2009 Progress Report: Southern California Particle Center (SCPC)

EPA Grant Number: R832413
Center: Southern California Particle Center
Center Director: Froines, John R.
Title: Southern California Particle Center (SCPC)
Investigators: Froines, John R. , Cho, Arthur K. , Delfino, Ralph , Fine, Philip M. , Fukuto, Jon , Harkema, Jack , Hinds, William C. , Kleinman, Michael T. , Kumagai, Yoshito , Lusis, Aldons , Nel, Andre E. , Neuhausen, Susan , Schauer, James J. , Sioutas, Constantinos , Staimer, Norbert , Stram, Dan , Vaziri, Nostratola
Institution: University of California - Los Angeles , Michigan State University , University of California - Irvine , University of Southern California , University of Tsukuba , University of Wisconsin
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2010 (Extended to September 30, 2012)
Project Period Covered by this Report: October 1, 2008 through September 30,2009
Project Amount: $7,999,994
RFA: Particulate Matter Research Centers (2004) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Health Effects , Air

Objective:

The overall objective of the Southern California Particle Center (SCPC) is to bring together outstanding scientists to conduct high priority research to elucidate the underlying basis for health effects associated with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM).  The overall goal of the SCPC is to establish linkages between PM source emissions, underlying mechanisms of toxicity and resulting health effects.  Fine and ultrafine particles derived from mobile sources continue to serve as foci for SCPC interdisciplinary studies that include exposure, toxicology, chemical characterization and epidemiology.  Health effects research centers around identifying mechanisms of PM-induced cardiovascular effects and allergic airways disease and the exposure conditions and components that are associated with observed chemical and toxicological mechanisms. 

Progress Summary:

The research of the Center is divided into five inter-related project areas. The primary objective of Project 1 is to examine the relationships between PM sources, exposure, and toxicity within the urban atmosphere.  This project is an integral part of Projects 2, 3 and 4 by serving as the field operations to collect PM samples for toxicity testing and for providing concentrated ambient PM for animal exposure models. The primary objective of Project 2 is to elucidate the mechanism(s) of PM-induced asthma and atherosclerosis exacerbation in vitro and in vivo, using animal studies conducted in a mobile trailer, in vitro studies in representative tissue culture cells, and genomics and proteomics methodologies. In Project 3, the catalytic redox and electrophilic properties of ambient PM samples are characterized using cell-free chemical assays.  The overall goal of Project 4 is to advance knowledge on the importance of particle size and composition to the induction of oxidative stress responses in a high-risk population of elderly people with coronary artery disease.  Project 5 consists of three subprojects that either directly or indirectly seek to improve our ability to assess health risk of air pollution by chemical and biological assays used by SCPC. 
 
Several principal hypotheses and themes provide a basis for integrated interdisciplinary research in the SCPC.  A principal hypothesis is that PM is capable of redox activity and electrophilic reactions, the redox and electrophilic properties vary with PM source, size fraction, volatility, and other physical properties, and are relevant to the toxicity of PM samples.  In particular, organic components of the ultrafine fraction of ambient and source specific samples has been an ongoing focus. A second key hypothesis that follows upon the first is that induction of oxidative stress is a key mechanism of PM toxicity, a mechanism that promotes respiratory and cardiovascular inflammation as a major pathological feature underlying asthma and atherosclerosis.  This hypothesis has been explored in the context of cellular studies, animal research and a human panel study.  The individual project reports detail the major advances made in each project.  Progress resulted in approximately 60 peer reviewed publications this year.  The paragraphs below summarize some selected accomplishments of the SCPC during Year 4, highlighting findings that resulted from interdisciplinary collaborations.
 
SCPC has pursued the hypothesis that ultrafine particles (UFP) possess distinct toxic properties compared to other size fractions (Li et al, 2003).  A highly sensitive mouse model system for studying the adjuvant effect of ambient PM on allergic sensitization was developed by Project 2 investigators in earlier years of the SCPC. As reported in a new publication, collaboratively produced by investigators in Projects 1, 2, and 3, the mouse model has now been applied to ambient UFP and fine particles in a study to clarify the relationship between oxidative potential of PM, organic chemical constituents and allergic sensitization effects in vivo (Li et al, 2009).  Concentrated ambient PM samples were administered by intranasal instillation into ovalbumin sensitized mice, and were characterized with respect to chemical composition, chemical reactivity, and pro-oxidative effects in vitro.  The findings demonstrate that ambient UFPs, but not F/UF, can act as an adjuvant to promote TH2 polarization and to enhance allergic sensitization.  The adjuvant effect of UFP is associated with its ability to generate redox active species in the DTT assay.  The key compositional difference between the size fractions was the much greater percentage of UFP mass from organic carbon.  To pursue development of possible biomarkers for allergic inflammation, the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from sensitized mice with and without exposure to UFP is being analyzed to identify proteins that may be key markers for oxidative stress.
 
An important focus of the SCPC during this project year was on semi volatile species associated with PM emissions.  A dynamometer study of the toxicity of heavy duty vehicles with and without emissions control devices was conducted with joint funding from the California Air Resources Board.  Samples were collected with and without thermodenuding to reduce semi-volatile species and subjected to cell free assays that detect the ability to generate redox active species, including organics and metals, and measure covalent modification of target proteins.  The thermally denuded samples had significantly less oxidative potential and thiol binding activity; these finding demonstrate the important role of semi-volatile species in the chemical reactivity and toxicity of mobile source PM (Biswas et al, 2009).  This finding is consistent with early work from the SCPC in tunnels and on roadways (Cho et al, 2005; Ntziachristos et al, 2007).  Brought together with the current work, the studies suggest that increasing atmospheric dilution is associated with reduced activity of PM samples in the DTT assay, due to loss of semivolatile species.    
 
Within SCPC’s primary goal of linking sources to toxicity and health outcomes, mobile sources have been a key focus since the Center’s beginnings.  In year 4, SCPC continued to develop data from the Long Beach Port study, and published the findings from assays for oxidative potential (Hu et al, 2008).  Traffic sources and secondary formation of UFP are major contributors to the PM and organic matter mass, and prevailed over ship emissions and oil combustion even in the community near the harbor.  Redox activity was elevated in the quasi-ultrafine mode, and was associated with organic carbon.  These findings are consistent with previous SCPC studies of other PM sources. A significant association was found between two assays for redox activity but the response in a cellular assay was better explained when vanadium was included in the regression model than was production of reactive oxygen species in a cell free system.  The difference is attributable in part to differences in the reactive species detected by the 2 assays.  Vanadium is likely a marker for bunker fuel combustion in this area.
 
