2007 Progress Report: Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II: Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species

EPA Grant Number: R828678C006
Subproject: this is subproject number 006 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R824834
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)
Center Director: Beskid, Craig
Title: Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II: Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species
Investigators: Weisel, Clifford P. , Colome, Steven D. , Morandi, Maria T. , Spektor, Dalia , Stock, Tom , Turpin, Barbara , Zhang, Junfeng
Institution: Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute , The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: January 1, 1997 through January 31, 2005
Project Period Covered by this Report: January 1, 2006 through January 31, 2007
RFA: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) (1997) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Targeted Research

Objective:

The RIOPA study was funded by the NUATRC in response to RFA 96-01.  The project is comprised of three studies that were initially independently funded:

  • A study funded by NUATRC with Dr. Clifford Weisel at Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI) as principal investigator;
  • A study funded by HEI with Dr. Jim Zhang of EOHSI as principal investigator; and
  • A study funded by HEI with Dr. Barbara Turpin of Rutgers University as principal investigator .

Because the two HEI studies complemented and added to the initial study funded by NUATRC, both organizations have treated the three studies as one so that the results can be reported coherently.

The RIOPA study measured personal exposures and outdoor and indoor air concentrations of PM2.5 and selected VOCs and carbonyls for adults and children. Sampling was conducted during two 48-hour sampling periods in different seasons between the summer of 1999 and the spring of 2001. The study was designed to address the hypothesis that outdoor sources contribute a significant proportion of the pollutant concentrations in the indoor and personal air for residents who live near those sources. The study included approximately 100 homes and 100 adult residents of those homes in each of three urban centers with different weather conditions and air pollution source profiles: Los Angeles CA, dominated by mobile sources; Houston TX, dominated by large industrial stationary and area sources (with a portion contributed from mobile sources); and Elizabeth NJ, with a mixture of mobile, point, and area sources. Samples of VOCs, carbonyls, and PM2.5 were collected inside and outside the homes and in subjects’ personal air (breathing zone). The subjects carried personal samplers during their daily activities. In a subset of homes, the personal exposures of one or more children were monitored; in-vehicle exposures to carbonyls were also measured for some residents.

The specific aims of the portion of the RIOPA study reported here (for which Dr. Barbara Turpin was the Principal Investigator) were to:

  • Characterize and compare indoor, outdoor, and personal PM2.5 mass composition;
  • Quantify the contribution of PM2.5 of outdoor origin to indoor PM2.5 concentrations and to personal PM2.5 exposure; then to consider implications for predicting exposure and applying epidemiologic assessment methods; and
  • To further characterize the sources of indoor PM2.5 concentrations and personal exposure (exploratory).

Progress Summary:

Among the cities and within each city, indoor and outdoor particle concentrations differed little, whereas differences in personal exposures were more pronounced.

The ratio of personal exposure to outdoor median concentrations varied among cities; it was notably lowest in Los Angeles. This variation could reflect differences in the strength of indoor sources, AERs, and personal activities. The degree of correlation between indoor and outdoor concentrations did not have much impact on correlations with personal PM2.5 concentrations.

When specific constituents of PM2.5 were assessed, organic matter dominated PM2.5 concentrations both indoors and outdoors. Differences in the composition of outdoor, indoor, and personal PM2.5 were observed, however. Indoor organic PM2.5 concentrations were nearly twice as high as outdoor concentrations, indicating the importance of indoor sources.

Similarly, chlordane concentrations were higher indoors than outdoors. This is most likely due to strong indoor emissions from volatilization of termiticides used during home construction.

In contrast, elemental carbon concentrations and outdoors were well correlated, with indoor concentrations generally lower than outdoor concentrations. This suggests that indoor emissions of elemental carbon were low.

The concentrations of PAHs were substantially more variable indoors than outdoors. Phenanthrene was consistently the largest measured contributor to PAH mass in both indoor and outdoor air.

The methods used to estimate how much outdoor sources of PM2.5 contributed to indoor concentrations produced broadly consistent results: over 60% of indoor concentrations in Los Angeles, 70% in Elizabeth, and over 40% in Houston. PM2.5 of outdoor origin contributed much less to personal PM2.5 exposures – approximately 25% to 33%.

