2008 Progress Report: Harvard Particle Center

EPA Grant Number: R832416
Center: Harvard Particle Center
Center Director: Koutrakis, Petros
Title: Harvard Particle Center
Investigators: Koutrakis, Petros , Brook, Robert D. , Brook, Jeffrey R. , Coull, Brent , Demokritou, Philip , Dockery, Douglas W. , Godleski, John J. , Gold, Diane R. , Gonzalez-Flecha, Beatriz , Schwartz, Joel , Silverman, Frances , Speizer, Frank E. , Stone, Peter , Suh, Helen H. , Vokonas, Pantel
Institution: Harvard University , Boston University , Brigham and Women's Hospital, Inc. , University of Michigan , University of Toronto
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2010 (Extended to September 30, 2011)
Project Period Covered by this Report: October 1, 2007 through September 30,2008
Project Amount: $7,999,609
RFA: Particulate Matter Research Centers (2004) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Health Effects , Air

Objective:

Investigating the impacts of air pollution on public health requires an intensely multidisciplinary approach. Our Center brings together a diverse group of experts, including atmospheric chemists, engineers, aerosol scientists, toxicologists, pulmonologists, cardiologists, molecular biologists, epidemiologists, statisticians, and exposure assessors. The Center also builds upon the infrastructure and extensive portfolio of other research at the Harvard School of Public Health and allied institutions, including the Universities of Toronto and Michigan. To date, Center research has produced over 170 peer-reviewed publications. Many of these research findings are of public policy significance and were extensively cited by the 2004 EPA Criteria Document and the draft 2008 Integrated Science Assessment report. This valuable scientific productivity depended heavily on the numerous collaborations fostered by the Center over its 10-year lifespan.

Our current Center supports four research projects and two cores which share three common objectives: 1) Define mechanisms of response to PM exposures at the molecular, cellular, and integrative pathophysiological levels, using experimental laboratory and population studies; 2) Investigate associations between specific PM characteristics/sources and inflammation, autonomic responses, and vascular dysfunction and; and 3) Identify individuals who are more susceptible to PM exposures because of their genetic predisposition and/or health condition. Project 1 (NAS study) examines the association between PM exposures and intermediate markers of autonomic dysfunction, systemic inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress, in the Normative Aging Study cohort in Eastern Massachusetts. Project 2 (Human CAPs study) examines the cardiovascular effects of fine, coarse and ultrafine concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) in healthy adults in Toronto. Measurements of cardiovascular and inflammatory responses include brachial artery diameter, flow-mediated dilatation, heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance. Project 3 (Animal CAPs study) investigates the relationship between PM composition and vascular response. Normal and spontaneously hypersensitive rats are exposed to fine CAPs in Boston. Biological outcomes include pulmonary and systemic inflammation, BP, endothelin-1,  atrial naturetic peptide, oxidant response in the heart and lung by in vivo chemiluminescence, and vascular morphometry of lung and cardiac vessels. Project 4 (Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emission Source Aerosol-TERESA study) investigates the effects of primary and secondary vehicular emissions from a traffic tunnel in Boston, using the same animal models and biological measurements as in Project 4. The Biostatistics Core provides design and analysis support for all four Projects, as well as supports population studies in US cites examining PM effects on mortality and morbidity. Finally, the Particle Core supports the development of particle exposure systems for human and animal inhalation studies and sampling techniques for exposure assessment investigations. Below, we highlight some of our Center accomplishments and discuss our plans for the remaining two years. This overview focuses on biological responses as they relate to mechanisms, to susceptibility and PM components/sources.

Progress Summary:

Oxidative Stress: It has been hypothesized that a primary mechanism by which particles impact human health is the induction of pulmonary inflammatory responses mediated through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The NAS project examines the importance of oxidative stress pathways to the relationship between PM exposures and cardiac outcomes. Park et al. 2006 postulated that two hemochromatosis (HFE) polymorphisms (C282Y and H63D), associated with increased iron uptake, may modify the effect of metal-rich particles on the cardiovascular system. [The protein product of the HFE gene modulates uptake of iron and divalent cations from pulmonary sources and reduces their toxicity.] Among men in the NAS cohort, PM2.5 exposures decreased the high-frequency component of HRV in persons with the wild-type genotype, whereas no relationship was observed in persons with either HFE variant. The effect of PM on cardiac autonomic function was shielded in subjects with at least 1 copy of an HFE variant compared with wild-type subjects. Using the NAS cohort we have shown that reduced defenses against oxidative stress due to glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) deletion modify the effects of PM2.5 on HRV 1. Furthermore, polymorphisms in hemeoxygenase (HMOX-1) have been shown to affect the ability to respond to oxidative stress. A high number of (GT)n dinucleotide repeats in the 5'-flanking region of the gene have found to increase risk of coronary artery disease. Our recent NAS paper by Chahine et al. 2 showed that individuals with a high number of (GT)n repeats are more susceptible to the PM effects. PM2.5 was not associated with decreased HRV in subjects with the short repeat variant of HMOX-1, but was significantly associated in subjects with any long repeat. We also found that HMOX-1 interacts with GSTM1. In subjects with the GSTM1 deletion and the HMOX-1 long repeat, high frequency power of HRV decreased by 28% per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5. Together these findings suggest that oxidative stress is an important pathway for the particle autonomic effects.
 
We have pioneered animal CAPs toxicological studies which have produced a large spectrum of biological responses. These investigations provide a unique opportunity to address important mechanistic questions raised by epidemiologic studies. For instance, how could particles inhaled by individuals with lessened defenses against ROS result in HRV changes? We have shown that measures of cardiac ROS are directly related to autonomic nervous system activity 3. More recently, animals with or without blocked afferent neural fibers in the lung were exposed to CAPs 4. During exposures, ROS levels in the heart were measured using in situ chemiluminescence. Cardiac conduction parameters were also monitored. This study showed that blocking afferent neural response fibers in the lung, which mediate autonomic nervous system responses, blocked both increases in ROS levels in the heart and changes in cardiac conduction times. Consistent with our human studies these findings link respiratory and cardiac autonomic mechanisms with ROS and serve as a prime example of the benefits of integrated research within our Center. 
 
