National Environmental Respiratory Center: Health Hazards of Inhaled Gasoline Engine Emissions and Street Dust

EPA Grant Number: CR831455
Subproject: this is subproject number R831455 , established and managed by the Center Director under a main grant
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC)
Center Director: Mauderly, Joe L.
Title: National Environmental Respiratory Center: Health Hazards of Inhaled Gasoline Engine Emissions and Street Dust
Investigators: Mauderly, Joe L. , Barr, E. B. , Barrett, Edward G. , Belinsky, Steven A. , Campen, Matthew J. , Gigliotti, Andrew , Harrod, Kevin , McDonald, Jacob D. , Reed, Matthew D. , Seagrave, Jean Clare , Seilkop, Steven , Swenberg, James A. , Wise, Barry
Current Investigators: Mauderly, Joe L. , Barr, E. B. , Barrett, Edward G. , Bedrick, Edward , Belinsky, Steven A. , Campen, Matthew J. , Divine, Kevin K , Gigliotti, Andrew , Harrod, Kevin , McDonald, Jacob D. , Reed, Matthew D. , Seagrave, Jean Clare , Seilkop, Steven , Swenberg, James A. , Wise, Barry
Institution: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute , University of New Mexico
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: September 1, 2003 through August 31, 2008
Project Amount: $969,300
RFA: Targeted Research Center (2003) Recipients Lists
Research Category: Targeted Research

Objective:

The NERC program aims to improve understanding of the contributions of individual pollutants, pollutant classes, and sources to the adverse health impacts objectives of inhalation exposure to complex mixtures of air pollutants. The Center's strategy is to conduct multivariate analysis of a composition-concentration-response database constructed in "layers" by identically-designed subchronic inhalation studies of different pollution mixtures consisting of key source emissions. Smaller studies are conducted as necessary to design the core experiments and interpret the results. The specific objectives for the present funding period are to: 1) complete a core study of gasoline engine emissions; and 2) conduct preliminary research necessary to finalize the design of a core study of inhaled paved street dust.

Approach:

Gasoline Emissions Exposure. Rodents are exposed 6 hours/day 7 days/week for up to 6 months. Emissions are generated by 1996 model General Motors 4.3L V-6 engines operated on test stands on the Unified Driving Cycle and burning national average regular unleaded gasoline. Groups are exposed to one of three concentrations of whole exhaust, the highest concentration with particles removed, and HEPA- and charcoal-filtered ambient air. The exposures are characterized in detail (particle mass, number, size distribution, size-specific chemistry; elements, ions, speciation of particle and vapor phase organics, particle-vapor partitioning of organics). Health assays encompass multiple species/gender/strain “models”, and include indicators of general toxicity (organ and body weight, hematology, clinical chemistry, bronchoalveolar lavage, histopathology), cardiovascular effects (electrocardiogram by telemetry, blood clotting factors, heart and vessel histopathology), development and exacerbation of respiratory allergic responses (specific and total IgE, airway reactivity, histopathology), clearance of bacterial (Pseudomonas) and viral (respiratory syncytial virus) infection (live bacterial counts, viral RNA, histopathology), and indicators of cancer hazard (micronucleus, oxidative DNA damage, DNA methylation, bacterial mutagenicity). Exposure concentration-response relationships for each outcome will be determined by trend tests, multiple comparisons, and dose-response modeling. Street Dust Study. Dust samples will be collected from paved road surfaces in Los Angeles, Albuquerque, and the New York/New Jersey area. The fine fraction (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10-2.5) fractions will be analyzed chemically. Rodents will be exposed by inhalation to the fine fraction, early oxidative and inflammatory responses will be measured, and dust composition-lung response relationships will be evaluated by multivariate statistics. Approaches to evaluating the comparative toxicity of the coarse fraction will be explored. Collection of material for the core study will begin.

Expected Results:

Exposure-response results from the gasoline emissions exposure will be analyzed and publications will be prepared. We expect that the nature of health impacts, a level causing no observed effects, and the importance of the PM fraction to the effects will be revealed. The results will also be archived in the NERC database for analysis in combination with data from other core studies. The short-term comparative road dust study will produce the only such body of data to date, and will reveal the components co-varying most closely with effects. The study will provide a basis for specifying the exposure material for the core study.