The ongoing relationship between the Cardiovascular Health and Air Pollution Study (CHAPS) and the SCPC produced important findings during Year 4 that again highlight the potential public health effects of mobile sources of PM.  Results are now published from the complete two years of followup of this panel of elderly individuals with a history of coronary artery disease (Delfino et al, 2009).  The study involved a close collaboration between Project 1 of the SCPC, which provides exposure metrics, and the Project 4 investigators who lead CHAPS (supported by NIH and NIEHS grant # ES-012243).  The new publication reports that biomarkers of systemic inflammation and platelet activation were positively associated with those exposure markers that indicate primary combustion sources, including organic carbon, UFP and particle number concentrations.  These associations were stronger during periods of cooler temperatures, when primary OC, particle number and nitrogen oxides concentrations also increase.  In addition, this study reported decreased antioxidant enzyme activity in circulating erythrocytes, an effect that could promote increased systemic inflammatory responses.  The related experimental work in other SCPC projects suggests that this might include redox active and electrophilic organic components of traffic exhaust particles in the ultrafine range (Araujo et al. 2008; Li et al. 2003; Ntziachristos et al. 2007; Shinyashiki et al. 2008).  Echoing the Long Beach Port study cited above, vehicular sources were the major source of both indoor and outdoor particles in this southern California setting.  The critical importance of mobile source emissions for public health has been a key SCPC theme since the Center’s inception.
 
To clarify the physical and chemical characteristics that are linked to the redox and electrophilic properties of particles observed consistently in SCPC studies, partitioning experiments were conducted on a set of diesel exhaust samples (Shinyasaki et al, 2009).  After aqueous extraction of diesel exhaust particulate samples most of the DTT activity, which may be interpreted as redox potential, remained associated with the particulate fraction.  A current SCPC hypothesis is that humic like substances in PM may contribute to this activity.  In contrast, electrophilic species, as identified by activity in the GAPDH assay preferentially partition into the aqueous filtrate; one hypothesis is that the latter may include low molecular weight carbonyl species.   Dichloromethane soluble compounds included some redox active and some electrophilic species; most of these organic soluble activities could be attributed to quinone-like substances.

Future Activities:

The SCPC Outreach Manager, Elina Green will launch a new SCPC website in Spring 2010 that will make all SCPC materials accessible to the public including other researchers, community groups, students, and governmental organizations.  New materials that translate SCPC findings into lay language will be developed from the collaborative efforts of Ms. Green and SCPC investigators.  The website will act as a key resource for new projects at UCLA that received extramural funding in 2009 to assist community groups in neighborhood quality projects.  
 
A group of SCPC investigators are working together to respond to EPA’s new RFA for Clean Air Research Centers with a proposal that will extend the work of the current Center into new complex areas of research on multiple air pollutants, to build upon what has been contributed over 11 years of seminal research on particulate matter by the SCPC.

References:

Araujo JA, Barajas B, Kleinman M, Wang X, Bennett BJ, Gong KW, Navab M, Harkema J, Sioutas C, Lusis AJ, Nel AE. “Ambient particulate pollutants in the ultrafine range promote early atherosclerosis and systemic oxidative stress.” Circ Res. 102 (2008): 589-96
Biswas S, Verma V, Schauer JJ, Cassee FR, Cho AK, Sioutas C.  Oxidative potential of semi-volatile and non volatile particulate matter (PM) from heavy-duty vehicles retrofitted with emission control technologies. Environ Sci Technol. 2009 May 15;43(10):3905-12.
Cho AK, Sioutas C, Miguel AH, Kumagai Y, Schmitz DA, Singh M, Eiguren-Fernandez A, Froines JR Redox activity of airborne particulate matter at different sites in the Los Angeles Basin.  Environ Res. 2005 Sep;99(1):40-7.
Delfino  RJ, Staimer N, Tjoa T, Gillen DL, Polidori A, Arhami M, Kleinman MT, Nosratola D, Vaziri ND, Longhurst J, Sioutas C.  Air Pollution Exposures and Circulating Biomarkers of Effect in a Susceptible Population: Clues to Potential Causal Component mixtures and mechanisms.  Environ Health Perspect. 2009 August; 117(8): 1232–1238.
Hu S., Polidori A., Schafer M., Cho A., Schauer J.J and Sioutas C.  Redox Activity and Chemical Speciation of Size Fractioned PM in the Communities of the Los Angeles - Long Beach Harbor”. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2008: 6439-6451.
Li N, Sioutas C, Cho A, Schmitz D, Misra C, Sempf J, Wang M, Oberley T, Froines J, Nel A Ultrafine particulate pollutants induce oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage.  Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Apr;111(4):455-60.
Li N., Wang M., Bramble L.A., Schmitz D., Sioutas C., Harkema J.R, Cho A.K., and Nel A.E. The Adjuvant Effect of Ambient Particulate Matter Is Closely Reflected by the Particulate Oxidant Potential. Environ Health Perspect., (2009): 117: 1116–1123.
Ntziachristos L, Froines JR, Cho AK, Sioutas C.  Relationship between redox activity and chemical speciation of size-fractionated particulate matter. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2007 Jun 7;4:5.
Shinyashiki M, Rodriguez CR, Di Stefano EM, Sioutas C, Delfino RJ, Kumagai Y, Froines JR and Cho AK. On the interaction between glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and airborne particles: Evidence for electrophilic species. Atmos Environ 42 (2008): 517-529.
Shinyashiki M, Eiguren-Fernandez A, Schmitz DA, Di Stefano E, Li N, Linak WP, Cho SH, Froines JR and Cho AK. Electrophilic and redox properties of diesel exhaust particles. Environ Res 2009 109:239-244.