Inflammation: We investigated PM-mediated impacts on several markers of inflammation and thrombotic activity, which may play key role in the physio-pathological processes leading to cardiovascular disease and mortality5. We examined the impact of particles on inflammation and thrombotic activity using white blood cell counts (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), sediment rate, and fibrinogen, and investigated whether these impacts were modified by age, health status, polymorphisms in GSTM1, and statin medications. We found both Black Carbon (BC) and Particle Number (PN) to be increase inflammation and thrombotic activity. Effects were strongest for subjects older than 78 years, individuals with chronic pro-inflammatory states (as shown for obese individuals), and individuals with reduced defenses to ROS species (as shown for people with the GSTM1-null genetic polymorphism or in non-statin users). 
 
Vascular Dysfunction: Our previous epidemiological studies have shown that PM increases BP in diabetic populations 6,7. Three of the Center projects (NAS, and human and animal CAPs) investigate the relationship between PM exposures and BP. We have exposed humans to particle free air, fine CAPs and coarse CAPs. Both particle size fractions induced vascular responses: the diastolic BP increased by 2.73±1.18 and, 2.86±0.86 mmHg for coarse and fine CAPs, respectively; while the systolic BP increased by 3.03±1.28 and 2.29±1.12 mmHg, for coarse and fine CAPs, respectively. It is also worth mentioning that our animal studies have shown that exposure to surrogate particles or CAPs enhances ischemia and increases blood pressure in both canine and rat models 8,9 .
 
Autonomic Dysfunction: Many investigators have identified short term outcomes related to PM exposures, such as HRV, an indicator of autonomic response, and arrhythmias that could lead to cardiovascular deaths. In the NAS study exposures to PM2.5 and O3 were associated with decreased HRV, High Frequency (HF) and, Low Frequency (LF) and increased LF/HF ratio 10. In a later analysis we found that PM2.5, SO4 and BC exposures were associated with increased LF/HF ratio on days where most of the pollution was related to local sources 11. In a panel study of 32 elderly subjects in Steubenville, Ohio, we found that PM2.5 and SO4 exposures decrease HRV 12. Furthermore, irregularities in cardiac repolarization may play an important role as they can lead to the development of an arrhythmia. Using data from the NAS, we investigated the association between PM exposures and the QT interval (QTc), which is a measure of repolarization. Preliminary results show that the traffic-related pollutants, BC, NO2 and CO are associated with increased QTc. 
 
Susceptibility: Individuals with cardiac and vascular disease are more susceptible to PM effects.  One potential pathway of diabetic vulnerability is via inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, processes in which cell adhesion molecules and inflammatory markers play important roles. O’Neill et al. 13 measured plasma levels of soluble ICAM-1; VCAM-1; and vWF and particle exposure in 92 Boston patients with type-2 diabetes. Among participants not taking statins, associations between PM2.5, BC and VCAM-1 were particularly strong. Furthermore, PM exposures were associated with changes in reactive hyperemia and increased arrhythmias (Zanobetti et al. 2002; Sarnat et al. 2006) 6,14. Finally, in post-MI patients, PM2.5 exposures were associated with decreased HRV 15. These effects were modified by beta-blocker, bronchodilator intake 15, and genetics 2.
 
Effect of Particle Characteristics and Sources on Particle Toxicity: While great progress has been made in elucidating the biological mechanisms which are responsible for the PM effects, understanding the role of specific PM sources and properties remains a significant challenge. One of the main objectives of the Center is to examine PM toxicity in relation to both PM components and to different sources. These issues are addressed by three different approaches:  population and cohort studies; CAPs inhalation studies; and source specific inhalation studies.
 
1) Population and Cohort Studies. In Franklin et al. 16 we found that Al, Si, S, Ni, and As significantly modified the association between daily PM2.5 mass and mortality in 25 US communities cities. Zanobetti and Schwartz 17 analyzed hospital admissions data from Boston. This study found associations between MI emergency hospital admissions and BC, and emergency pneumonia admissions and BC, NO2 and CO. The pattern of associations seen for MI and pneumonia underlines the importance of traffic emissions. Maynard et al. 18 used GIS to assess address-specific exposures to traffic PM for each decedent in Boston. Traffic exposure was associated with all-cause mortality as well as stroke and diabetes-related deaths. Sulfate, an indicator of long-range transported particles, was also associated with all-cause mortality risk, but its effect was smaller than that of traffic PM. Finally, in our original NAS study we found ambient PM2.5 and BC concentrations to be associated with decrements in HRV and increases in CRP and fibrinogen levels.
 
2) CAPs Inhalation Studies. The fine, coarse and ultrafine particle concentrator technologies developed by our group have been extensively used in Center studies and by researchers in US and around the world 19-21 . These technologies provide a unique opportunity to expose subjects to real ambient particles at concentrations higher than typical atmospheric levels. To date most of the CAPs studies have produced biological responses. In both the human and animal CAPs studies we examine PM toxicity in relation to PM composition and size. Of particular interest are the results of the Toronto human CAPs study which showed that both fine and coarse PM can produce similar increases in BP. Unlike previous inhalation studies which have used artificial test particles, CAPs composition depends on atmospheric conditions and source contributions and thus varies by experiment. This inherent variability of exposures can be very advantageous in the efforts to examine the effects of PM specific components and/or sources. For instance, animal CAPs studies in Boston have assoicated health outcomes to particulate species, such as: hematologic and bronchoalveolar lavage changes linked to Pb, Br and S 22, vascular changes linked to Si, S, EC and OC  23 and lung chemiluminescence linked to metals and heart chemiluminescence linked to traffic-related components 24.
 
