Final Report: Transport of Hazardous Substances Between Brownfields and the Surrounding Urban Atmosphere

EPA Grant Number: R828771C015
Subproject: this is subproject number 015 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R828771
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: HSRC (2001) - Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments
Center Director: Bouwer, Edward J.
Title: Transport of Hazardous Substances Between Brownfields and the Surrounding Urban Atmosphere
Investigators: Mason, Robert P. , Baker, Joel E. , Ondov, John M.
Institution: University of Maryland
EPA Project Officer: Lasat, Mitch
Project Period: October 1, 2001 through September 30, 2007
RFA: Hazardous Substance Research Centers - HSRC (2001) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Hazardous Waste/Remediation , Land and Waste Management

Objective:

This research project is being conducted in two parts. The first part involves the research group at the Chesapeake Biological Laboratory (CBL) of the University of Maryland. The overall objective of the first part is to estimate the fate and bioavailability of atmospherically transported chemical contaminants in the urban environment. The second part involves the research group in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of Maryland at College Park. The objectives of the second part of the project encompass three areas of interest: (1) availability of metals in coarse urban particles; (2) concentrations and sources of metals and Hg in the urban atmosphere; and (3) methods to concentrate fine and coarse urban aerosol particles to permit improved measurements of concentrations for investigating their atmospheric burdens and fate.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

Part 1. Transport of Hazardous Substances Between Brownfields and the Surrounding Urban Atmosphere, Robert Mason (UM), Joel E. Baker (UM), and John Ondov (UM). The goal of this subproject is to quantify the sources and cycling of hazardous materials in the urban environment, and specifically the exchange of contaminants between the land and the atmosphere. Parallel field and laboratory studies of trace metal, mercury, and organic contaminant speciation were conducted. Ambient aerosol was collected during three intensive sampling campaigns in the spring, summer, and winter of 2002-2003 at the Baltimore PM 2.5 Supersite. The bulk (hi-vol) samples were analyzed for a suite of organic contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs), and selected hopanes using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The greatest PAH concentrations were found during the winter. Unlike PAHs, NPAHs have direct emission (primary) and photochemical (secondary) sources. The concentration ratio of PAHs to NPAHs was usually below 5, indicating that particulate phase NPAHs are predominantly from primary sources in the area. Diesel emissions are known to have significant quantities of NPAHs. The size distribution data suggest that local emissions are the dominant sources of organic particulate matter during the sampling campaigns. This illustrates the importance of primary emissions at this site, as these aerosol particles not only contain primary toxicants but also provide the sorption surface for secondary atmospheric toxicants. Secondary products are the dominant source of total carbon during the spring and summer. Volatilization of precursor gases from urban soils may contribute to this source. Vehicles are the second largest contributor of carbonaceous particulate matter. Emerging fuel and engine technology will make a large impact on atmospheric carbonaceous matter.

Part 2. The Source and Fate of Atmospheric Metals: The Importance of Urban Sources, John M. Ondov (UM). The goal of this subproject is to examine sources and fate of contaminants in urban airborne particles and their potential bioavailability in precipitation and in nearby surface waters, such as the Chesapeake Bay. Theoretical and empirical studies demonstrate that the deposition fluxes of most airborne metals are dominated by large particles, which often contain only small fractions of the total contaminant mass. The experimental effort in this project encompasses three areas of interest: (i) availability of metals in course urban particles, (ii) concentrations and sources of metals and Hg in the urban atmosphere, and (iii) methods to concentrate fine and coarse urban aerosol particles. The latter permits improved measurements of concentrations for investigating atmospheric burdens and fate. A centripetal aerosol concentrator was developed that delivered an 80-fold increase in aerosol particle concentration in a 30 min. sampling interval at an inlet flow rate of 210 L/min. The concentrator design was based on that of cyclones but uses a rotating central outlet pipe and porous wall. In the concentrator, the sample air is caused to rotate at high speeds by virtue of viscous coupling with the surface of the rotating central outlet pipe. Particles accelerate towards the porous outer wall where they are carried into the annulus between cylinders through a secondary outlet port with a small flow of air. This project found that less than 15% of the mass of metals in coarse urban dust particles which dominate local deposition fluxes to the Chesapeake Bay and the City of Baltimore are likely to be leached by natural waters. The mercury concentration patterns demonstrated great utility in identifying individual industrial sources.