As shown above, outdoor contributions to indoor concentrations were much lower for Houston homes than for those in Los Angeles and Elizabeth, and the same pattern was observed for the outdoor contribution to personal exposure. The investigators suggest that this difference could be attributed to the more common use of air conditioning in Houston, which tends to reduce air exchanges; they did not test this hypothesis, however.

The investigators attempted to characterize a source of exposure error in epidemiologic time-series studies, namely variations in particle infiltration behavior. Three approaches were used to explore how AERs, particle properties, and housing characteristics can influence particle infiltration. When used in conjunction with concentrations measured at fixed monitoring sites, information on AERs can minimize uncertainty in estimates of exposure to PM2.5 of outdoor origin.

Conclusions:

Dr. Turpin and her colleagues have contributed important information by (1) characterizing and comparing the composition of indoor, outdoor, and personal PM2.5 in the three cities; and (2) estimating the contribution of outdoor PM2.5 and its components to indoor and personal exposures. This is one of the most comprehensive studies to characterize PM2.5 exposures and one of the first to measure PM2.5 functional groups.

Although the lack of a population-based sampling strategy limits the generalizability of the results for broad epidemiologic analyses, the compositional data provide insight on exposure to PM2.5 constituents for a large number of subjects and homes selected on the basis of distance from various outdoor sources.

This study has generated a rich database that can be used to identify what levels of exposure could be related to health concerns, the sources of air toxics, and factors associated with high exposures. HEI and NUATRC are currently developing additional opportunities to explore aspects of these data.


Journal Articles on this Report : 14 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 40 publications 21 publications in selected types All 19 journal articles
Other center views: All 144 publications 62 publications in selected types All 53 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Kwon J, Weisel CP, Turpin BJ, Zhang J, Korn LR, Morandi MT, Stock TH, Colome S. Source proximity and outdoor-residential VOC concentrations: results from the RIOPA study. Environmental Science & Technology 2006;40(13):4074-4082. R828678C006 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Liu W, Zhang J, Zhang L, Turpin BJ, Weisel CP, Morandi MT, Stock TH, Colome S, Korn LR. Estimating contributions of indoor and outdoor sources to indoor carbonyl concentrations in three urban areas of the United States. Atmospheric Environment 2006;40(12):2202-2214. R828678C006 (2006)
    R828678C006 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Liu W, Zhang J, Kwon J, Weisel C, Turpin B, Zhang L, Korn L, Morandi M, Stock T, Colome S. Concentrations and source characteristics of airborne carbonyl compounds measured outside urban residences. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2006;56(8):1196-1204. R828678C006 (2007)
    R828678C006 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Liu W, Zhang J, Korn LR, Zhang L, Weisel CP, Turpin B, Morandi M, Stock T, Colome S. Predicting personal exposure to airborne carbonyls using residential measurements and time/activity data. Atmospheric Environment 2007;41(25):5280-5288. R828678C006 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Meng QY, Turpin BJ, Korn L, Weisel CP, Morandi M, Colome S, Zhang JJ, Stock T, Spektor D, Winer A, Zhang L, Lee JH, Giovanetti R, Cui W, Kwon J, Alimokhtari S, Shendell D, Jones J, Farrar C, Maberti S. Influence of ambient (outdoor) sources on residential indoor and personal PM2.5 concentrations: analyses of RIOPA data. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 2005;15(1):17-28. R828678C006 (2005)
    R828678C006 (2006)
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    R828678C016 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Meng QY, Turpin BJ, Polidori A, Lee JH, Weisel C, Morandi M, Colome S, Stock T, Winer A, Zhang J. PM2.5 of ambient origin: estimates and exposure errors relevant to PM epidemiology. Environmental Science & Technology 2005;39(14):5105-5112. R828678C006 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Meng QY, Turpin BJ, Lee JH, Polidori A, Weisel CP, Morandi M, Colome S, Zhang J, Stock T, Winer A. How does infiltration behavior modify the composition of ambient PM2.5 in indoor spaces? An analysis of RIOPA data. Environmental Science & Technology 2007;41(21):7315-7321. R828678C006 (2007)
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  • Journal Article Naumova YY, Eisenreich SJ, Turpin BJ, Weisel CP, Morandi MT, Colome SD, Totten LA, Stock TH, Winer AM, Alimokhtari S, Kwon J, Shendell D, