Final Report: Source Apportionment of Indoor PAHs in Urban Residences 98-03B

EPA Grant Number: R828678C008
Subproject: this is subproject number 008 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R824834
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)
Center Director: Beskid, Craig
Title: Source Apportionment of Indoor PAHs in Urban Residences 98-03B
Investigators: Li, An
Institution: University of Illinois at Chicago
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: January 2, 2001 through December 31, 2005 (Extended to December 31, 2008)
RFA: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) (1997) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Targeted Research

Objective:

The overall objective of this project was to measure the concentrations of 16 selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the indoor and outdoor environment of 10 homes in a residential area of south Chicago once a month for 1 year. Using these measurements and using different models, the investigator would determine the source for these PAHs as coming from indoor or outdoor sources. Because PAHs are toxic (development of lung and skin cancers, GI, urologic, laryngeal, and pharyngeal malignancies and enhance immune or allergic responses), identification of the concentrations of PAHs in an indoor environment as well as accurate source apportionment of the contributions from indoor and outdoor sources would be helpful in designing strategies for reduction of these exposures.

The specific objectives of the research project were to: (1) assess relative contributions from outdoor sources to indoor PAHs in urban homes; (2) identify major sources and estimate emission rates; and (3) examine factors that control/modify indoor PAH concentrations.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

This research was funded by the Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) under its small grants New Investigators Award.

Ten homes in the Chicago area participated in this study on a voluntary basis. They were selected based on the response to a household screening survey questionnaire. Indoor and outdoor air samples at these homes were concurrently collected once a month for a 14-month period. Each sampling lasted 46 hours at an airflow rate of about 10 Lpm. Real-time monitoring and recording of the air quality (temperature, humidity, CO2) was carried out during each sample, both indoors and outdoors. Carbon monoxide concentration in indoor air also was recorded. During each sample, a home status questionnaire was taken to register the household activities and events, which may affect the PAH levels.

Overall, the study resulted in the development of the programmable temperature vaporization technique (PTV) over large-volume injections for analyses with low concentrations of PAHs. For most PAHs, the response of the mass spectrometry detector increased proportionally as the total volume was increased up to 150 μL using the PTV. This is a significant improvement over existing methodologies.

The results of the study suggest that correlations between indoor and outdoor total PAHs are weak. In general, the results suggest that: (1) PAHs are ubiquitously present in non-smoker urban homes and indoor PAH concentrations are affected largely by indoor activities; (2) outdoor air also may contribute significantly to indoor PAH levels, especially for the heavier compounds; (3) the partitioning of indoor PAHs between air, suspended particles, and settled particles (dust) needs to be investigated further; and (4) the indoor source emissions need to be quantitatively characterized and relative source contributions be apportioned.

The final report for the study has been published as National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) Research Report 6, “Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Air of Ten Chicago Area Homes.” The report is available on the NUATRC Web Site at http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/mleland/ Exit .


Journal Articles on this Report : 3 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 7 publications 4 publications in selected types All 3 journal articles
Other center views: All 144 publications 62 publications in selected types All 53 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Jang J-K, Li A. Separation of PCBs and PAHs in sediment samples using silica gel fractionation chromatography. Chemosphere 2001;44(6):1439-1445. R828678C008 (2001)
R828678C008 (2002)
R828678C008 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Science Direct
    Exit
  • Other: Science Direct
    Exit
  • Journal Article Li A, Schoonover TM, Zou Q, Norlock F, Conroy LM, Scheff PA, Wadden RA. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in residential air of ten Chicago area homes:concentrations and influencing factors. Atmospheric Environment 2005;39(19):3491-3501. R828678C008 (2003)
    R828678C008 (2004)
    R828678C008 (Final)
  • Full-text: Science Direct
    Exit
  • Abstract: Science Direct
    Exit
  • Other: Science Direct
    Exit
  • Journal Article Norlock FM, Jang JK, Zou Q, Schoonover TM, Li A. Large-volume injection PTV-GC-MS analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air and sediment samples. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2002;52(1):19-26. R828678C008 (2003)
    R828678C008 (2004)
    R828678C008 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
    Exit
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    Air pollution, urban, monitoring, exposure, methods, indoor air, volatile organic compounds, VOCs, particulate matter, PM, environmental policy, exposure, health risk assessment, physical processes, risk assessments, susceptibility/sensitive population/genetic susceptibility, air toxics, genetic susceptibility, acute health effects, acute cardiovascular effects, acute exposure, acute lung injury, air contaminant exposure, air quality, airborne urban contaminants, airway disease, aldehydes, assessment of exposure, atmospheric particulate matter, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary response, children, children’s environmental health, chronic health effects, copollutants, copollutant exposures, environmental hazard exposures, fine particles, health effects, human exposure, human health risk, human susceptibility, inhaled pollutants, long-term exposure, lung inflammation, particulate exposure, sensitive populations, susceptible subpopulations, toxics,, RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, Air, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, Air Pollution, particulate matter, air toxics, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Risk Assessments, Atmospheric Sciences, Biology, Risk Assessment, copollutant exposures, atmospheric particulate matter, cardiopulmonary responses, fine particles, PM 2.5, air pollutants, acute lung injury, exposure, chronic health effects, lung inflammation, particulate exposure, PAHs, industrial air pollution, human exposure, Acute health effects, inhaled, indoor/outdoor relationships, atmospheric chemistry, airborne urban contaminants, acute exposure, human health risk

    Relevant Websites:

    http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/mleland/ Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • 2004 Progress Report
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R824834    Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R824834C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles - A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
    R824834C002 Cardiopulmonary Response to Particulate Exposure
    R824834C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
    R824834C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
    R824834C005 Methods Development Project for a Study of Personal Exposures to Toxic Air Pollutants
    R824834C006 Relationship Between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA)
    R824834C007 Development of the "Leland Legacy" Air Sampling Pump
    R824834C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban Residences
    R824834C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
    R824834C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
    R828678C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles—A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
    R828678C002 Cardiopulmonary Effects of Metal-Containing Particulate Exposure
    R828678C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
    R828678C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
    R828678C005 Oxygenated Urban Air Toxics and Asthma Variability in Middle School Children: A Panel Study (ATAC–Air Toxics and Asthma in Children)
    R828678C006 Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II: Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species
    R828678C007 Development of the “Leland Legacy” Air Sampling Pump
    R828678C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor PAHs in Urban Residences 98-03B
    R828678C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
    R828678C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
    R828678C011 A Pilot Geospatial Analysis of Exposure to Air Pollutants (with Special Attention to Air Toxics) and Hospital Admissions in Harris County, Texas
    R828678C012 Impact of Exposure to Urban Air Toxics on Asthma Utilization for the Pediatric Medicaid Population in Dearborn, Michigan
    R828678C013 Field Validation of the Sioutas Sampler and Leland Legacy Pump – Joint Project with EPA’s Environmental Technology Validation Program (ETV)
    R828678C014 Performance Evaluation of the 3M Charcoal Vapor Monitor for Monitor Low Ambient Concentrations of VOCs
    R828678C015 RIOPA Database Development
    R828678C016 Contributions of Outdoor PM Sources to Indoor and Personal Exposures: Analysis of PM Species Concentrations” Focused on the PM Speciation and Apportioning of Sources
    R828678C017 The Short and Long-Term Respiratory Effects of Exposure to PAHs from Traffic in a Cohort of Asthmatic Children