Journal Articles: 157 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other center views: All 241 publications 157 publications in selected types All 157 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Araujo JA, Barajas B, Kleinman M, Wang X, Bennett BJ, Gong KW, Navab M, Harkema J, Sioutas C, Lusis AJ, Nel AE. Ambient particulate pollutants in the ultrafine range promote early atherosclerosis and systemic oxidative stress. Circulation Research 2008;102(5):589-596. R832413 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Arellanes C, Paulson SE, Fine PM, Sioutas C. Exceeding of Henry's law by hydrogen peroxide associated with urban aerosols. Environmental Science & Technology 2006;40(16):4859-4866. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Arhami M, Kuhn T, Fine PM, Defino RJ, Sioutas C. Effects of sampling artifacts and operating parameters on the performance of a semicontinuous particulate elemental carbon/organic carbon monitor. Environmental Science & Technology 2006;40(3):945-954. R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Arhami M, Polidori A, Delfino RJ, Tjoa T, Sioutas C. Associations between personal, indoor, and residential outdoor pollutant concentrations:implications for exposure assessment to size-fractionated particulate matter. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2009;59(4):392-404. R832413 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Arhami M, Sillanpaa M, Hu S, Olson MR, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Size-segregated inorganic and organic components of PM in the communities of the Los Angeles harbor. Aerosol Science and Technology 2009;43(2):145-160. R832413 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Arhami M, Minguillon MC, Polidori A, Schauer JJ, Delfino RJ, Sioutas C. Organic compound characterization and source apportionment of indoor and outdoor quasi-ultrafine particulate matter in retirement homes of the Los Angeles Basin. Indoor Air 2010;20(1):17-30. R832413 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Ayres JG, Borm P, Cassee FR, Castranova V, Donaldson K, Ghio A, Harrison RM, Hider R, Kelly F, Kooter IM, Marano F, Maynard RL, Mudway I, Nel A, Sioutas C, Smith S, Baeza-Squiban A, Cho A, Duggan S, Froines J. Evaluating the toxicity of airborne particulate matter and nanoparticles by measuring oxidative stress potential—a workshop report and consensus statement. Inhalation Toxicology 2008;20(1):75-99. R832413 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Barone TL, Zhu Y. The morphology of ultrafine particles on and near major freeways. Atmospheric Environment 2008;42(28):6749-6758. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Biswas S, Ntziachristos L, Moore KF, Sioutas C. Particle volatility in the vicinity of a freeway with heavy-duty diesel traffic. Atmospheric Environment 2007;41(16):3479-3493. R832413 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Biswas S, Verma V, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Chemical speciation of PM emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with diesel particulate filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) retrofits. Atmospheric Environment 2009;43(11):1917-1925. R832413 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Biswas S, Verma V, Schauer JJ, Cassee FR, Cho AK, Sioutas C. Oxidative potential of semi-volatile and non volatile particulate matter (PM) from heavy-duty vehicles retrofitted with emission control technologies. Environmental Science & Technology 2009;43(10):3905-3912. R832413 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Breysse PN, Delfino RJ, Dominici F, Elder ACP, Frampton MW, Froines JR, Geyh AS, Godleski JJ, Gold DR, Hopke PK, Koutrakis P, Li N, Oberdorster G, Pinkerton KE, Samet JM, Utell MJ, Wexler AS. US EPA particulate matter research centers: summary of research results for 2005–2011. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health 2013;6(2):333-355. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Campbell A, Araujo JA, Li H, Sioutas C, Kleinman M. Particulate matter induced enhancement of inflammatory markers in the brains of apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 2009;9(8):5099-5104. R832413 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Chan RC-F, Wang M, Li N, Yanagawa Y, Onoe K, Lee JJ, Nel AE. Pro-oxidative diesel exhaust particle chemicals inhibit LPS-induced dendritic cell responses involved in T-helper differentiation. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2006;118(2):455-465. R832413 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Chang J, Delfino RJ, Gillen D, Tjoa T, Nickerson B, Cooper D. Repeated respiratory hospital encounters among children with asthma and residential proximity to traffic. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2009;66(2):90-98. R832413 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Chatila TA, Li N, Garcia-Lloret M, Kim H-J, Nel AE. T-cell effector pathways in allergic diseases:transcriptional mechanisms and therapeutic targets. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2008;121(4):812-823. R832413 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Cheung KL, Polidori A, Ntziachristos L, Tzamkiozis T, Samaras Z, Cassee FR, Gerlofs M, Sioutas C. Chemical characteristics and oxidative potential of particulate matter emissions from gasoline, diesel, and biodiesel cars. Environmental Science & Technology 2009;43(16):6334-6340. R832413 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Cheung KL, Ntziachristos L, Tzamkiozis T, Schauer JJ, Samaras Z, Moore KF, Sioutas C. Emissions of particulate trace elements, metals and organic species from gasoline, diesel, and biodiesel passenger vehicles and their relation to oxidative potential. Aerosol Science and Technology 2010;44(7):500-513. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Cho AK, Sioutas C, Miguel AH, Kumagai Y, Schmitz DA, Singh M, Eiguren-Fernandez A, Froines JR. Redox activity of airborne particulate matter at different sites in the Los Angeles Basin. Environmental Research 2005;99(1):40-47. R832413C003 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Daher N, Ning Z, Cho AK, Shafer M, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Comparison of the chemical and oxidative characteristics of particulate matter (PM) collected by different methods:filters, impactors, and biosamplers. Aerosol Science and Technology 2011;45(11):1294-1304. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Delfino RJ, Staimer N, Gillen D, Tjoa T, Sioutas C, Fung K, George SC, Kleinman MT. Personal and ambient air pollution is associated with increased exhaled nitric oxide in children with asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(11):1736-1743. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Delfino RJ, Staimer N, Tjoa T, Gillen D, Kleinman MT, Sioutas C, Cooper D. Personal and ambient air pollution exposures and lung function decrements in children with asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008;116(4):550-558. R832413 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Delfino RJ, Staimer N, Tjoa T, Polidori A, Arhami M, Gillen DL, Kleinman MT, Vaziri ND, Longhurst J, Zaldivar F, Sioutas C. Circulating biomarkers of inflammation, antioxidant activity, and platelet activation are associated with primary combustion aerosols in subjects with coronary artery disease. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008;116(7):898-906. R832413 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Delfino RJ, Staimer N, Tjoa T, Gillen DL, Polidori A, Arhami M, Kleinman MT, Vaziri ND, Longhurst J, Sioutas C. Air pollution exposures and circulating biomarkers of effect in a susceptible population: clues to potential causal component mixtures and mechanisms. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(8):1232-1238. R832413 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Delfino RJ, Chang J, Wu J, Ren C, Tjoa T, Nickerson B, Cooper D, Gillen DL. Repeated hospital encounters for asthma in children and exposure to traffic-related air pollution near the home. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 2009;102(2):138-144. R832413 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Delfino RJ, Brummel S, Wu J, Stern H, Ostro B, Lipsett M, Winer A, Street DH, Zhang L, Tjoa T, Gillen DL. The relationship of respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions to the southern California wildfires of 2003. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2009;66(3):189-197 R832413 (2008)