3) Source Specific Inhalation Studies.  Because there is still ambiguity in associating source tracers with actual sources, we believe that it is important to conduct exposure studies that examine the effects of both primary and secondary particles from specific sources. Our recent and current TERESA studies, co-funded by the Center and EPRI, aim to investigate the effects of specific sources such as electric power plants and vehicular traffic, respectively. We have developed technologies to sample combustion emissions as well as to effectively simulate the aging of primary source emissions through a series of photochemical reactions. We have exposed rats to coal combustion primary and secondary particles at three US power plants equipped with different emission control technologies. As mentioned above, these toxicological assessments included measurement of respiratory parameters, inflammatory markers and cardiac function. Although we are still analyzing the data, our preliminary findings suggest that both primary and secondary coal combustion particles are less toxic than Boston CAPs. Using the developed technologies, we will investigate the toxicity of primary and secondary pollutants from mobile source emissions sampled inside the ventilation stack of a traffic tunnel in Boston. Together, the toxicological investigation of CAPs, coal and traffic particles will enhance our understanding about the effects of two very important particle sources impacting the U.S. population.
 
Other Population Studies: In addition to the four Projects, our Center supports the extension of the analyses of population surveillance data to additional cities in the US. These efforts continue to provide new insights into the effects of particle exposures on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality 25, as well as on hospital admissions for MI infarctions Zanobetti, 2005 #104}, for heart failure 26, respiratory disease  27, and heart disease 28. In an analysis of over 1.3 million deaths in 27 US communities, we reported increases in all-cause respiratory and stroke-related mortality associated with PM2.5 and PM10 exposures. Finally, case-crossover methods have shown that individual characteristics modify the effect of particles on mortality 29, and that city characteristics modify the effect of PM on hospital admissions 27.

Future Activities:

The NAS cohort has been an invaluable resource in our efforts to investigate biological mechanisms in human subjects. Future work will include assessment of participant-specific exposures, which will be used in conjunction with the central site measurements for the health effects analyses. Future analysis will also include additional biological parameters, including BP and plasma levels of soluble ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and vWF. Despite unanticipated delays to installation of the three concentrators in Toronto, we are very pleased with the overall progress of this Project. We have recruited additional subjects for coarse CAPs exposures and analysis of the biological data is underway. Depending on the results of this analysis we will decide whether to perform additional coarse and fine PM exposures or switch to ultrafine CAPs during the last year. All Boston animal CAPs exposures have been completed and we are currently analyzing the data. Construction of the photochemical chamber for the traffic TERESA study will be completed soon. The field study will commence in the spring of 2009 and will last approximately six months. We anticipate finishing the study in approximately two years. Finally, we will continue the analysis of morbidity and speciation data from US cities to investigate species-specific associations using similar statistical methods used by the Franklin et al. 16 mortality study. 


