Final Report: Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles—A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)

EPA Grant Number: R828678C001
Subproject: this is subproject number 001 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R824834
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)
Center Director: Beskid, Craig
Title: Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles—A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
Investigators: Kinney, Patrick L. , Chillrud, Steven , Ramstrom, Sonja , Spengler, John D.
Institution: Columbia University - Mailman School of Public Health , Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: January 1, 1997 through January 31, 2005
RFA: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) (1997) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Targeted Research

Objective:

The purpose of this research effort is to study the personal exposures to urban air toxics experienced by a group of students living in New York City and in Los Angeles. The study will provide information on the roles of seasons and days of the week, different meteorological conditions and daily activities on exposures to selected volatile organic compounds (VOC), aldehydes, and metals on particles (<2.5 microns) present in the environment. Soluble fractions of selected metals will also be assayed for correlations with source measurements. Exposure measurements will be made in indoor, outdoor and personal environments. The investigators will relate these exposures to the apportionment of air toxics among area, point and mobile sources, as well as non-anthropogenic sources.

The overall objective of the study was to characterize levels of and factors influencing personal exposures to urban air toxics among high school students living in inner city neighborhoods. The study had five principal aims:

Aim 1: To describe and compare weekday personal exposures to urban air toxics in two representative groups of 30 high school students (NYC and LA) and analyze seasonal changes in exposures and activity patterns.  

Aim 2: To evaluate the contributions of indoor and outdoor air toxics concentrations to personal exposures in winter and summer. In addition, to evaluate the influence of time-activity patterns and home ventilation rates on those relationships.

Aim 3: To assess the contributions of a range of source categories of personal, outdoor, and/or indoor exposures using data on individual VOCs, aldehydes, and particulate components.

 Aim 4: To characterize home indoor and outdoor exposures to the soluble fraction of selected metals and to correlate these measurements with simultaneous fixed-site outdoor measurements.

Aim 5: To develop and design a methodology for a nationwide study addressing personal exposures to urban air toxic pollutants. The study provided extensive descriptive data on exposures to a wide range of air pollutants encountered by youths living in the urban cores of America ’s two largest cities. In addition, the design captured information on several important sources of variability that may drive personal exposures: variability across days, variability across subjects, variability across seasons, and, finally, variability across cities. The design facilitates analyses of the relationships among simultaneously collected personal, home indoor and outdoor measurements, and urban fixed site data and the exploration of factors that may influence these relationships, such as air exchange rate, indoor and outdoor sources, and activity patterns.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

  • The study was funded in response to RFA 96-01, “Personal Exposures to Air Toxics in Urban Environment.”
  • The study is in compliance with the Columbia University ’s Institutional Review Board guidelines and governmental human consent regulations. The study has also provided appropriate QA/QC procedures in accordance with NUATRC and EPA guidelines.
  • The study started in December 1997 and was scheduled to be completed in December 2001.   A no-cost extension was given to this project through June 2005. 
  • A pre-pilot study was carried out in the Boston , MA metropolitan area in which the experimental design and measurement system was tested on a reduced scale (10 subjects). A second pilot study was conducted in April/May, 1998, for addressing logistical questions concerning implementation of the sampling among high school students, their teachers, and their families. Results from both pilot studies proved the necessary subject compliance, analytical accuracy and sensitivity to assure valid scientific use. Initiation of the major program commenced with measurements in New York City in summer of 1998.
  • Dr. Steve Chillrud presented preliminary results the TEACH study, specifically as they relate to the fine particulate matter associated metals data at the October 2001, Investigators’ Meeting.
  • The study results will be presented in two reports, one on the NYC data set and the other on the LA data set. A draft final report on the NYC dataset was submitted to the NUATRC in May 2002. A revised final report was received by the Center on August 19, 2003. The draft final report for the LA data set was submitted in December 2004.
  • The Center Research Report Number 3, “Toxic exposure assessment: A Columbia-Harvard (TEACH) study (The New York City Report),” was published in 2005.
  • The Center Research Report Number 9, “Toxic Exposure Assessment: A Columbia-Harvard (TEACH) Study (The Los Angeles Report),” was published in 2008. 