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    Journal Article Delfino RJ, Staimer N, Tjoa T, Arhami M, Polidori A, Gillen DL, Kleinman MT, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Association of biomarkers of systemic inflammation with organic components and source tracers in quasi-ultrafine particles. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(6):756-762. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Delfino RJ, Tjoa T, Gillen DL, Staimer N, Polidori A, Arhami M, Jamner L, Sioutas C, Longhurst J. Traffic-related air pollution and blood pressure in elderly subjects with coronary artery disease. Epidemiology 2010;21(3):396-404. R832413 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Delfino RJ, Staimer N, Tjoa T, Arhami M, Polidori A, Gillen DL, George SC, Shafer MM, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Associations of primary and secondary organic aerosols with airway and systemic inflammation in an elderly panel cohort. Epidemiology 2010;21(6):892-902. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2010)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C004 (2010)
    R832413C004 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Delfino RJ, Gillen DL, Tjoa T, Staimer N, Polidori A, Arhami M, Sioutas C, Longhurst J. Electrocardiographic ST-segment depression and exposure to traffic-related aerosols in elderly subjects with coronary artery disease. Environmental Health Perspectives 2011;119(2):196-202. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2010)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C004 (2010)
    R832413C004 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Delfino RJ, Staimer N, Vaziri ND. Air pollution and circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health 2011;4(1):37-52. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C004 (2010)
    R832413C004 (Final)
  • Full-text: Springer-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article DiStefano E, Eiguren-Fernandez A, Delfino RJ, Sioutas C, Froines JR, Cho AK. Determination of metal-based hydroxyl radical generating capacity of ambient and diesel exhaust particles. Inhalation Toxicology 2009;21(9):731-738. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
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    R832413C003 (2009)
    R832413C003 (2010)
    R832413C004 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Doherty SP, Prophete C, Maciejczyk P, Salnikow K, Gould T, Larson T, Koenig J, Jaques P, Sioutas C, Zelikoff JT, Lippmann M, Cohen MD. Detection of changes in alveolar macrophage iron status induced by select PM2.5-associated components using iron-response protein binding activity. Inhalation Toxicology 2007;19(6-7):553-562. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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    R827355 (2004)
    R827355 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Eiguren-Fernandez A, Avol EL, Thurairatnam S, Hakami M, Froines JR, Miguel AH. Seasonal influence on vapor-and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in school communities located in Southern California. Aerosol Science & Technology 2007;41(4):438-446. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C003 (2007)
    R832413C003 (2008)
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    R827352C009 (Final)
    R827352C013 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Eiguren-Fernandez A, Miguel AH, Lu R, Purvis K, Grant B, Mayo P, Di Stefano E, Cho AK, Froines J. Atmospheric formation of 9,10-phenanthraquinone in the Los Angeles air basin. Atmospheric Environment 2008;42(10):2312-2319. R832413 (2007)
    R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C003 (2007)
    R832413C003 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Eiguren-Fernandez A, Miguel AH, Di Stefano E, Schmitz DA, Cho AK, Thurairatnam S, Avol EL, Froines JR. Atmospheric distribution of gas-and particle-phase quinones in Southern California. Aerosol Science and Technology 2008;42(10):854-861. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C003 (2009)
    R832413C003 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Eiguren-Fernandez A, Shinyashiki M, Schmitz DA, DiStefano E, Hinds W, Kumagai Y, Cho AK, Froines JR. Redox and electrophilic properties of vapor-and particle-phase components of ambient aerosols. Environmental Research 2010;110(3):207-212. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C003 (2010)
    R832413C003 (Final)
    R832413C005 (2010)
    R832413C005 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Eiguren-Fernandez A, Di Stefano E, Schmitz DA, Guarieiro ALN, Salinas EM, Nasser E, Froines JR, Cho AK. Chemical reactivities of ambient air samples in three Southern California communities. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2015;65(3):270-277. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Ferris DP, Lu J, Gothard C, Yanes R, Thomas CR, Olsen JC, Stoddart JF, Tamanoi F, Zink JI. Synthesis of Biomolecule-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles for targeted hydrophobic drug delivery to cancer cells. Small 2011;7(13):1816-1826. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Fine PM, Sioutas C, Solomon PA. Secondary particulate matter in the United States: insights from the Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2008;58(2):234-253. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Fruin SA, Hudda N, Sioutas C, Delfino RJ. Predictive model for vehicle air exchange rates based on a large, representative sample. Environmental Science & Technology 2011;45(8):3569-3575. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Fruin S, Westerdahl D, Sax T, Sioutas C, Fine PM. Measurements and predictors of on-road ultrafine particle concentrations and associated pollutants in Los Angeles. Atmospheric Environment 2008;42(2):207-219. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
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    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Fung DC, Zhang QF, Hinds WC, Zhy YF. Particle concentration on freeways: affecting factors and a simple model development. Aerosol and Air Quality Research 2013;13(6):1693-1701. R832413C005 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Geller MD, Ntziachristos L, Mamakos A, Samaras Z, Schmitz DA, Froines JR, Sioutas C. Physicochemical and redox characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from gasoline and diesel passenger cars. Atmospheric Environment 2006;40(36):6988-7004. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Geller M, Biswas S, Sioutas C. Determination of particle effective density in urban environments with a differential mobility analyzer and aerosol particle mass analyzer. Aerosol Science and Technology 2006;40(9):709-723. R832413C001 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
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  • Journal Article George S, Pokhrel S, Xia T, Gilbert B, Ji Z, Schowalter M, Rosenauer A, Damoiseaux R, Bradley KA, Madler L, Nel AE. Use of a rapid cytotoxicity screening approach to engineer a safer zinc oxide nanoparticle through iron doping. ACS Nano 2010;4(1):15-29. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Gerlofs-Nijland ME, Totlandsdal AI, Kilinc E, Boere AJ, Fokkens PH, Leseman DL, Sioutas C, Schwarze PE, Spronk HM, Hadoke PW, Miller MR, Cassee FR. Pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of traffic-related particulate matter:4-week exposure of rats to roadside and diesel engine exhaust particles. Inhalation Toxicology 2010;22(14):1162-1173. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Gong Jr. H, Linn WS, Clark KW, Anderson KR, Sioutas C, Alexis NE, Cascio WE, Devlin RB. Exposures of healthy and asthmatic volunteers to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles in Los Angeles. Inhalation Toxicology 2008;20(6):533-545. R832413 (2007)
    R832413 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Gong KW, Zhao W, Li N, Barajas B, Kleinman M, Sioutas C, Horvath S, Lusis AJ, Nel A, Araujo JA. Air-pollutant chemicals and oxidized lipids exhibit genome-wide synergistic effects on endothelial cells. Genome Biology 2007;8(7):R149 (13 pp.). R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
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    R832413C001 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Gorham KA, Sulbaek Andersen MP, Meinardi S, Delfino RJ, Staimer N, Tjoa T, Rowland FS, Blake DR. Ethane and n-pentane in exhaled breath are biomarkers of exposure not effect. Biomarkers 2009;14(1):17-25. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C004 (2009)
    R832413C004 (2010)
    R832413C004 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Han B, Kim H-J, Kim Y-J, Sioutas C. Unipolar charging of fine and ultra-fine particles using carbon fiber ionizers. Aerosol Science and Technology 2008;42(10):793-800. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Han B, Hudda N, Ning Z, Sioutas C. Enhanced unipolar charging of concentration-enriched particles using water-based condensational growth. Journal of Aerosol Science 2008;39(9):770-784. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Han B, Hudda N, Ning Z, Kim H-J, Kim Y-J, Sioutas C. A novel bipolar charger for submicron aerosol particles using carbon fiber ionizers. Journal of Aerosol Science 2009;40(4):285-294. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Han B, Hudda N, Ning Z, Kim Y-J, Sioutas C. Efficient collection of atmospheric aerosols with a particle concentrator-electrostatic precipitator sampler. Aerosol Science and Technology 2009;43(8):757-766. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Hiyoshi K, Takano H, Inoue K, Ichinose T, Yanagisawa R, Tomura S, Cho AK, Froines JR, Kumagai Y. Effects of a single intratracheal administration of phenanthraquinone on murine lung. Journal of Applied Toxicology 2005;25(1):47-51. R832413C003 (2010)