One project addressed transport and fate issues for inorganic (metal) contaminants in the subsurface in order to provide input on exposure pathways from contaminated groundwaters and soils. The research also involved reaction processes that are important in natural attenuation of contaminants. This project also contributed to risk management issues.


Journal Articles on this Report : 5 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 20 publications 8 publications in selected types All 6 journal articles
Other center views: All 108 publications 22 publications in selected types All 20 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Crimmins BS, Baker JE. Improved GC/MS methods for measuring hourly PAH and nitro-PAH concentrations in urban particulate matter. Atmospheric Environment 2006;40(35):6764-6779. R828771 (Final)
R828771C015 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Landis MS, Stevens RK, Schaedlich F, Prestbo EM. Development and characterization of an annular denuder methodology for the measurement of divalent inorganic reactive gaseous mercury in ambient air. Environmental Science & Technology 2002;36(13):3000-3009. R828771 (Final)
    R828771C015 (Final)
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  • Abstract: ACS-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Laurier FJG, Mason RP, Whalin L, Kato S. Reactive gaseous mercury formation in the North Pacific Ocean's marine boundary layer: a potential role of halogen chemistry. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 2003;108(D17):4529, doi:10.1029/2003JD003625. R828771 (Final)
    R828771C015 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Pancras JP, Ondov JM, Zeisler R. Multi-element electrothermal AAS determination of 11 marker elements in fine ambient aerosol slurry samples collected with SEAS-II. Analytica Chimica Acta 2005;538(1-2):303-312. R828771 (Final)
    R828771C015 (2005)
    R828771C015 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Park SS, Pancras JP, Ondov J, Poor N. A new pseudodeterministic multivariate receptor model for individual source apportionment using highly time-resolved ambient concentration measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 2005;110(D7):D07S15, doi:10.1029/2004JD004664. R828771 (Final)
    R828771C015 (2005)
    R828771C015 (Final)
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    air quality, groundwater contamination, organics, metals, hyporheic zone, TOSC, TAB, outreach projects, Brownfields,, RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, Air, INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION, Waste, particulate matter, Air Quality, Health Risk Assessment, Air Pollutants, Risk Assessments, Brownfields, Hazardous Waste, Biochemistry, Ecology and Ecosystems, Hazardous, brownfield sites, environmental hazards, ambient aerosol, ambient air quality, urban air, contaminant transport, air toxics, contaminant dynamics, human health effects, risk assessment , air quality models, airborne particulate matter, contaminant cycling, bioavailability, air pollution, air sampling, environmental health effects, human exposure, aerosol composition, airborne aerosols, respiratory impact, PM, aersol particles, technology transfer, urban environment, airborne urban contaminants, human health risk, aerosols, technical outreach

    Relevant Websites:

    Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments http://www.jhu.edu/hsrc/index.htm Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004 Progress Report
  • 2005 Progress Report
  • 2006

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R828771    HSRC (2001) - Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R828771C001 Co-Contaminant Effects on Risk Assessment and Remediation Activities Involving Urban Sediments and Soils: Phase II
    R828771C002 The Fate and Potential Bioavailability of Airborne Urban Contaminants
    R828771C003 Geochemistry, Biochemistry, and Surface/Groundwater Interactions for As, Cr, Ni, Zn, and Cd with Applications to Contaminated Waterfronts
    R828771C004 Large Eddy Simulation of Dispersion in Urban Areas
    R828771C005 Speciation of chromium in environmental media using capillary electrophoresis with multiple wavlength UV/visible detection
    R828771C006 Zero-Valent Metal Treatment of Halogenated Vapor-Phase Contaminants in SVE Offgas
    R828771C007 The Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments (CHSUE) Outreach Program
    R828771C008 New Jersey Institute of Technology Outreach Program for EPA Region II
    R828771C009 Urban Environmental Issues: Hartford Technology Transfer and Outreach
    R828771C010 University of Maryland Outreach Component
    R828771C011 Environmental Assessment and GIS System Development of Brownfield Sites in Baltimore
    R828771C012 Solubilization of Particulate-Bound Ni(II) and Zn(II)
    R828771C013 Seasonal Controls of Arsenic Transport Across the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface at a Closed Landfill Site
    R828771C014 Research Needs in the EPA Regions Covered by the Center for Hazardous Substances in Urban Environments
    R828771C015 Transport of Hazardous Substances Between Brownfields and the Surrounding Urban Atmosphere