2006 Progress Report: Bayesian and Adjoint Inverse Model Analysis of PM Sources in the United States Using Observations from Surface, Aircraft, and Satellite Platforms

EPA Grant Number: R832158
Title: Bayesian and Adjoint Inverse Model Analysis of PM Sources in the United States Using Observations from Surface, Aircraft, and Satellite Platforms
Investigators: Jacob, Daniel J. , Seinfeld, John
Institution: Harvard University , California Institute of Technology
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2007 (Extended to December 31, 2008)
Project Period Covered by this Report: January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2007
Project Amount: $450,000
RFA: Source Apportionment of Particulate Matter (2004) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Particulate Matter , Air Quality and Air Toxics , Air


Our objective is to improve knowledge of particulate matter (PM) sources in the United States on a national scale through forward and inverse model analyses integrating observations from surface sites, aircraft, and satellites. Our primary tool in this analysis is the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS)-Chem global chemical transport model.

Progress Summary:

We quantified the PM2.5 sources from open fires and biofuel use in the United States using inverse modeling of carbonaceous PM2.5 data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network, exploiting additional constraints from correlations with K+ and from satellite data (Park, et al., 2007). In GEOS-Chem, we implemented a new mechanism for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene, and showed it to be an important source of organic carbon (OC) PM. We used GEOS-Chem to simulate aircraft observations from the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) campaign over the northeastern United States and derive constraints on the sources of OC PM and the influence of boreal fires (Heald, et al., 2006). We tested different dust source algorithms through GEOS-Chem simulation of IMPROVE PM data, found that a hybrid combination of the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) and Dust Entrainment and Deposition (DEAD) algorithms provides the best simulation, and inferred a dominant role of intercontinental transport from Asia and Africa on dust in the United States (Fairlie, et al., 2007). We used the adjoint of GEOS-Chem to show that nitrate PM measurements provide valuable constraints on ammonia emissions in the United States (Henze, et al., 2007; Henze, in preparation). We developed an improved algorithm for retrieving aerosol optical depths (AODs) from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite observations, thus enabling the application of these data as top-down constraints for PM concentrations and sources in the United States (Drury, in preparation).

Future Activities:

  • Complete and submit our work on the improved MODIS AOD retrieval algorithm;
  • Apply that algorithm to comparison of MODIS versus GEOS-Chem AODs and interpret the results in terms of current understanding of PM sources; and
  • Complete and submit our work on the application of the GEOS-Chem adjoint to constrain NH3 emissions in the United States using IMPROVE and other data.


Park RJ, Jacob DJ, Logan JA. Fire and biofuel contributions to annual mean aerosol mass concentrations in the United States. Atmospheric Environment 2007 June 8 [Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.05.061.

Journal Articles on this Report : 4 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other project views: All 25 publications 10 publications in selected types All 10 journal articles
Type Citation Project Document Sources
Journal Article Fairlie TD, Jacob DJ, Park RJ. The impact of transpacific transport of mineral dust in the United States. Atmospheric Environment 2007;41(6):1251-1266. R832158 (2006)
R832158 (2007)
R832158 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full-text HTML
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full-text PDF
  • Journal Article Heald CL, Jacob DJ, Turquety S, Hudman RC, Weber RJ, Sullivan AP, Peltier RE, Atlas EL, de Gouw JA, Warneke C, Holloway JS, Neuman JA, Flocke FM, Seinfeld JH. Concentrations and sources of organic carbon aerosols in the free troposphere over North America. Journal of Geophysical Research 2006;111:D23S47. R832158 (2006)
    R832158 (2007)
    R832158 (Final)
  • Full-text: Wiley-Full-text PDF
  • Abstract: Wiley-Abstract & Full-text HTML
  • Journal Article Henze DK, Seinfeld JH. Global secondary organic aerosol from isoprene oxidation. Geophysical Research Letters 2006;33(9):L09812 (4 pp.). R832158 (2006)
    R832158 (2007)
    R832158 (Final)
    R831075 (Final)
  • Full-text: AGU-Full Text PDF
  • Abstract: AGU-Abstract
  • Journal Article Henze DK, Hakami A, Seinfeld JH. Development of the adjoint of GEOS-Chem. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2007;7(9):2413-2433. R832158 (2006)
    R832158 (2007)
    R832158 (Final)
  • Full-text: ACP-Full-text PDF
  • Abstract: ACP-Abstract HTML
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    PM2.5, emissions, SOA, mineral dust, ammonia, nitrate, biomass burning, biofuel, adjoint model, GEOS-Chem, MODIS, IMPROVE,, RFA, Scientific Discipline, Air, Ecosystem Protection/Environmental Exposure & Risk, RESEARCH, particulate matter, Environmental Chemistry, Monitoring/Modeling, Monitoring, Environmental Monitoring, Ecological Risk Assessment, Environmental Engineering, remote sensing, atmospheric dispersion models, particulate organic carbon, atmospheric measurements, model-based analysis, chemical characteristics, environmental measurement, positive matrix factorization, emissions monitoring, air quality models, airborne particulate matter, diesel exhaust, air sampling, carbon particles, air quality model, adjoint inverse model analysis, mobile sources, particulate matter mass, PM2.5, modeling studies, aersol particles, aerosol optical depth data, aerosol analyzers, chemical speciation sampling, particle size measurement, carbonaceous particulate matter

    Relevant Websites:

    http://www.che.caltech.edu/groups/jhs/research.shtml Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2005 Progress Report
  • 2007 Progress Report
  • Final Report