    R827352 (2004)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Hsu A, Mendez L, Shah J, Sioutas C, Kleinman M, Campbell A. Nanoparticles in air pollution and innate immune responses within the CNS. International Journal of Neuroprotection and Neuroregeneration 2007;3(2):107-113. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Hu S, Polidori A, Arhami M, Shafer MM, Schauer JJ, Cho A, Sioutas C. Redox activity and chemical speciation of size fractioned PM in the communities of the Los Angeles-Long Beach harbor. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2008;8(21):6439-6451. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
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    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C003 (2010)
    R832413C003 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Hudda N, Cheung K, Moore KF, Sioutas C. Inter-community variability in total particle number concentrations in the eastern Los Angeles air basin. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2010;10(23):11385-11399. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Hudda N, Eckel SP, Knibbs LD, Sioutas C, Delfino RJ, Fruin SA. Linking in-vehicle ultrafine particle exposures to on-road concentrations. Atmospheric Environment 2012;59:578-586. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Hudda N, Fruin S, Delfino RJ, Sioutas C. Efficient determination of vehicle emission factors by fuel use category using on-road measurements: downward trends on Los Angeles freight corridor I-710. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2013;13(1):347-357. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Inoue K-I, Takano H, Ichinose T, Tomura S, Yanagisawa R, Sakurai M, Sumi D, Cho AK, Hiyoshi K, Kumagai Y. Effects of naphthoquinone on airway responsiveness in the presence or absence of antigen in mice. Archives of Toxicology 2007;81(8):575-581. R832413 (2007)
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    R832413C003 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Iwamoto N, Sumi D, Ishii T, Uchida K, Cho AK, Froines JR, Kumagai Y. Chemical knockdown of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B by 1,2-naphthoquinone through covalent modification causes persistent transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2007;282(46):33396-33404. R832413 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Iwamoto N, Nishiyama A, Eiguren-Fernandez A, Hinds W, Kumagai Y, Froines JR, Cho AK, Shinyashiki M. Biochemical and cellular effects of electrophiles present in ambient air samples. Atmospheric Environment 2010;44(12):1483-1489. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C003 (2010)
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    R832413C005 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Jung EJ, Avliyakulov NK, Boontheung P, Loo JA, Nel AE. Pro-oxidative DEP chemicals induce heat shock proteins and an unfolding protein response in a bronchial epithelial cell line as determined by DIGE analysis. Proteomics 2007;7(21):3906-3918. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Kam W, Liacos JW, Schauer JJ, Delfino RJ, Sioutas C. Size-segregated composition of particulate matter (PM) in major roadways and surface streets. Atmospheric Environment 2012;55:90-97. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Kang X, Li N, Wang M, Boontheung P, Sioutas C, Harkema JR, Bramble LA, Nel AE, Loo JA. Adjuvant effects of ambient particulate matter monitored by proteomics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Proteomics 2010;10(3):520-531. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2010)
    R832413C002 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Kikuno S, Taguchi K, Iwamoto N, Yamano S, Cho AK, Froines JR, Kumagai Y. 1,2-Naphthoquinone activates vanilloid receptor 1 through increased protein tyrosine phosphorylation, leading to contraction of guinea pig trachea. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2006;210(1-2):47-54. R832413C003 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Kim YH, Sioutas C, Fine P, Shing KS. Effect of albumin on physical characteristics of drug particles produced by supercritical fluid technology. Powder Technology 2008;182(3):354-363. R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Kleinman MT, Hamade A, Meacher D, Oldham M, Sioutas C, Chakrabarti B, Stram D, Froines JR, Cho AK. Inhalation of concentrated ambient particulate matter near a heavily trafficked road stimulates antigen-induced airway responses in mice. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2005;55(9):1277-1288. R832413C003 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Kleinman MT, Sioutas C, Froines JR, Fanning E, Hamade A, Mendez L, Meacher D, Oldham M. Inhalation of concentrated ambient particulate matter near a heavily trafficked road stimulates antigen-induced airway responses in mice. Inhalation Toxicology 2007;19(Suppl 1):117-126. R832413 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Kleinman MT, Araujo JA, Nel A, Sioutas C, Campbell A, Cong PQ, Li H, Bondy SC. Inhaled ultrafine particulate matter affects CNS inflammatory processes and may act via MAP kinase signaling pathways. Toxicology Letters 2008;178(2):127-130. R832413 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Krudysz MA, Froines JR, Fine PM, Sioutas C. Intra-community spatial variation of size-fractionated PM mass, OC, EC, and trace elements in the Long Beach, CA area. Atmospheric Environment 2008;42(21):5374-5389. R832413 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Krudysz MA, Dutton SJ, Brinkman GL, Hannigan MP, Fine PM, Sioutas C, Froines JR. Intra-community spatial variation of size-fractionated organic compounds in Long Beach, California. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health 2009;2(2):69-88. R832413 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Krudysz M, Moore K, Geller M, Sioutas C, Froines J. Intra-community spatial variability of particulate matter size distributions in Southern California/Los Angeles. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2009;9(3):1061-1075. R832413 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Kumagai Y, Shinkai Y, Miura T, Cho AK. The chemical biology of naphthoquinones and its environmental implications. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2012;52:221-247. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Lee ES, Xu B, Zhu Y. Measurements of ultrafine particles carrying different number of charges in on-and near-freeway environments. Atmospheric Environment 2012;60:564-572. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C005 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Lee ES, Polidori A, Koch M, Fine PM, Mehadi A, Hammond D, Wright JN, Miguel AH, Ayala A, Zhu Y. Water-based condensation particle counters comparison near a major freeway with significant heavy-duty diesel traffic. Atmospheric Environment 2013;68:151-161. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Li N, Nel AE. The cellular impacts of diesel exhaust particles:beyond inflammation and death. European Respiratory Journal 2006;27(4):667-668. R832413 (2008)
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    R832413C002 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Li N, Xia T, Nel AE. The role of oxidative stress in ambient particulate matter-induced lung diseases and its implications in the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 2008;44(9):1689-1699. R832413 (2007)
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    R832413C002 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Li N, Wang M, Bramble LA, Schmitz DA, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C, Harkema JR, Nel AE. The adjuvant effect of ambient particulate matter is closely reflected by the particulate oxidant potential. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(7):1116-1123. R832413 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Li N, Harkema JR, Lewandowski RP, Wang M, Bramble LA, Gookin GR, Ning Z, Kleinman MT, Sioutas C, Nel AE. Ambient ultrafine particles provide a strong adjuvant effect in the secondary immune response:implication for traffic-related asthma flares. American Journal of Physiology 2010;299(3):L374-L383. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2010)
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    R832413C002 (2010)