Journal Articles: 36 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other center views: All 96 publications 40 publications in selected types All 36 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Barrett EG, Rudolph K, Bowen LE, Muggenburg BA, Bice DE. Effect of inhaled ultrafine carbon particles on the allergic airway response in ragweed-sensitized dogs. Inhalation Toxicology 2003;15(2):151-165. CR831455 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Barrett EG, Henson RD, Seilkop SK, McDonald JD, Reed MD. Effects of hardwood smoke exposure on allergic airway inflammation in mice. Inhalation Toxicology 2006;18(1):33-43. CR831455 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Burchiel SW, Lauer FT, McDonald JD, Reed MD. Systemic immunotoxicity in AJ mice following 6-month whole body inhalation exposure to diesel exhaust. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2004;196(3):337-345. CR831455 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Burchiel SW, Lauer FT, Dunaway SL, Zawadzki J, McDonald JD, Reed MD. Hardwood smoke alters murine splenic T cell responses to mitogens following a 6-month whole body inhalation exposure. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2005;202(3):229-236. CR831455 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Campen MJ, McDonald JD, Gigliotti AP, Seilkop SK, Reed MD, Benson JM. Cardiovascular effects of inhaled diesel exhaust in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Cardiovascular Toxicology 2003;3(4):353-361. CR831455 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Campen MJ, McDonald JD, Reed MD, Seagrave JC. Fresh gasoline emissions, not paved road dust, alter cardiac repolarization in ApoE-/- mice. Cardiovascular Toxicology 2006;6(3-4):199-209. CR831455 (Final)
    R830839 (2005)
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  • Journal Article Chow JC, Watson JG, Mauderly JL, Costa DL, Wyzga RE, Vedal S, Hidy GM, Altshuler SL, Marrack D, Heuss JM, Wolff GT, Pope III CA, Dockery DW. Health effects of fine particulate air pollution:lines that connect (critical review discussion). Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2006;56(10):1368-1380. CR831455 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Day KC, Reed MD, McDonald JD, Seilkop SK, Barrett EG. Effects of gasoline engine emissions on preexisting allergic airway responses in mice. Inhalation Toxicology 2008;20(13):1145-1155. CR831455 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Harrod KS, Jaramillo RJ, Rosenberger CL, Wang S-Z, Berger JA, McDonald JD, Reed MD. Increased susceptibility to RSV infection by exposure to inhaled diesel engine emissions. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 2003;28(4):451-463. CR831455 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Harrod KS, Jaramillo RJ, Berger JA, Gigliotti AP, Seilkop SK, Reed MD. Inhaled diesel engine emissions reduce bacterial clearance and exacerbate lung disease to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in vivo . Toxicological Sciences 2005;83(1):155-165. CR831455 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Lund AK, Knuckles TL, Akata CO, Shohet R, McDonald JD, Gigliotti A, Seagrave JC, Campen MJ. Gasoline exhaust emissions induce vascular remodeling pathways involved in atherosclerosis. Toxicological Sciences 2007;95(2):485-494. CR831455 (Final)
    R830839 (2005)
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    R831860 (2007)
    R831860 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Lund AK, Lucero J, Lucas S, Madden MC, McDonald JD, Seagrave J-C, Knuckles TL, Campen MJ. Vehicular emissions induce vascular MMP-9 expression and activity associated with endothelin-1–mediated pathways. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2009;29(4):511-517. CR831455 (Final)
    R830839 (2005)
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  • Journal Article March TH, Barr EB, Finch GL, Nikula KJ, Seagrave JC. Effects of concurrent ozone exposure on the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in B6C3F1 mice. Inhalation Toxicology 2002;14(12):1187-1213. CR831455 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Mauderly JL. An evolution of perspectives: summary of the Third Colloquium on Particulate Air Pollution and Human Health, Durham, North Carolina, June 6-8, 1999. Inhalation Toxicology 2000;12(Suppl 1):7-12. CR831455 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Mauderly JL. Animal models for the effect of age on susceptibility to inhaled particulate matter. Inhalation Toxicology 2000;12(9):863-900. CR831455 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Mauderly JL. Diesel emissions: is more health research still needed? Toxicological Sciences 2001;62(1):6-9. CR831455 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Mauderly JL. Health effects of air pollution: the struggle for context. Environmental Progress 2003;22(3):2-4. CR831455 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Mauderly JL. Health hazards of complex environmental exposures: a difficult challenge to inhalation toxicology. Inhalation Toxicology 2006;18(2):137-141. CR831455 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Mauderly JL, Chow JC. Health effects of organic aerosols. Inhalation Toxicology 2008;20(3):257-288. CR831455 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Mauderly JL, Samet JM. Is there evidence for synergy among air pollutants in causing health effects? Environmental Health Perspectives 2009;117(1):1-6. CR831455 (Final)