Journal Articles on this Report : 5 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 15 publications 5 publications in selected types All 5 journal articles
Other center views: All 144 publications 62 publications in selected types All 53 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Chillrud SN, Epstein D, Ross JM, Sax SN, Pederson D, Spengler JD, Kinney PL. Elevated airborne exposures of teenagers to manganese, chromium, and iron from steel dust in New York City's subway system. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(3):732-737. R828678C001 (2004)
R828678C001 (2006)
R828678C001 (2007)
R828678C001 (Final)
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  • Abstract: ES&T-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Chillrud SN, Grass D, Ross JM, Coulibaly D, Slavkovich V, Epstein D, Sax SN, Pederson D, Johnson D, Spengler JD, Kinney PL, Simpson HJ, Brandt-Rauf P. Steel dust in the New York City subway system as a source of manganese, chromium, and iron exposures for transit workers. Journal of Urban Health 2005;82(1):33-42. R828678C001 (2005)
    R828678C001 (2006)
    R828678C001 (2007)
    R828678C001 (Final)
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  • Abstract: Springer-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Kinney PL, Chillrud SN, Ramstrom S, Ross J, Spengler JD. Exposures to multiple air toxics in New York City. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002;110(Suppl 4):539-546. R828678C001 (2002)
    R828678C001 (2003)
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    R828678C001 (2006)
    R828678C001 (2007)
    R828678C001 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Sax SN, Bennett DH, Chillrud SN, Kinney PL, Spengler JD. Differences in source emission rates of volatile organic compounds in inner-city residences of New York City and Los Angeles. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 2004;14(Suppl 1):S95-S109. R828678C001 (2004)
    R828678C001 (2006)
    R828678C001 (2007)
    R828678C001 (Final)
    R827027 (2002)
    R832141 (2006)
    R832141 (2007)
    R832141 (Final)
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  • Full-text: Nature-Full Text PDF
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  • Abstract: Nature-Abstract & Full Text HTML
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  • Journal Article Sax SN, Bennett DH, Chillrud SN, Ross J, Kinney PL, Spengler JD. A cancer risk assessment of inner-city teenagers living in New York City and Los Angeles. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(10):1558-1566. R828678C001 (2007)
    R828678C001 (Final)
    R827027 (2002)
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, PHYSICAL ASPECTS, Air, INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION, POLLUTANTS/TOXICS, HUMAN HEALTH, particulate matter, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, air toxics, Exposure, Chemicals, Risk Assessments, Susceptibility/Sensitive Population/Genetic Susceptibility, Physical Processes, Children's Health, Atmospheric Sciences, genetic susceptability, Environmental Policy, Biology, copollutant exposures, sensitive populations, atmospheric particulate matter, health effects, urban air, fine particles, PM 2.5, long term exposure, inhaled pollutants, acute cardiovascular effects, acute lung injury, aldehydes, airway disease, VOCs, air pollution, susceptible subpopulations, cardiac arrest, children, New York, chronic health effects, lung inflammation, particulate exposure, cardiopulmonary response, assessment of exposure, human exposure, Los Angeles, Acute health effects, inhaled, human susceptibility, children's environmental health, indoor air, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), air contaminant exposure, air quality, co-pollutants, environmental hazard exposures, toxics, airborne urban contaminants, acute exposure

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 1997
  • 1998
  • 1999
  • 2000
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • 2004 Progress Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R824834    Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R824834C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles - A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
    R824834C002 Cardiopulmonary Response to Particulate Exposure
    R824834C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
    R824834C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
    R824834C005 Methods Development Project for a Study of Personal Exposures to Toxic Air Pollutants
    R824834C006 Relationship Between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA)
    R824834C007 Development of the "Leland Legacy" Air Sampling Pump
    R824834C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban Residences
    R824834C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
    R824834C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
    R828678C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles—A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
    R828678C002 Cardiopulmonary Effects of Metal-Containing Particulate Exposure
    R828678C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
    R828678C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
    R828678C005 Oxygenated Urban Air Toxics and Asthma Variability in Middle School Children: A Panel Study (ATAC–Air Toxics and Asthma in Children)
    R828678C006 Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II: Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species
    R828678C007 Development of the “Leland Legacy” Air Sampling Pump
    R828678C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor PAHs in Urban Residences 98-03B
    R828678C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
    R828678C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
    R828678C011 A Pilot Geospatial Analysis of Exposure to Air Pollutants (with Special Attention to Air Toxics) and Hospital Admissions in Harris County, Texas
    R828678C012 Impact of Exposure to Urban Air Toxics on Asthma Utilization for the Pediatric Medicaid Population in Dearborn, Michigan
    R828678C013 Field Validation of the Sioutas Sampler and Leland Legacy Pump – Joint Project with EPA’s Environmental Technology Validation Program (ETV)
    R828678C014 Performance Evaluation of the 3M Charcoal Vapor Monitor for Monitor Low Ambient Concentrations of VOCs
    R828678C015 RIOPA Database Development
    R828678C016 Contributions of Outdoor PM Sources to Indoor and Personal Exposures: Analysis of PM Species Concentrations” Focused on the PM Speciation and Apportioning of Sources
    R828678C017 The Short and Long-Term Respiratory Effects of Exposure to PAHs from Traffic in a Cohort of Asthmatic Children