Journal Articles: 139 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other center views: All 145 publications 139 publications in selected types All 139 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Alexeeff SE, Litonjua AA, Suh H, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Schwartz J. Ozone exposure and lung function:effect modified by obesity and airways hyperresponsiveness in the VA Normative Aging Study. Chest 2007;132(6):1890-1897. R832416 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Alexeeff SE, Litonjua AA, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Schwartz J. Statin use reduces decline in lung function:VA Normative Aging Study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2007;176(8):742-747. R832416 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Alexeeff SE, Litonjua AA, Wright RO, Baccarelli A, Suh H, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Schwartz J. Ozone exposure, antioxidant genes, and lung function in an elderly cohort:VA Normative Aging Study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2008;65(11):736-742. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Alexeeff SE, Coull BA, Gyparis A, Suh H, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Schwartz J. Medium-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and markers of inflammation and endothelial function. Environmental Health Perspectives 2011;119(4):481-486. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Baccarelli A, Cassano PA, Litonjua A, Park SK, Suh H, Sparrow D, Vokonas P, Schwartz J. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction:effects from particulate air pollution and protection by dietary methyl nutrients and metabolic polymorphisms. Circulation 2008;117(14):1802-1809. R832416 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Baccarelli A, Martinelli I, Zanobetti A, Grillo P, Hou L-F, Bertazzi PA, Mannucci PM, Schwartz J. Exposure to particulate air pollution and risk of deep vein thrombosis. Archives of Internal Medicine 2008;168(9):920-927. R832416 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Baccarelli A, Wright RO, Bollati V, Tarantini L, Litonjua AA, Suh HH, Zanobetti A, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Schwartz J. Rapid DNA methylation changes after exposure to traffic particles. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2009;179(7):572-578. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Baccarelli A, Martinelli I, Pegoraro V, Melly S, Grillo P, Zanobetti A, Hou L, Bertazzi PA, Mannucci PM, Schwartz J. Living near major traffic roads and risk of deep vein thrombosis. Circulation 2009;119(24):3118-3124. R832416C001 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Baccarelli A, Tarantini L, Wright RO, Bollati V, Litonjua AA, Zanobetti A, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Schwartz J. Repetitive element DNA methylation and circulating endothelial and inflammation markers in the VA Normative Aging Study. Epigenetics 2010;5(3):222-228. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Baccarelli A, Wright R, Bollati V, Litonjua A, Zanobetti A, Tarantini L, Sparrow D, Vokonas P, Schwartz J. Ischemic heart disease and stroke in relation to blood DNA methylation. Epidemiology 2010;21(6):819-828. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Baja ES, Schwartz JD, Wellenius GA, Coull BA, Zanobetti A, Vokonas PS, Suh HH. Traffic-related air pollution and QT interval:modification by diabetes, obesity, and oxidative stress gene polymorphisms in the Normative Aging Study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(6):840-846. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Barnett AG, Williams GM, Schwartz J, Best TL, Neller AH, Petroeschevsky AL, Simpson RW. The effects of air pollution on hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease in elderly people in Australian and New Zealand cities. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(7):1018-1023. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Bartoli CR, Wellenius GA, Coull BA, Akiyama I, Diaz EA, Lawrence J, Okabe K, Verrier RL, Godleski JJ. Concentrated ambient particles alter myocardial blood flow during acute ischemia in conscious canines. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(3):333-337. R832416 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Bartoli CR, Wellenius GA, Diaz EA, Lawrence J, Coull BA, Akiyama I, Lee LM, Okabe K, Verrier RL, Godleski JJ. Mechanisms of inhaled fine particulate air pollution-induced arterial blood pressure changes. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(3):361-366. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Bartoli CR, Wellenius GA, Diaz EA, Lawrence J, Coull BA, Akiyama I, Lee LM, Okabe K, Verrier RL, Godleski JJ. Mechanisms of inhaled fine particulate air pollution–induced arterial blood pressure changes. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(3):361-366. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Bartoli CRG, Godleski JJ. Blood flow in foreign-body capsules surrounding surgically implanted subcutaneous devices. Journal of Surgical Research 2010;158(1):147-154. R832416 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Bartoli CR, Nadar MM, Godleski JJ. Capsule thickness correlates with vascular density and blood flow within foreign-body capsules surrounding surgically implanted subcutaneous devices. Artificial Organs 2010;34(10):857-861. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Bartoli CR, Godleski JJ, Verrier RL. Mechanisms mediating adverse effects of air pollution on cardiovascular hemodynamic function and vulnerability to cardiac arrhythmias. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health 2011;4(1):53-63. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Bartoli CRG, Wellenius GA, Coull BA, Akiyama I, Diaz EA, Lawrence J, Okabe K, Verrier RL, Godleski JJ. Concentrated ambient particles alter myocardial blood flow during acute ischemia in conscious canines. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(3):333-337. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Batalha JRF, Saldiva PHN, Clarke RW, Coull BA, Stearns RC, Lawrence J, Krishna Murthy GG, Koutrakis P, Godleski JJ. Concentrated ambient air particles induce vasoconstriction of small pulmonary arteries in rats. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002;110(12):1191-1197. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Bind MA, Baccarelli A, Zanobetti A, Tarantini L, Suh H, Vokonas P, Schwartz J. Air pollution and markers of coagulation, inflammation, and endothelial function: associations of epigene-environment Interactions in an elderly cohort. Epidemiology 2012;23(2):332-340. R832416C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Bobb JF, Dominici F, Peng RD. A Bayesian model averaging approach for estimating the relative risk of mortality associated with heat waves in 105 U.S. cities. Biometrics 2011;67(4):1605-1616. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Bollati V, Schwartz J, Wright R, Litonjua A, Tarantini L, Suh H, Sparrow D, Vokonas P, Baccarelli A. Decline in genomic DNA methylation through aging in a cohort of elderly subjects. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 2009;130(4):234-239. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Brook RD, Urch B, Dvonch JT, Bard RL, Speck M, Keeler G, Morishita M, Marsik FJ, Kamal AS, Kaciroti N, Harkema J, Corey P, Silverman F, Gold DR, Wellenius G, Mittleman MA, Rajagopalan S, Brook JR. Insights into the mechanisms and mediators of the effects of air pollution exposure on blood pressure and vascular function in healthy humans. Hypertension 2009;54(3):659-667. R832416 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Brown KW, Sarnat JA, Suh HH, Coull BA, Spengler JD, Koutrakis P. Ambient site, home outdoor and home indoor particulate concentrations as proxies of personal exposures. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 2008;10(9):1041-1051. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Brown KW, Sarnat JA, Suh HH, Coull BA, Koutrakis P. Factors influencing relationships between personal and ambient concentrations of gaseous and particulate pollutants. Science of the Total Environment 2009;407(12):3754-3765. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Chahine T, Baccarelli A, Litonjua A, Wright RO, Suh H, Gold DR, Sparrow D, Vokonas P, Schwartz J. Particulate air pollution, oxidative stress genes, and heart rate variability in an elderly cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007;115(11):1617-1622. R832416 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Chang HH, Peng RD, Dominici F. Estimating the acute health effects of coarse particulate matter accounting for exposure measurement error. Biostatistics 2011;12(4):637-652. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Chen J-C, Schwartz J. Metabolic syndrome and inflammatory responses to long-term particulate air pollutants. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008;116(5):612-617. R832416 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Chen J-C, Schwartz J. Neurobehavioral effects of ambient air pollution on cognitive performance in US adults. NeuroToxicology 2009;30(2):231-239. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Chuang KJ, Coull BA, Zanobetti A, Suh H, Schwartz J, Stone PH, Litonjua A, Speizer FE, Gold DR. Particulate air pollution as a risk factor for ST-segment depression in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 2008;118(13):1314-1320. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Clougherty JE, Rossi CA, Lawrence J, Long MS, Diaz EA, Lim RH, McEwen B, Koutrakis P, Godleski JJ. Chronic social stress and susceptibility to concentrated ambient fine particles in rats. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(6):769-775. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Coull BA, Wellenius GA, Gonzalez-Flecha B, Diaz E, Koutrakis P, Godleski JJ. The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols study: statistical methods. Inhalation Toxicology 2011;23(Suppl 2):31-41. R832416 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Diaz EA, Lemos M, Coull B, Long MS, Rohr AC, Ruiz P, Gupta T, Kang C-M, Godleski JJ. Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emission Source Aerosols (TERESA)--power plant studies: assessment of breathing pattern. Inhalation Toxicology 2011;23(Suppl 2):42-59. R832416C005 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Dioni L, Hoxha M, Nordio F, Bonzini M, Tarantini L, Albetti B, Savarese A, Schwartz J, Bertazzi PA, Apostoli P, Hou L, Baccarelli A. Effects of short-term exposure to inhalable particulate matter on telomere length, telomerase expression, and telomerase methylation in steel workers. Environmental Health Perspectives 2011;119(5):622-627. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Dubowsky SD, Suh H, Schwartz J, Coull BA, Gold DR. Diabetes, obesity, and hyptertension may enhance associations between air pollution and markers of systemic inflammation. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(7):992-998. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Fakhri AA, Ilic LM, Wellenius GA, Urch B, Silverman F, Gold DR, Mittleman MA. Autonomic effects of controlled fine particulate exposure in young healthy adults:effect modification by ozone. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(8):1287-1292. R832416 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Fanning EW, Froines JR, Utell MJ, Lippmann M, Oberdorster G, Frampton M, Godleski J, Larson TV. Particulate Matter (PM) Research Centers (1999-2005) and the role of interdisciplinary center-based research. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(2):167-174. R832416 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Franco Suglia S, Gryparis A, Schwartz J, Wright RJ. Association between traffic-related black carbon exposure and lung function among urban women. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008;116(10):1333-1337. R832416 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Franco Suglia S, Gryparis A, Wright RO, Schwartz J, Wright RJ. Association of black carbon with cognition among children in a prospective birth cohort study. American Journal of Epidemiology 2008;167(3):280-286. R832416 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Franklin M, Zeka A, Schwartz J. Association between PM2.5 and all-cause and specific-cause mortality in 27 US communities. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2007;17(3):279-287. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Franklin M, Schwartz J. The impact of secondary particles on the association between ambient ozone and mortality. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008;116(4):453-458. R832416 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Franklin M, Koutrakis P, Schwartz J. The role of particle composition on the association between PM2.5 and mortality. Epidemiology 2008;19(5):680-689. R832416 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Ghelfi E, Rhoden CR, Wellenius GA, Lawrence J, Gonzalez-Flecha B. Cardiac oxidative stress and electrophysiological changes in rats exposed to concentrated ambient particles are mediated by TRP-dependent pulmonary reflexes. Toxicological Sciences 2008;102(2):328-336. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Ghelfi E, Wellenius GA, Lawrence J, Millet E, Gonzalez-Flecha B. Cardiac oxidative stress and dysfunction by fine concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) are mediated by angiotensin-II. Inhalation Toxicology 2010;22(11):963-972. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Godleski JJ, Diaz EA, Lemos M, Long M, Ruiz P, Gupta T, Kang C-M, Coull B. Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emission Source Aerosols (TERESA)-power plant studies: assessment of cellular responses. Inhalation Toxicology 2011;23(Suppl 2):60-74. R832416C005 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Godleski JJ, Rohr AC, Kang CM, Diaz EA, Ruiz PA, Koutrakis P. Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emission Source Aerosols (TERESA):introduction and overview. Inhalation Toxicology 2011;23(Suppl 2):1-10. R832416C005 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Greven S, Dominici F, Zeger S. An approach to the estimation of chronic air pollution effects using spatio-temporal information. Journal of the American Statistical Association 2011;106(494):396-406. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Gryparis A, Coull BA, Schwartz J. Controlling for confounding in the presence of measurement error in hierarchical models:a Bayesian approach. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2007;17(Suppl 2):S20-S28. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Gryparis A, Paciorek CJ, Zeka A, Schwartz J, Coull BA. Measurement error caused by spatial misalignment in environmental epidemiology. Biostatistics 2009;10(2):258-274. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Halonen JI, Zanobetti A, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Schwartz J. Associations between outdoor temperature and markers of inflammation:a cohort study. Environmental Health 2010;9:42 (9 pp.). R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Halonen JI, Zanobetti A, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Schwartz J. Relationship between outdoor temperature and blood pressure. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2011;68(4):296-301. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Hoffmann B, Luttmann-Gibson H, Cohen A, Zanobetti A, de Souza C, Foley C, Suh HH, Coull BA, Schwartz J, Mittleman M, Stone P, Horton E, Gold DR. Opposing effects of particle pollution, ozone, and ambient temperature on arterial blood pressure. Environmental Health Perspectives 2012;120(2):241-246. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Hoxha M, Dioni L, Bonzini M, Pesatori AC, Fustinoni S, Cavallo D, Carugno M, Albetti B, Marinelli B, Schwartz J, Bertazzi PA, Baccarelli A. Association between leukocyte telomere shortening and exposure to traffic pollution:a cross-sectional study on traffic officers and indoor office workers. Environmental Health 2009;8:41. R832416 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Imrich A, Ning YY, Lawrence J, Coull B, Gitin E, Knutson M, Kobzik L. Alveolar macrophage cytokine response to air pollution particles: oxidant mechanisms. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2007;218(3):256-264. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Kang C-M, Gupta T, Ruiz PA, Wolfson JM, Ferguson ST, Lawrence JE, Rohr AC, Godleski J, Koutrakis P. Aged particles derived from emissions of coal-fired power plants: the TERESA field results. Inhalation Toxicology 2011;23(Suppl 2):11-30. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Kang C-M, Koutrakis P, Suh HH. Hourly measurements of fine particulate sulfate and carbon aerosols at the Harvard-U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Supersite in Boston. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2010;60(11):1327-1334. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Lee HJ, Liu Y, Coull BA, Schwartz J, Koutrakis P. A novel calibration approach of MODIS AOD data to predict PM2.5 concentrations. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2011;11(15):7991-8002. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Lemos M, Diaz EA, Gupta T, Kang C-M, Ruiz P, Coull BA, Godleski JJ, Gonzalez-Flecha B. Cardiac and pulmonary oxidative stress in rats exposed to realistic emissions of source aerosols. Inhalation Toxicology 2011;23(Suppl 2):75-83. R832416C005 (2010)
