2003 Progress Report: PM Components and NYC Respiratory and Cardiovascular Morbidity

EPA Grant Number: R827351C014
Subproject: this is subproject number 014 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R827351
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: EPA NYU PM Center: Health Risks of PM Components
Center Director: N/A
Title: PM Components and NYC Respiratory and Cardiovascular Morbidity
Investigators: Ito, Kazuhiko
Institution: New York University School of Medicine
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: June 1, 1999 through May 31, 2005 (Extended to May 31, 2006)
Project Period Covered by this Report: June 1, 2002 through May 31, 2003
RFA: Airborne Particulate Matter (PM) Centers (1999) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Particulate Matter , Air

Objective:

The objective of this research project is to identify key particulate matter (PM) components and source types that are associated with respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and to provide excess risk estimates for subpopulations that are characterized by age group, diagnoses, and subareas within New York City. This project takes advantage of the newly available rich chemical speciation data being collected in New York City and the hospital admission data for all ages from the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System. We also will examine the emergency room (ER) visits for asthma in the New York City hospitals (a collaboration with Robert Silverman at the Long Island Jewish Hospital and Lori Stevenson at the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine with no additional cost).

This is one of the projects funded by the New York University (NYU) PM Center. The progress for the other projects is reported separately (see reports for R827351C001 through R827351C013, R827351C015, and R827351C016).

Progress Summary:

Currently, there are three PM2.5 chemical speciation monitors in New York City: the New York Botanical Gardens (NYBG) in the Bronx; I.S. 52 in the Bronx; and Queens College (QC) in Queens. The data are available starting from 2000 for NYBG and from 2001 for I.S. 52 and QC. Available PM components to be analyzed are: (1) PM2.5 particulate mass; (2) anions and cations by ion chromatograph; (3) trace elements (about 20 key elements from sodium through lead on the periodic table) by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence; and (4) total carbon, including organic, elemental, and carbonate carbon, by thermal optical analysis. In addition to the chemical speciation data, PM2.5 data from approximately 20 monitors in New York City also will be examined.

We conducted an analysis of PM2.5 speciation data from three monitors (a few miles apart) in New York City during 2001-2002 (Ito, et al., 2004; funded by a Science To Achieve Results grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) and found that t he strongest temporal correlations across the three monitors were found for the individual PM components that are related to secondary aerosols (e.g., S, NH4). Our source apportionment using absolute principal component analysis and positive matrix factorization identified four major source/pollution types—secondary (largely regional) aerosols, soil, traffic related, and residual oil burning/incineration—in each of the three monitors. We will analyze these source-apportioned PM2.5 mass concentrations for their associations with the morbidity outcomes. We conducted a preliminary analysis of the asthma emergency room (ER) visits data. We assumed that the conditions associated with asthma would vary across age, and therefore examined four age groups separately: 2-4, 5-11, 12-17, and 18-45. We first analyzed the citywide average PM2.5 data for 1999 and 2002. PM2.5 risk estimates were obtained for each of the four age groups using the Poisson Generalized Linear Model adjusting for weather, day of week, seasonal trends, the fall peaks, and seasonal recesses. The resulting relative risk estimates were fairly comparable across age groups: 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-1.30); 1.16 (95% CI: 1.07-1.26); 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03-1.27); and 1.12 (1.06-1.18), respectively. Currently, we are examining the role of source-apportioned PM2.5 in these PM-asthma ER visit associations.

Supplemental Keywords:

thoracic particles, PM10, fine particles, PM2.5, ultrafine particles, PM 0.1, lung dosimetry models, human exposure models, pulmonary responses, cardiovascular responses, immunological responses, criteria air pollutants, concentrated ambient aerosols, aerosol, air pollutants, air pollution, airborne pollutants, airway disease, airway inflammation, airway variability, allergen, ambient air, ambient air quality, analytical chemistry, assessment of exposure, asthma, asthma morbidity, atmospheric monitoring, biological markers, childhood respiratory disease, children, combustion, combustion contaminants, combustion emissions, compliance monitoring, dosimetry, epidemiology, exposure, exposure and effects, health effects, heart rate variability, human exposure, human health, human health effects, incineration, lead, lung, mercury, morbidity, particulates, pulmonary, pulmonary disease, respiratory, RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, PHYSICAL ASPECTS, Air, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, particulate matter, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Risk Assessments, Environmental Monitoring, Physical Processes, Atmospheric Sciences, Risk Assessment, ambient air quality, atmospheric particulate matter, particulates, air toxics, atmospheric particles, chemical characteristics, toxicology, ambient air monitoring, acute lung injury, PM 2.5, long term exposure, morbidity, airborne particulate matter, environmental risks, exposure, epidemelogy, air pollution, aerosol composition, atmospheric aerosol particles, human exposure, PM, exposure assessment, human health risk

Relevant Websites:

http://www.med.nyu.edu/environmental/centers/epa/ Exit

Progress and Final Reports:

Original Abstract
  • 1999
  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2004
  • Final Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R827351    EPA NYU PM Center: Health Risks of PM Components

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R827351C001 Exposure Characterization Error
    R827351C002 X-ray CT-based Assessment of Variations in Human Airway Geometry: Implications for Evaluation of Particle Deposition and Dose to Different Populations
    R827351C003 Asthma Susceptibility to PM2.5
    R827351C004 Health Effects of Ambient Air PM in Controlled Human Exposures
    R827351C005 Physicochemical Parameters of Combustion Generated Atmospheres as Determinants of PM Toxicity
    R827351C006 Effects of Particle-Associated Irritants on the Cardiovascular System
    R827351C007 Role of PM-Associated Transition Metals in Exacerbating Infectious Pneumoniae in Exposed Rats
    R827351C008 Immunomodulation by PM: Role of Metal Composition and Pulmonary Phagocyte Iron Status
    R827351C009 Health Risks of Particulate Matter Components: Center Service Core
    R827351C010 Lung Hypoxia as Potential Mechanisms for PM-Induced Health Effects
    R827351C011 Urban PM2.5 Surface Chemistry and Interactions with Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF)
    R827351C012 Subchronic PM2.5 Exposure Study at the NYU PM Center
    R827351C013 Long Term Health Effects of Concentrated Ambient PM2.5
    R827351C014 PM Components and NYC Respiratory and Cardiovascular Morbidity
    R827351C015 Development of a Real-Time Monitoring System for Acidity and Soluble Components in Airborne Particulate Matter
    R827351C016 Automated Real-Time Ambient Fine PM Monitoring System