2003 Progress Report: Oxygenated Urban Air Toxics and Asthma Variability in Middle School Children: A Panel Study (ATAC–Air Toxics and Asthma in Children)

EPA Grant Number: R828678C005
Subproject: this is subproject number 005 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R824834
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)
Center Director: Beskid, Craig
Title: Oxygenated Urban Air Toxics and Asthma Variability in Middle School Children: A Panel Study (ATAC–Air Toxics and Asthma in Children)
Investigators: Delclos, George , Abramson, Stuart , Hanania, Nicola , Lai, Dejian , Morandi, Maria T. , Sockrider, Marianna , Stock, Tom
Institution: The University of Texas at Houston , Baylor College of Medicine
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: December 6, 2001 through December 6, 2004 (Extended to December 6, 2005)
Project Period Covered by this Report: December 6, 2003 through December 6, 2004
RFA: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) (1997) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Targeted Research

Objective:

The objective of this project is to conduct a prospective pilot panel study to investigate the association between exposure to oxygenated air toxics (total carbonyl concentration) and asthma health outcomes among labile, persistent asthmatic middle school children in Houston, using a repeated measures design over a 12-month period. The study population centers on labile, persistent asthmatics on the basis that they were likely to manifest greater variability in health outcomes following exposure to airborne stimuli. The study design is one of repeated measures of health outcomes and relevant exposure variables over time, in which each participant serves as her/his own control. Four 1-week measurement periods for each of the main independent (exposure) and dependent (health outcome) variables were to be performed over a 12-month observation period. Repeated measurements of established confounding variables were also to be performed serially over the 12-month period.

The primary study objectives are to:

  1. Evaluate the association between personal air concentrations of total carbonyls and variability of lung function (peak expiratory flow rate [PEFR] and forced expired volume in the first second [FEV1]) in a sample of middle school children with labile, persistent asthma.
  1. (2) Evaluate the association between personal air concentrations of total carbonyls and the variability of selected clinical indicators (asthma symptoms and medication use) in a sample of middle school children with labile, persistent asthma.

Progress Summary:

This project was developed in response to RFA 2000-02 entitled, “Association Between Exposures to Oxygenated Air Toxics and Asthma: An Exposure and Health Effects Study of Houston Area School Children.” The study began in December 2001. The study is in compliance with the Institutional Review Board of the University of Texas. Human consent procedures met governmental guidelines. The study is also in compliance with appropriate quality control and quality assurance procedures and per guidelines of the Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In order to complete the analyses, study report, and review, the study has been granted a no-cost extension through December 2004.

Progress reported to date includes the following:

  • The original proposed sample size was 40 children. Power calculation for 3 sample sizes (n = 20, 30, and 40) at 10 days of sampling per children showed that with the longer follow-up proposed, a final sample size of 30 children should be sufficient to assure 80 percent power at a significance level of 0.05 for the main study hypothesis. This approach was approved by the Center’s Scientific Advisory Panel.
  • 32 children were recruited for the study, out of which 3 withdrew. 29 children are currently enrolled in the study.
  • By September 30, 2003, 28 children had 3 of 4 rounds completed, although there were concerns regarding the validity of carbonyl measurements for 3 of the children. These three children will repeat one round of sampling.
  • Data collection has been completed as scheduled by the end of November. A total of 2338 samples were collected with 614 personal samples.
  • A subsample consisting of 7 subject homes was used to obtain estimates of co-exposures to PM2.5, ozone and nitrous oxide. These homes were representative of the total homes in the project, based on the characteristics such as, home size (volume), type of home, year built, type of cooking source, type of garage, and household size.
  • Health outcomes measured for the study are PEFR, FEV1, asthma symptom variability, and medication (rescue and maintenance) use.
  • The investigators have analyzed daily mean morning and afternoon peak expiratory flow (PEF) and FEV1 values, respectively, for the 10 day period per each child and daily mean 24 hour total aldehyde concentration per child.
  • Preliminary results indicate a large amount of variability in dispersion of aldehyde concentrations per child, as well as morning and afternoon peak flow values by child. Nevertheless, the regression analysis suggests a slight inverse relationship between 24-hour aldehyde concentration and changes in both afternoon PEF and afternoon FEV1 values on the following day. However, these correlations are not adjusted for confounding exposures or colinearity and, taken together with the small sample size at this stage of the study, are not considered to be robust.

Future Activities:

  • Data analyses are continuing.
  • The investigators have and will continue to develop the various study databases. Tables for initial questionnaire data, activity questionnaire, time-activity logs, air exchange rate, aldehyde measurements, health outcomes, and medication are being designed for data storage. All of these tables will be related through a central table containing study participant identification codes, termed the Baseline Table. The 14-digit subject code will be scanned directly into the Access database using a barcode scanner and the hard copy forms will be entered into the database using Access forms. A draft final report for the study is due March 2004.

Journal Articles:

No journal articles submitted with this report: View all 2 publications for this subproject

Supplemental Keywords:

RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, PHYSICAL ASPECTS, Air, INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, POLLUTANTS/TOXICS, HUMAN HEALTH, particulate matter, air toxics, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Exposure, Chemicals, Epidemiology, Risk Assessments, Susceptibility/Sensitive Population/Genetic Susceptibility, Health Effects, Physical Processes, Children's Health, Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Policy, Biology, Risk Assessment, asthma, copollutant exposures, sensitive populations, urban air, asthma triggers, atmospheric particulate matter, fine particles, PM 2.5, long term exposure, inhaled pollutants, acute lung injury, acute cardiovascular effects, airway disease, air pollution, children, susceptible subpopulations, cardiac arrest, chronic health effects, human exposure, lung inflammation, particulate exposure, assessment of exposure, Acute health effects, indoor air, inhaled, human susceptibility, children's environmental health, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), acute exposure, air quality, exposure assessment, human health risk, toxics, environmental hazard exposures, air contaminant exposure, co-pollutants

Relevant Websites:

http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/mleland/ Exit

Progress and Final Reports:

Original Abstract
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2004
  • Final Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R824834    Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R824834C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles - A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
    R824834C002 Cardiopulmonary Response to Particulate Exposure
    R824834C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
    R824834C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
    R824834C005 Methods Development Project for a Study of Personal Exposures to Toxic Air Pollutants
    R824834C006 Relationship Between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA)
    R824834C007 Development of the "Leland Legacy" Air Sampling Pump
    R824834C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban Residences
    R824834C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
    R824834C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
    R828678C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles—A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
    R828678C002 Cardiopulmonary Effects of Metal-Containing Particulate Exposure
    R828678C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
    R828678C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
    R828678C005 Oxygenated Urban Air Toxics and Asthma Variability in Middle School Children: A Panel Study (ATAC–Air Toxics and Asthma in Children)
    R828678C006 Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II: Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species
    R828678C007 Development of the “Leland Legacy” Air Sampling Pump
    R828678C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor PAHs in Urban Residences 98-03B
    R828678C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
    R828678C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
    R828678C011 A Pilot Geospatial Analysis of Exposure to Air Pollutants (with Special Attention to Air Toxics) and Hospital Admissions in Harris County, Texas
    R828678C012 Impact of Exposure to Urban Air Toxics on Asthma Utilization for the Pediatric Medicaid Population in Dearborn, Michigan
    R828678C013 Field Validation of the Sioutas Sampler and Leland Legacy Pump – Joint Project with EPA’s Environmental Technology Validation Program (ETV)
    R828678C014 Performance Evaluation of the 3M Charcoal Vapor Monitor for Monitor Low Ambient Concentrations of VOCs
    R828678C015 RIOPA Database Development
    R828678C016 Contributions of Outdoor PM Sources to Indoor and Personal Exposures: Analysis of PM Species Concentrations” Focused on the PM Speciation and Apportioning of Sources
    R828678C017 The Short and Long-Term Respiratory Effects of Exposure to PAHs from Traffic in a Cohort of Asthmatic Children