    R832413C002 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Li R, Ning Z, Cui J, Khalsa B, Ai L, Takabe W, Beebe T, Majumdar R, Sioutas C, Hsiai T. Ultrafine particles from diesel engines induce vascular oxidative stress via JNK activation. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 2009;46(6):775-782. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Li R, Ning Z, Majumdar R, Cui J, Takabe W, Jen N, Sioutas C, Hsiai T. Ultrafine particles from diesel vehicle emissions at different driving cycles induce differential vascular pro-inflammatory responses:implication of chemical components and NF-κB signaling. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2010;7:6. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2010)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Li R, Ning Z, Cui J, Yu F, Sioutas C, Hsiai T. Diesel exhaust particles modulate vascular endothelial cell permeability:implication of ZO-1 expression. Toxicology Letters 2010;197(3):163-168. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2010)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Li R, Navab K, Hough G, Daher N, Zhang M, Mittelstein D, Lee K, Pakbin P, Saffari A, Bhetraratana M, Sulaiman D, Beebe T, Wu L, Jen N, Wine E, Tseng C-H, Araujo JA, Fogelman AM, Sioutas C, Navab M, Hsiai T. Effect of exposure to atmospheric ultrafine particles on production of free fatty acids and lipid metabolites in the mouse small intestine. Environmental Health Perspectives 2015;123(1):34-41. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Liacos JW, Kam W, Delfino RJ, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Characterization of organic, metal and trace element PM2.5 species and derivation of freeway-based emission rates in Los Angeles, CA. Science of the Total Environment 2012;435-436:159-166. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Lin P, Yu JZ. Generation of reactive oxygen species mediated by humic-like substances in atmospheric aerosols. Environmental Science & Technology 2011;45(24):10362-10368. R832413C003 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Liong M, Lu J, Kovochich M, Xia T, Ruehm SG, Nel AE, Tamanoi F, Zink JI. Multifunctional inorganic nanoparticles for imaging, targeting, and drug delivery. ACS Nano 2008;2(5):889-896. R832413 (2010)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Majestic BJ, Schauer JJ, Shafer MM, Turner JR, Fine PM, Singh M, Sioutas C. Development of a wet-chemical method for the speciation of iron in atmospheric aerosols. Environmental Science & Technology 2006;40(7):2346-2351. R832413C001 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Majestic BJ, Schauer JJ, Shafer MM, Fine PM, Singh M, Sioutas C. Trace metal analysis of atmospheric particulate matter: a comparison of personal and ambient samplers. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science 2008;7(4):289-298. R832413 (2007)
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    R832413C001 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Melega WP, Jorgensen MJ, Lacan G, Way BM, Pham J, Morton G, Cho AK, Fairbanks LA. Long-term methamphetamine administration in the vervet monkey models aspects of a human exposure: Brain neurotoxicity and behavioral profiles. Neuropsychopharmacology 2008;33(6):1441-1452. R832413 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Minguillon MC, Arhami M, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Seasonal and spatial variations of sources of fine and quasi-ultrafine particulate matter in neighborhoods near the Los Angeles-Long Beach harbor. Atmospheric Environment 2008;42(32):7317-7328. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
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    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Moore KF, Ning Z, Ntziachristos L, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Daily variation in the properties of urban ultrafine aerosol—Part I:physical characterization and volatility. Atmospheric Environment 2007;41(38):8633-8646. R832413 (2008)
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    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Moore K, Krudysz M, Pakbin P, Hudda N, Sioutas C. Intra-community variability in total particle number concentrations in the San Pedro harbor area (Los Angeles, California). Aerosol Science and Technology 2009;43(6):587-603. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
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    R832157 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Morgan TE, Davis DA, Iwata N, Tanner JA, Snyder D, Ning Z, Kam W, Hsu YT, Winkler JW, Chen JC, Petasis NA, Baudry M, Sioutas C, Finch CE. Glutamatergic neurons in rodent models respond to nanoscale particulate urban air pollutants in vivo and in vitro. Environmental Health Perspectives 2011;119(7):1003-1009. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Nel AE, Madler L, Velegol D, Xia T, Hoek EM, Somasundaran P, Klaessig F, Castranova V, Thompson M. Understanding biophysicochemical interactions at the nano-bio interface. Nature Materials 2009;8(7):543-557. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Nel A, Xia T, Madler L, Li N. Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel. Science 2006;311(5761):622-627. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Ngo MA, Pinkerton KE, Freeland S, Geller M, Ham W, Cliff S, Hopkins LE, Kleeman MJ, Kodavanti UP, Meharg E, Plummer L, Recendez JJ, Schenker MB, Sioutas C, Smiley-Jewell S, Haas C, Gutstein J, Wexler AS. Airborne particles in the San Joaquin Valley may affect human health. California Agriculture 2010;64(1):12-16. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Ning Z, Moore KF, Polidori A, Sioutas C. Field validation of the new miniature Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System (mVACES). Aerosol Science and Technology 2006;40(12):1098-1110. R832413 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Ning Z, Geller MD, Moore KF, Sheesley R, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Daily variation in chemical characteristics of urban ultrafine aerosols and inference of their sources. Environmental Science & Technology 2007;41(17):6000-6006. R832413 (2008)
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    R832413C001 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Ning Z, Polidori A, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Emission factors of PM species based on freeway measurements and comparison with tunnel and dynamometer studies. Atmospheric Environment 2008;42(13):3099-3114. R832413 (2007)
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    R832413C001 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Ning Z, Sillanpaa M, Pakbin P, Sioutas C. Field evaluation of a new particle concentrator-electrostatic precipitator system for measuring chemical and toxicological properties of particulate matter. Particle and Fibre Technology 2008;5:15. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
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    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Ning Z, Hudda N, Daher N, Kam W, Herner J, Kozawa K, Mara S, Sioutas C. Impact of roadside noise barriers on particle size distributions and pollutants concentrations near freeways. Atmospheric Environment 2010;44(26):3118-3127. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Ning Z, Sioutas C. Atmospheric processes influencing aerosols generated by combustion and the inference of their impact on public exposure:a review. Aerosol and Air Quality Research 2010;10(1):43-58. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Ntziachristos L, Ning Z, Geller MD, Sioutas C. Particle concentration and characteristics near a major freeway with heavy-duty diesel traffic. Environmental Science & Technology 2007;41(7):2223-2230. R832413 (2008)
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    R832413C001 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Ntziachristos L, Froines JR, Cho AK, Sioutas C. Relationship between redox activity and chemical speciation of size-fractionated particulate matter. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2007;4:5 (12 pp.). R832413 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Ntziachristos L, Ning Z, Geller MD, Sheesley RJ, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Fine, ultrafine and nanoparticle trace element compositions near a major freeway with a high heavy-duty diesel fraction. Atmospheric Environment 2007;41(27):5684-5696. R832413 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Ntziachristos L, Polidori A, Phuleria H, Geller MD, Sioutas C. Application of a diffusion charger for the measurement of particle surface concentration in different environments. Aerosol Science and Technology 2007;41(6):571-580. R832413 (2008)
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    R832413C001 (2006)
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    R832413C001 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Pakbin P, Ning Z, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Characterization of particle bound organic carbon from diesel vehicles equipped with advanced emission control technologies. Environmental Science & Technology 2009;43(13):4679-4686. R832413 (Final)