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  • Journal Article McDonald JD, Barr EB, White RK, Chow JC, Schauer JJ, Zielinska B, Grosjean E. Generation and characterization of four dilutions of diesel engine exhaust for a subchronic inhalation study. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(9):2513-2522. CR831455 (Final)
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  • Journal Article McDonald JD, White RK, Barr EB, Zielinska B, Chow JC, Grosjean E. Generation and characterization of hardwood smoke inhalation exposure atmospheres. Aerosol Science & Technology 2006;40(8):573-584. CR831455 (2006)
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  • Journal Article McDonald JD, Barr EB, White RK, Kracko D, Chow JC, Zielinska B, Grosjean E. Generation and characterization of gasoline engine exhaust inhalation exposure atmospheres. Inhalation Toxicology 2008;20(13):1157-1168. CR831455 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Muggenburg BA, Benson JM, Barr EB, Kubatko J, Tilley LP. Short-term inhalation of particulate transition metals has little effect on the electrocardiograms of dogs having preexisting cardiac abnormalities. Inhalation Toxicology 2003;15(4):357-371. CR831455 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Redman TK, Rudolph K, Barr EB, Bowen LE, Muggenburg BA, Bice DE. Pulmonary immunity to ragweed in a Beagle dog model of allergic asthma. Experimental Lung Research 2001;27(5):433-451. CR831455 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Reed MD, Gigliotti AP, McDonald JD, Seagrave JC, Seilkop SK, Mauderly JL. Health effects of subchronic exposure to environmental levels of diesel exhaust. Inhalation Toxicology 2004;16(4):177-193. CR831455 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Reed MD, Campen MJ, Gigliotti AP, Harrod KS, McDonald JD, Seagrave JC, Mauderly JL, Seilkop SK. Health effects of subchronic exposure to environmental levels of hardwood smoke. Inhalation Toxicology 2006;18(8):523-539. CR831455 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Reed MD, Barrett EG, Campen MJ, Divine KK, Gigliotti AP, McDonald JD, Seagrave JC, Mauderly JL, Seilkop SK, Swenberg JA. Health effects of subchronic inhalation exposure to gasoline engine exhaust. Inhalation Toxicology 2008;20(13):1125-1143. CR831455 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Rowan III WH, Campen MJ, Wichers LB, Watkinson WP. Heart rate variability in rodents: uses and caveats in toxicological studies. Cardiovascular Toxicology 2007;7(1):28-51. CR831455 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Seagrave J, McDonald JD, Mauderly JL. In vitro versus in vivo exposure to combustion emissions. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 2005;57(Suppl 1):233-238. CR831455 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Seagrave J, McDonald JD, Reed MD, Seilkop SK, Mauderly JL. Responses to subchronic inhalation of low concentrations of diesel exhaust and hardwood smoke measured in rat bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Inhalation Toxicology 2005;17(12):657-670. CR831455 (2004)
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  • Journal Article Seagrave J, Dunaway S, McDonald JD, Mauderly JL, Hayden P, Stidley C. Responses of differentiated primary human lung epithelial cells to exposure to diesel exhaust at an air-liquid interface. Experimental Lung Research 2007;33(1):27-51. CR831455 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Seagrave J, Campen MJ, McDonald JD, Mauderly JL, Rohr AC. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and pulmonary function assessment in rats exposed to laboratory-generated pollutant mixtures. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 2008;71(20):1352-1362. CR831455 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Seagrave J, Barr EB, March TH, Nikula KJ. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure and cessation on inflammatory cells and matrix metalloproteinase activity in mice. Experimental Lung Research 2004;30(1):1-15. CR831455 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Tesfaigzi Y, Singh SP, Foster JE, Kubatko J, Barr EB, Fine PM, McDonald JD, Hahn FF, Mauderly JL. Health effects of subchronic exposure to low levels of wood smoke in rats. Toxicological Sciences 2002;65(1):115-125. CR831455 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Tesfaigzi Y, McDonald JD, Reed MD, Singh SP, De Sanctis GT, Eynott PR, Hahn FF, Campen MJ, Mauderly JL. Low-level subchronic exposure to wood smoke exacerbates inflammatory responses in allergic rats. Toxicological Sciences 2005;88(2):505-513. CR831455 (2006)
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    engine emissions, gasoline emissions, dust, road dust, hazard assessment, inhalation, toxicology, source characterization, particulate matter, air pollution, RFA, Scientific Discipline, Health, Air, particulate matter, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Epidemiology, Risk Assessments, Biology, copollutant exposures, fine particles, acute lung injury, airway epithelial cells, cardiopulmonary responses, epidemelogy, exposure, susceptible subpopulations, street dust, air pollution, endothelial function, diesel exhaust, chronic health effects, lung inflammation, oxidant gas, particulate exposure, human exposure, inhaled, Acute health effects, concentrated particulate matter, road dust, airborne urban contaminants

    Progress and Final Reports:

  • 2004 Progress Report
  • 2005
  • 2006 Progress Report
  • 2007
  • Final Report