiguren-Fernandez A, Hinds WC, Miguel AH. In-cabin commuter exposure to ultrafine particles on Los Angeles freeways. Environmental Science & Technology 2007;41(7):2138-2145. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C005 (2007)
    R832413C005 (2008)
    R832413C005 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Precaution-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: ES&T-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Zhu Y, Fung DC, Kennedy N, Hinds WC, Eiguren-Fernandez A. Measurements of ultrafine particles and other vehicular pollutants inside a mobile exposure system on Los Angeles freeways. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2008;58(3):424-434. R832413 (2007)
    R832413 (2008)
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    R832413C005 (2007)
    R832413C005 (2008)
    R832413C005 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Zhu Y, Fanning E, Yu RC, Zhang Q, Froines JR. Aircraft emissions and local air quality impacts from takeoff activities at a large international airport. Atmospheric Environment 2011;45(36):6526-6533. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C005 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Araujo JA, Nel AE. Particulate matter and atherosclerosis: role of particle size, composition and oxidative stress. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2009;6:24. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2010)
    R832413C002 (Final)
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    PM, sources, toxicity, apportionment, ultrafine, semi-volatile, health effects, human health, sensitive populations, dose-response, enzymes, particulates, epidemiology, environmental chemistry, modeling;, RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, Air, particulate matter, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Risk Assessments, Ecological Risk Assessment, cardiopulmonary responses, chemical characteristics, human health effects, toxicology, airborne particulate matter, cardiovascular vulnerability, animal model, biological mechanism , biological mechanisms, chemical composition, ambient particle health effects, human exposure, respiratory impact, PM, cardiotoxicity, oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2006 Progress Report
  • 2007 Progress Report
  • 2008 Progress Report
  • 2009 Progress Report
  • 2010 Progress Report
  • 2011
  • Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R832413C001 Contribution of Primary and Secondary PM Sources to Exposure & Evaluation of Their Relative Toxicity
    R832413C002 Project 2: The Role of Oxidative Stress in PM-induced Adverse Health Effects
    R832413C003 The Chemical Properties of PM and their Toxicological Implications
    R832413C004 Oxidative Stress Responses to PM Exposure in Elderly Individuals With Coronary Heart Disease
    R832413C005 Ultrafine Particles on and Near Freeways