    R835172 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Pakbin P, Ning Z, Eiguren-Fernandez A, Sioutas C. Modification of the Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System (VACES) for conducting inhalation exposures to semi-volatile vapor phase pollutants. Journal of Aerosol Science 2011;42(9):555-566. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Phalen RF, Oldham MJ, Nel AE. Tracheobronchial particle dose considerations for in vitro toxicology studies. Toxicological Sciences 2006;92(1):126-132. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Phuleria HC, Geller MD, Fine PM, Sioutas C. Size-resolved emissions of organic tracers from light-and heavy-duty vehicles measured in a California roadway tunnel. Environmental Science & Technology 2006;40(13):4109-4118. R832413C001 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Phuleria HC, Sheesley RJ, Schauer JJ, Fine PM, Sioutas C. Roadside measurements of size-segregated particulate organic compounds near gasoline and diesel-dominated freeways in Los Angeles, CA. Atmospheric Environment 2007;41(22):4653-4671. R832413 (2008)
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    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Polidori A, Arhami M, Sioutas C, Delfino RJ, Allen R. Indoor/outdoor relationships, trends, and carbonaceous content of fine particulate matter in retirement homes of the Los Angeles Basin. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2007;57(3):366-379. R832413 (2008)
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    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Polidori A, Hu S, Biswas S, Delfino RJ, Sioutas C. Real-time characterization of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient aerosols and from motor-vehicle exhaust. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2008;8(5):1277-1291. R832413 (2007)
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    R832413C001 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Polidori A, Cheung KL, Arhami M, Delfino RJ, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Relationships between size-fractionated indoor and outdoor trace elements at four retirement communities in southern California. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2009;9(14):4521-4536. R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
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    R832413C004 (2010)
    R832413C004 (Final)
    R833743 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Prophete C, Maciejczyk P, Salnikow K, Gould T, Larson T, Koenig J, Jaques P, Sioutas C, Lippmann M, Cohen M. Effects of select PM-associated metals on alveolar macrophage phosphorylated ERK1 and-2 and iNOS expression during ongoing alteration in iron homeostasis. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A:Current Issues 2006;69(10):935-951. R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Quiros DC, Zhang Q, Choi W, He M, Paulson SE, Winer AM, Wang R, Zhu Y. Air quality impacts of a scheduled 36-h closure of a major highway. Atmospheric Environment 2013;67:404-414. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C005 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Riedl MA, Nel AE. Importance of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis and treatment of asthma. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2008;8(1):49-56. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Rodriguez CE, Fukuto JM, Taguchi K, Froines J, Cho AK. The interactions of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a potential site for toxic actions. Chemico-Biological Interactions 2005;155(1-2):97-110. R832413C003 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Saffari A, Daher N, Shafer MM, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Global perspective on the oxidative potential of airborne particulate matter: a synthesis of research findings. Environmental Science & Technology 2014;48(13):7576-7583. R832413 (Final)
    R833743 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Sardar SB, Geller MD, Sioutas C, Solomon PA. Development and evaluation of a high-volume dichotomous sampler for chemical speciation of coarse and fine particles. Journal of Aerosol Science 2006;37(11):1455-1466. R832413C001 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Shinkai Y, Nakajima S, Eiguren-Fernandez A, Di Stefano E, Schmitz DA, Froines JR, Cho AK, Kumagai Y. Ambient vapor samples activate the Nrf2-ARE pathway in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Environmental Toxicology 2014;29(11):1292-1300. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Shinyashiki M, Rodriguez CE, Di Stefano EW, Sioutas C, Delfino RJ, Kumagai Y, Froines JR, Cho AK. On the interaction between glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and airborne particles:evidence for electrophilic species. Atmospheric Environment 2008;42(3):517-529. R832413 (2008)
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    R832413C004 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Shinyashiki M, Eiguren-Fernandez A, Schmitz DA, Di Stefano E, Li N, Linak WP, Cho S-H, Froines JR, Cho AK. Electrophilic and redox properties of diesel exhaust particles. Environmental Research 2009;109(3):239-244. R832413 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Sillanpaa M, Geller MD, Phuleria HC, Sioutas C. High collection efficiency electrostatic precipitator for in vitro cell exposure to concentrated ambient particulate matter (PM). Journal of Aerosol Science 2008;39(4):335-347. R832413 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Singh M, Phuleria HC, Bowers K, Sioutas C. Seasonal and spatial trends in particle number concentrations and size distributions at the Children’s Health Study sites in southern California. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2006;16(1):3-18. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Snyder DC, Dallmann TR, Schauer JJ, Holloway T, Kleeman MJ, Geller MD, Sioutas C. Direct observation of the break-up of a nocturnal inversion layer using elemental mercury as a tracer. Geophysical Research Letters 2008;35(17):L17812. R832413 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Solomon PA, Hopke PK, Froines J, Scheffe R. Key scientific findings and policy-and health-relevant insights from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies:an integration and synthesis of results. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2008;58(13 SI):S3-S92. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Solomon PA, Sioutas C. Continuous and semicontinuous monitoring techniques for particulate matter mass and chemical components:a synthesis of findings from EPA's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2008;58(2):164-195. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Staimer N, Nguyen TB, Nizkorodov SA, Delfino RJ. Glutathione peroxidase inhibitory assay for electrophilic pollutants in diesel exhaust and tobacco smoke. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2012;403(2):431-441. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C004 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Taguchi K, Fujii S, Yamano S, Cho AK, Kamisuki S, Nakai Y, Sugawara F, Froines JR, Kumagai Y. An approach to evaluate two-electron reduction of 9,10-phenanthraquinone and redox activity of the hydroquinone associated with oxidative stress. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 2007;43(5):789-799. R832413C003 (2010)
    R827352 (Final)
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  • Full-text: Science Direct-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Taguchi K, Shimada M, Fujii S, Sumi D, Pan X, Yamano S, Nishiyama T, Hiratsuka A, Yamamoto M, Cho AK, Froines JR, Kumagai Y. Redox cycling of 9,10-phenanthraquinone to cause oxidative stress is terminated through its monoglucuronide conjugation in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 2008;44(8):1645-1655. R832413 (2007)
    R832413 (2008)
    R832413C003 (2007)
    R832413C003 (2008)
    R832413C003 (2009)
    R832413C003 (2010)
    R827352 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Tzamkiozis T, Stoeger T, Cheung K, Ntziachristos L, Sioutas C, Samaras Z. Monitoring the inflammatory potential of exhaust particles from passenger cars in mice. Inhalation Toxicology 2010;22(Suppl 2):59-69. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Taylor and Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Verma V, Ning Z, Cho AK, Schauer JJ, Shafer MM, Sioutas C. Redox activity of urban quasi-ultrafine particles from primary and secondary sources. Atmospheric Environment 2009;43(40):6360-6368. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2010)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C003 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Verma V, Polidori A, Schauer JJ, Shafer MM, Cassee FR, Sioutas C. Physicochemical and toxicological profiles of particulate matter in Los Angeles during the October 2007 Southern California wildfires. Environmental Science & Technology 2009;43(3):954-960. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2009)