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  • Journal Article Lepeule J, Litonjua AA, Gasparrini A, Koutrakis P, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Schwartz J. Lung function association with outdoor temperature and relative humidity and Its interaction with air pollution in the elderly. Environmental Research 2018;165:110-117. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Levy JI, Diez D, Dou Y, Barr CD, Dominici F. A meta-analysis and multisite time-series analysis of the differential toxicity of major fine particulate matter constituents. American Journal of Epidemiology 2012;175(11):1091-1099. R832416C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Liu Y, Koutrakis P, Kahn R. Estimating fine particulate matter component concentrations and size distributions using satellite-retrieved fractional aerosol optical depth:part 1—method development. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2007;57(11):1351-1359. R832416 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Liu Y, Koutrakis P, Kahn R, Turquety S, Yantosca RM. Estimating fine particulate matter component concentrations and size distributions using satellite-retrieved fractional aerosol optical depth:part 2—a case study. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2007;57(11):1360-1369. R832416 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Liu Y, Chen D, Kahn RA, He K. Review of the applications of Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer to air quality research. Science in China Series D:Earth Sciences 2009;52(1):132-144. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Liu Y, Kahn RA, Chaloulakou A, Koutrakis P. Analysis of the impact of the forest fires in August 2007 on air quality of Athens using multi-sensor aerosol remote sensing data, meteorology and surface observations. Atmospheric Environment 2009;43(21):3310-3318. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Liu Y, Paciorek CJ, Koutrakis P. Estimating regional spatial and temporal variability of PM2.5 concentrations using satellite data, meteorology, and land use information. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(6):886-892. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Liu Y, Schichtel BA, Koutrakis P. Estimating particle sulfate concentrations using MISR retrieved aerosol properties. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing 2009;2(3):176-184. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Luttmann-Gibson H, Suh HH, Coull BA, Dockery DW, Sarnat SE, Schwartz J, Stone PH, Gold DR. Short-term effects of air pollution on heart rate variability in senior adults in Steubenville, Ohio. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2006;48(8):780-788. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Madrigano J, Baccarelli A, Wright RO, Suh H, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Schwartz J. Air pollution, obesity, genes and cellular adhesion molecules. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2010;67(5):312-317. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Madrigano J, Baccarelli A, Mittleman MA, Wright RO, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Tarantini L, Schwartz J. Prolonged exposure to particulate pollution, genes associated with glutathione pathways, and DNA methylation in a cohort of older men. Environmental Health Perspectives 2011;119(7):977-982. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Maynard D, Coull BA, Gryparis A, Schwartz J. Mortality risk associated with short-term exposure to traffic particles and sulfates. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007;115(5):751-755. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article McCracken JP, Smith KR, Diaz A, Mittleman MA, Schwartz J. Chimney stove intervention to reduce long-term wood smoke exposure lowers blood pressure among Guatemalan women. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007;115(7):996-1001. R832416C001 (2008)
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  • Journal Article McCracken J, Baccarelli A, Hoxha M, Dioni L, Melly S, Coull B, Suh H, Vokonas P, Schwartz J. Annual ambient black carbon associated with shorter telomeres in elderly men:Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(11):1564-1570. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article McCracken J, Smith KR, Stone P, Diaz A, Arana B, Schwartz J. Intervention to lower household wood smoke exposure in Guatemala reduces ST-segment depression on electrocardiograms. Environmental Health Perspectives 2011;119(11):1562-1568. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Medina-Ramon M, Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. The effect of ozone and PM10 on hospital admissions for pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a national multicity study. American Journal of Epidemiology 2006;163(6):579-588. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Medina-Ramon M, Schwartz J. Temperature, temperature extremes, and mortality: a study of acclimatisation and effect modification in 50 US cities. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2007;64(12):827-833. R832416C001 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Medina-Ramon M, Goldberg R, Melly S, Mittleman MA, Schwartz J. Residential exposure to traffic-related air pollution and survival after heart failure. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008;116(4):481-485. R832416 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Medina-Ramon M, Schwartz J. Who is more vulnerable to die from ozone air pollution? Epidemiology 2008;19(5):672-679. R832416C001 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Mordukhovich I, Wilker E, Suh H, Wright R, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Schwartz J. Black carbon exposure, oxidative stress genes, and blood pressure in a repeated-measures study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(11):1767-1772. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Mordukhovich I, Wright RO, Amarasiriwardena C, Baja E, Baccarelli A, Suh H, Sparrow D, Vokonas P, Schwartz J. Association between low-level environmental arsenic exposure and QT interval duration in a general population study. American Journal of Epidemiology 2009;170(6):739-746. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Mukamal KJ, Wellenius GA, Suh HH, Mittleman MA. Weather and air pollution as triggers of severe headaches. Neurology 2009;72(10):922-927. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Nikolov MC, Coull BA, Catalano PJ, Diaz E, Godleski JJ. Statistical methods to evaluate health effects associated with major sources of air pollution:a case-study of breathing patterns during exposure to concentrated Boston air particles. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series C-Applied Statistics 2008;57(3):357-378. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Nikolov MC, Coull BA, Catalano PJ, Godleski JJ. Multiplicative factor analysis with a latent mixed model structure for air pollution exposure assessment. Environmetrics 2011;22(2):165-178. R832416 (2009)
