Effect of Diesel Exhaust Particulate Exposures on Endothelial Function in Humans: The Role of Oxidative Stress

EPA Grant Number: R830954
Title: Effect of Diesel Exhaust Particulate Exposures on Endothelial Function in Humans: The Role of Oxidative Stress
Investigators: Kaufman, Joel D. , Chandler, Wayne , Gill, Edward , Koenig, Jane Q. , Larson, Timothy V. , Leotta, Daniel , Sheppard, Lianne (Elizabeth) A. , Sullivan, Jeff , Trenga, Carol , Yost, Michael
Institution: University of Washington
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: August 15, 2003 through August 14, 2006 (Extended to August 14, 2008)
Project Amount: $1,036,972
RFA: Airborne Particulate Matter Health Effects: Cardiovascular Mechanisms (2002) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Particulate Matter , Air , Health Effects

Objective:

This proposal addresses the overall hypothesis that ambient fine particulate matter exerts cardiovascular health effects via alteration of endothelial homeostasis through a mechanism mediated by oxidative stress. This project will use a controlled human inhalation exposure to diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) as a model to address the following objectives: 1) determine whether exposure to inhaled DEP is associated with endothelial dysfunction in a concentration-related manner; 2) determine whether exposure to inhaled DEP is associated with evidence of systemic oxidative stress; and 3) determine whether antioxidant supplementation blunts the DEP effect on endothelial function.

Approach:

Three crossover experiments (each randomized, balanced with regard to order, and separated by appropriate washout interval) will expose healthy subjects to well-characterized DEP in two-hour sessions in an inhalation chamber system mimicking ambient particulate matter from contemporary diesel engines.

First, 24 subjects will be exposed to DEP at each of three concentrations [0 (filtered air, FA), 100, or 200 µg/m3], and endothelial function will be assessed post-exposure through ultrasonographic measurement of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery, plasma markers of endothelial homeostasis (endothelin-1, ICAM-1, e-selectin, NO3-/NO2-, IL-6, and TNF-a), and markers of thrombosis associated with endothelial activation (PAI-1, D-dimer, and VWF).

Second, 10 subjects will be exposed to FA or DEP at 200 µg/m3 and then monitored intensively in the clinical research center for evidence of systemic oxidative stress using serial assessment of markers in plasma (GSH/GSSG, TBARS, oxidized LDL, and ascorbate) and urine (isoprostane F-2a).

Finally, 24 subjects will be administered the antioxidants ascorbate and N-acetylcysteine, or placebos, and then exposed to DEP or FA in a double-blinded four-condition experiment, and subsequently assessed for endothelial function, to determine the effect of antioxidants on DEP's impact on endothelial function.

Expected Results:

These experiments will provide valuable insight into a potential underlying mechanism of cardiovascular health effects of combustion-derived PM, and test a hypothesis that can explain both acute and chronic effects found in epidemiologic studies.

Publications and Presentations:

Publications have been submitted on this project: View all 33 publications for this project

Journal Articles:

Journal Articles have been submitted on this project: View all 10 journal articles for this project

Supplemental Keywords:

ambient air, human health, dose-response, mobile sources., RFA, Scientific Discipline, Health, Air, HUMAN HEALTH, particulate matter, air toxics, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Exposure, Susceptibility/Sensitive Population/Genetic Susceptibility, Risk Assessments, mobile sources, genetic susceptability, Biology, copollutant exposures, sensitive populations, atmospheric particulate matter, engine exhaust, airway epithelial cells, cardiopulmonary responses, fine particles, PM 2.5, inhaled pollutants, acute lung injury, morbidity, diesel engines, air pollution, susceptible subpopulations, endothelial function, diesel exhaust, automotive exhaust, chronic health effects, lung inflammation, oxidant gas, particulate exposure, cardiopulmonary response, heart rate, ambient particle pollution, Acute health effects, inhaled, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, highrisk groups, human susceptibility, diesel exhaust particles, diesel exhaust particulate, cardiotoxicity, cardiopulmonary, mortality, DEP, concentrated particulate matter, air contaminant exposure, air quality, co-pollutants, environmental hazard exposures, toxics, airborne urban contaminants, biomarker, cardiovascular disease

Progress and Final Reports:

  • 2004 Progress Report
  • 2005 Progress Report
  • 2006 Progress Report
  • 2007 Progress Report
  • Final Report