    R832413C001 (Final)
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  • Full-text: ACS-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Verma V, Shafer MM, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C. Contribution of transition metals in the reactive oxygen species activity of PM emissions from retrofitted heavy-duty vehicles. Atmospheric Environment 2010;44(39):5165-5173. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Verma V, Pakbin P, Cheung KL, Cho AK, Schauer JJ, Shafer MM, Kleinman MT, Sioutas C. Physicochemical and oxidative characteristics of semi-volatile components of quasi-ultrafine particles in an urban atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment 2011;45(4):1025-1033. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Wang Y, Zhu Y, Salinas R, Ramirez D, Karnae S, John K. Roadside measurements of ultrafine particles at a busy urban intersection. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2008;58(11):1449-1457. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C005 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Westerdahl D, Fruin SA, Fine PL, Sioutas C. The Los Angeles International Airport as a source of ultrafine particles and other pollutants to nearby communities. Atmospheric Environment 2008;42(13):3143-3155. R832413 (2007)
    R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
    R831861 (2005)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Wold LE, Simkhovich BZ, Kleinman MT, Nordlie MA, Dow JS, Sioutas C, Kloner RA. In vivo and in vitro models to test the hypothesis of particle-induced effects on cardiac function and arrhythmias. Cardiovascular Toxicology 2006;6(1):69-78. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
    R831952 (2005)
    R831952 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Springer-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Xia T, Kovochich M, Brant J, Hotze M, Sempf J, Oberley T, Sioutas C, Yeh JI, Wiesner MR, Nel AE. Comparison of the abilities of ambient and manufactured nanoparticles to induce cellular toxicity according to an oxidative stress paradigm. Nano Letters 2006;6(8):1794-1807. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2006)
    R832413C002 (2008)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C002 (Final)
    R827352C014 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: UCLA-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Xia T, Kovochich M, Nel A. The role of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in mediating particulate matter injury. Clinics in Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2006;5(4):817-836. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2007)
    R832413C002 (2008)
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  • Abstract: Dimensions-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Xia T, Kovochich M, Nel AE. Impairment of mitochondrial function by particulate matter (PM) and their toxic components: implications for PM-induced cardiovascular and lung disease. Frontiers in Bioscience 2007;12(4):1238-1246. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2007)
    R832413C002 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Xia T, Kovochich M, Liong M, Zink JI, Nel AE. Cationic polystyrene nanosphere toxicity depends on cell-specific endocytic and mitochondrial injury pathways. ACS Nano 2008;2(1):85-96. R832413 (2010)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Xia T, Kovochich M, Liong M, Madler L, Gilbert B, Shi H, Yeh JI, Zink JI, Nel AE. Comparison of the mechanism of toxicity of zinc oxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles based on dissolution and oxidative stress properties. ACS Nano 2008;2(10):2121-2134. R832413 (2010)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Xia T, Li N, Nel AE. Potential health impact of nanoparticles. Annual Review of Public Health 2009;30:137-150. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2010)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2009)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: AnnualReviews-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: AnnualReviews-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Xia T, Kovochich M, Liong M, Meng H, Kabehie S, George S, Zink JI, Nel AE. Polyethyleneimine coating enhances the cellular uptake of mesoporous silica nanoparticles and allows safe delivery of siRNA and DNA constructs. ACS Nano 2009;3(10):3273-3286. R832413 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Xiao GG, Wang M, Li N, Loo JHA, Nel AE. Use of proteomics to demonstrate a heirarchical oxidative stress response to diesel exhaust particle chemicals in a macrophage cell line. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2003;278(50):50781-50790. R832413C002 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Journal Article Yacobi NR, Phuleria HC, Demaio L, Liang CH, Peng C-A, Sioutas C, Borok Z, Kim K-J, Crandall ED. Nanoparticle effects on rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayer barrier properties. Toxicology in Vitro 2007;21(8):1373-1381. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (2009)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C001 (2007)
    R832413C001 (2008)
    R832413C001 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zhang L, Wang M, Kang X, Boontheung P, Li N, Nel AE, Loo JA. Oxidative stress and asthma:proteome analysis of chitinase-like proteins and FIZZ1 in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Journal of Proteome Research 2009;8(4):1631-1638. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zhu Y, Kuhn T, Mayo P, Hinds WC. Comparison of daytime and nighttime concentration profiles and size distributions of ultrafine particles near a major highway. Environmental Science & Technology 2006;40(8):2531-2536. R832413C005 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C006 (Final)
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  • Full-text: ACS-Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Zhu Y, Yu N, Kuhn T, Hinds WC. Field comparison of P-trak and condensation particle counters. Aerosol Science and Technology 2006;40(6):422-430. R832413C005 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
    R827352C006 (Final)
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Zhu Y, Eiguren-Fernandez A, Hinds WC, Miguel AH. In-cabin commuter exposure to ultrafine particles on Los Angeles freeways. Environmental Science & Technology 2007;41(7):2138-2145. R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C005 (2007)
    R832413C005 (2008)
    R832413C005 (Final)
    R827352 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zhu Y, Fung DC, Kennedy N, Hinds WC, Eiguren-Fernandez A. Measurements of ultrafine particles and other vehicular pollutants inside a mobile exposure system on Los Angeles freeways. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2008;58(3):424-434. R832413 (2007)
    R832413 (2008)
    R832413 (Final)
    R832413C005 (2007)
    R832413C005 (2008)
    R832413C005 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Taylor&Francis-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Taylor&Francis-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Zhu Y, Fanning E, Yu RC, Zhang Q, Froines JR. Aircraft emissions and local air quality impacts from takeoff activities at a large international airport. Atmospheric Environment 2011;45(36):6526-6533. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C005 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Araujo JA, Nel AE. Particulate matter and atherosclerosis:role of particle size, composition and oxidative stress. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2009;6:24. R832413 (Final)
    R832413C002 (2010)
    R832413C002 (Final)
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, Air, particulate matter, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Risk Assessments, Ecological Risk Assessment, cardiopulmonary responses, chemical characteristics, human health effects, toxicology, airborne particulate matter, cardiovascular vulnerability, animal model, biological mechanism , biological mechanisms, chemical composition, ambient particle health effects, human exposure, respiratory impact, PM, cardiotoxicity, oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease

    Relevant Websites:

    http://www.scpcs.ucla.edu/ Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2006 Progress Report
  • 2007 Progress Report
  • 2008 Progress Report
  • 2010 Progress Report
  • 2011
  • Final Report
  • Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R832413C001 Contribution of Primary and Secondary PM Sources to Exposure & Evaluation of Their Relative Toxicity
    R832413C002 Project 2: The Role of Oxidative Stress in PM-induced Adverse Health Effects
    R832413C003 The Chemical Properties of PM and their Toxicological Implications
    R832413C004 Oxidative Stress Responses to PM Exposure in Elderly Individuals With Coronary Heart Disease
    R832413C005 Ultrafine Particles on and Near Freeways