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  • Journal Article O'Neill MS, Veves A, Sarnat JA, Zanobetti A, Gold DR, Economides PA, Horton ES, Schwartz J. Air pollution and inflammation in type 2 diabetes: a mechanism for susceptibility. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2007;64(6):373-379. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Papapostolou V, Lawrence JE, Diaz EA, Wolfson JM, Ferguson ST, Long MS, Godleski JJ, Koutrakis P. Laboratory evaluation of a prototype photochemical chamber designed to investigate the health effects of fresh and aged vehicular exhaust emissions. Inhalation Toxicology 2011;23(8):495-505. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Papapostolou V, Lawrence JE, Ferguson ST, Wolfson JM, Koutrakis P. Development and evaluation of a countercurrent parallel-plate membrane diffusion denuder for the removal of gas-phase compounds from vehicular emissions. Inhalation Toxicology 2011;23(13):853-862. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Park SK, O'Neill MS, Vokonas PS, Sparrow D, Schwartz J. Effects of air pollution on heart rate variability: the VA Normative Aging Study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(3):304-309. R832416 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Park SK, O'Neill MS, Wright RO, Hu H, Vokonas PS, Sparrow D, Suh H, Schwartz J. HFE genotype, particulate air pollution, and heart rate variability: a gene-environment interaction. Circulation 2006;114(25):2798-2805. R832416 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Park SK, O'Neill MS, Stunder BJ, Vokonas PS, Sparrow D, Koutrakis P, Schwartz J. Source location of air pollution and cardiac autonomic function: trajectory cluster analysis for exposure assessment. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 2007;17(5):488-497. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Park SK, O’Neill MS, Vokonas PS, Sparrow D, Spiro III A, Tucker KL, Suh H, Hu H, Schwartz J. Traffic-related particles are associated with elevated homocysteine:the VA Normative Aging Study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2008;178(3):283-289. R832416 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Park SK, O’Neill MS, Vokonas PS, Sparrow D, Wright RO, Coull B, Nie H, Hu H, Schwartz J. Air pollution and heart rate variability:effect modification by chronic lead exposure. Epidemiology 2008;19(1):111-120. R832416 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Park SK, Tucker KL, O'Neill MS, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Hu H, Schwartz J. Fruit, vegetable, and fish consumption and heart rate variability:the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;89(3):778-786. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Peters JL, Kubzansky LD, Ikeda A, Spiro III A, Wright RO, Weisskopf MG, Kim D, Sparrow D, Nie LH, Hu H, Schwartz J. Childhood and adult socioeconomic position, cumulative lead levels, and pessimism in later life: the VA Normative Aging Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 2011;174(12):1345-1353. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Peters JL, Kubzansky LD, Ikeda A, Fang SC, Sparrow D, Weisskopf MG, Wright RO, Vokonas P, Hu H, Schwartz J. Lead concentrations in relation to multiple biomarkers of cardiovascular disease:the Normative Aging Study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2012;120(3):361-366. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Pope III CA, Ezzati M, Dockery DW. Fine-particulate air pollution and life expectancy in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine 2009;360(4):376-386. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Power, MC, Weisskopf MG, Alexeef SE, Coull BA, Spiro III A , Schwartz J. Traffic-related air pollution and cognitive function in a cohort of older men. Environmental Health Perspectives 2011;119(5):682-687. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Ren C, Vokonas PS, Suh H, Fang S, Christiani DC, Schwartz J. Effect modification of air pollution on urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine by genotypes:an application of the multiple testing procedure to identify significant SNP interactions. Environmental Health 2010;9:78 (9 pp.). R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Ren C, Melly S, Schwartz J. Modifiers of short-term effects of ozone on mortality in eastern Massachusetts—a case-crossover analysis at individual level. Environmental Health 2010;9:3 (10 pp.). R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Ren C, Baccarelli A, Wilker E, Suh H, Sparrow D, Vokonas P, Wright R, Schwartz J. Lipid and endothelium-related genes, ambient particulate matter, and heart rate variability—the VA Normative Aging Study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2010;64(1):49-56. R832416 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Ren C, Park SK, Vokonas PS, Sparrow D, Wilker E, Baccarelli A, Suh HH, Tucker KL, Wright RO, Schwartz J. Air pollution and homocysteine:more evidence that oxidative stress-related genes modify effects of particulate air pollution. Epidemiology 2010;21(2):198-206. R832416 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Ren C, Fang S, Wright RO, Suh H, Schwartz J. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine as a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage induced by ambient pollution in the Normative Aging Study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2011;68(8):562-569. R832416 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Ren C, O'Neill MS, Park SK, Sparrow D, Vokonas P, Schwartz J. Ambient temperature, air pollution, and heart rate variability in an aging population. American Journal of Epidemiology 2011;173(9):1013-1021. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Rhoden CR, Wellenius GA, Ghelfi E, Lawrence J, Gonzalez-Flecha B. PM-induced cardiac oxidative stress and dysfunction are mediated by autonomic stimulation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects 2005;1725(3):305-313. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Rice MB, Li W, Dorans KS, Wilker EH, Ljungman P, Gold DR, Schwartz J, Koutrakis P, Kloog I, Araki T, Hatabu H, San Jose Estepar R, O'Connor GT, Mittleman MA, Washko GR. Exposure to traffic emissions and fine particulate matter and computed tomography measures of the lung and airways. Epidemiology 2018;29(3):333-341. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Sarnat JA, Brown KW, Bartell SM, Sarnat SE, Wheeler AJ, Suh HH, Koutrakis P. The relationship between averaged sulfate exposures and concentrations:results from exposure assessment panel studies in four U.S. cities. Environmental Science & Technology 2009;43(13):5028-5034. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Sarnat SE, Suh HH, Coull BA, Schwartz J, Stone PH, Gold DR. Ambient particulate air pollution and cardiac arrhythmia in a panel of older adults in Steubenville, Ohio. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2006;63(10):700-706. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Schwartz J, Park SK, O'Neill MS, Vokonas PS, Sparrow D, Weiss S, Kelsey K. Glutathione-S-transferase M1, obesity, statins, and autonomic effects of particles: gene-by-drug-by-environment interaction. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2005;172(12):1529-1533. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Schwartz J, Sarnat JA, Coull BA, Wilson WE. Effects of exposure measurement error on particle matter epidemiology:a simulation using data from a panel study in Baltimore, MD. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 2007;17(Suppl 2):S2-S10. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Schwartz J, Coull B, Laden F, Ryan L. The effect of dose and timing of dose on the association between airborne particles and survival. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008;116(1):64-69. R832416 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Sivagangabalan G, Spears D, Masse S, Urch B, Brook RD, Silverman F, Gold DR, Lukic KZ, Speck M, Kusha M, Farid T, Poku K, Shi E, Floras J, Nanthakumar K. The effect of air pollution on spatial dispersion of myocardial repolarization in healthy human volunteers. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2011;57(2):198-206. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Stafoggia M, Schwartz J, Forastiere F, Perucci CA, the SISTI Group. Does temperature modify the association between air pollution and mortality? A multicity case-crossover analysis in Italy. American Journal of Epidemiology 2008;167(12):1476-1485. R832416C001 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Thompson AM, Zanobetti A, Silverman F, Schwartz J, Coull B, Urch B, Speck M, Brook JR, Manno M, Gold DR. Baseline repeated measures from controlled human exposure studies:associations between ambient air pollution exposure and the systemic inflammatory biomarkers IL-6 and fibrinogen. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(1):120-124. R832416 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Urch B, Speck M, Corey P, Wasserstein D, Manno M, Lukic KZ, Brook JR, Liu L, Coull B, Schwartz J, Gold DR, Silverman F. Concentrated ambient fine particles and not ozone induce a systemic interleukin-6 response in humans. Inhalation Toxicology 2010;22(3):210-218. R832416 (2009)
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  • Journal Article Wang C, Parmigiani G, Dominici F. Bayesian effect estimation accounting for adjustment uncertainty. Biometrics 2012;68(3):661-671. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Wellenius GA, Schwartz J, Mittleman MA. Particulate air pollution and hospital admissions for congestive heart failure in seven United States cities. The American Journal of Cardiology 2006;97(3):404-408. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Wellenius GA, Yeh GY, Coull BA, Suh HH, Phillips RS, Mittleman MA. Effects of ambient air pollution on functional status in patients with chronic congestive heart failure:a repeated-measures study. Environmental Health 2007;6:26. R832416 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Wellenius GA, Diaz EA, Gupta T, Ruiz PA, Long M, Kang CM, Coull BA, Godleski JJ. Electrocardiographic and respiratory responses to coal-fired power plant emissions in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction:results from the Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols Study. Inhalation Toxicology 2011;23(Suppl 2):84-94. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Wheeler A, Zanobetti A, Gold DR, Schwartz J, Stone P, Suh HH. The relationship between ambient air pollution and heart rate variability differs for individuals with heart and pulmonary disease. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(4):560-566. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Wilker EH, Baccarelli A, Suh H, Vokonas P, Wright RO, Schwartz J. Black carbon exposures, blood pressure, and interactions with single nucleotide polymorphisms in microRNA processing genes. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(7):943-948. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Wilker E, Mittleman MA, Litonjua AA, Poon A, Baccarelli A, Suh H, Wright RO, Sparrow D, Vokonas P, Schwartz J. Postural changes in blood pressure associated with interactions between candidate genes for chronic respiratory diseases and exposure to particulate matter. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(6):935-940. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. Air pollution and emergency admissions in Boston, MA. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2006;60(10):890-895. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. Temperature and mortality in nine US cities. Epidemiology 2008;19(4):563-570. R832416 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. Is there adaptation in the ozone mortality relationship:a multi-city case-crossover analysis. Environmental Health 2008;7:22 (6 pp.). R832416 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Zanobetti A, Bind MA, Schwartz J. Particulate air pollution and survival in a COPD cohort. Environmental Health 2008;7:48 (9 pp.). R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Zanobetti A, Franklin M, Koutrakis P, Schwartz J. Fine particulate air pollution and its components in association with cause-specific emergency admissions. Environmental Health 2009;8:58 (12 pp.). R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. The effect of fine and coarse particulate air pollution on mortality:a national analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(6):898-903. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zanobetti A, Stone PH, Speizer FE, Schwartz JD, Coull BA, Suh HH, Nearing BD, Mittleman MA, Verrier RL, Gold DR. T-wave alternans, air pollution and traffic in high-risk subjects. American Journal of Cardiology 2009;104(5):665-670. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zanobetti A, Gold DR, Stone PH, Suh HH, Schwartz J, Coull BA, Speizer FE. Reduction in heart rate variability with traffic and air pollution in patients with coronary artery disease. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010;118(3):324-330. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zanobetti A, Redline S, Schwartz J, Rosen D, Patel S, O'Connor GT, Lebowitz M, Coull BA, Gold DR. Associations of PM10 with sleep and sleep-disordered breathing in adults from seven U.S. urban areas. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2010;182(6):819-825. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zanobetti A, Baccarelli A, Schwartz J. Gene-air pollution interaction and cardiovascular disease:a review. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 2011;53(5):344-352. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. Ozone and survival in four cohorts with potentially predisposing diseases. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2011;184(7):836-841. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zeka A, Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. Short term effects of particulate matter on cause specific mortality: effects of lags and modification by city characteristics. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2005;62(10):718-725. R832416 (2008)
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  • Journal Article Zeka A, Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. Individual-level modifiers of the effects of particulate matter on daily mortality. American Journal of Epidemiology 2006;163(9):849-859. R832416 (2008)
    R827353 (Final)
    R827353C004 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zeka A, Sullivan JR, Vokonas PS, Sparrow D, Schwartz J. Inflammatory markers and particulate air pollution: characterizing the pathway to disease. International Journal of Epidemiology 2006;35(5):1347-1354. R832416 (2008)
    R832416 (2009)
    R832416C001 (2009)
    R827353 (Final)
    R827353C004 (Final)
    R827353C010 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zeka A, Melly SJ, Schwartz J. The effects of socioeconomic status and indices of physical environment on reduced birth weight and preterm births in Eastern Massachusetts. Environmental Health 2008;7:60. R832416 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zhu ZZ, Sparrow D, Hou L, Tarantini L, Bollati V, Litonjua AA, Zanobetti A, Vokonas P, Wright RO, Baccarelli A, Schwartz J. Repetitive element hypomethylation in blood leukocyte DNA and cancer incidence, prevalence, and mortality in elderly individuals:the Normative Aging Study. Cancer Causes & Control 2011;22(3):437-447. R832416 (Final)
    R832416C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Zhu ZZ, Hou L, Bollati V, Tarantini L, Marinelli B, Cantone L, Yang AS, Vokonas P, Lissowska J, Fustinoni S, Pesatori AC, Bonzini M, Apostoli P, Costa G, Bertazzi PA, Chow WH, Schwartz J, Baccarelli A. Predictors of global methylation levels in blood DNA of healthy subjects:a combined analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology 2012;41(1):126-139. R832416 (Final)
    R832416C001 (Final)
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, Air, particulate matter, Health Risk Assessment, Risk Assessments, Biochemistry, ambient air quality, atmospheric particulate matter, chemical characteristics, human health effects, toxicology, airborne particulate matter, cardiovascular vulnerability, automobile exhaust, biological mechanisms, traffic related particulate matter, chemical composition, biological mechanism , human exposure, ambient particle health effects, autonomic dysfunction, oxidative stress

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2006 Progress Report
  • 2007 Progress Report
  • 2009 Progress Report
  • 2010 Progress Report
  • Final Report
  • Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R832416C001 Cardiovascular Responses in the Normative Aging Study: Exploring the Pathways of Particle Toxicity
    R832416C002 Cardiovascular Toxicity of Concentrated Ambient Fine, Ultrafine and Coarse Particles in Controlled Human Exposures
    R832416C003 Assessing Toxicity of Local and Transported Particles Using Animal Models Exposed to CAPs
    R832416C004 Cardiovascular Effects of Mobile Source Exposures: Effects of Particles and Gaseous Co-pollutants
    R832416C005 Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emission Source Aerosol (TERESA): Investigation of Vehicular Emissions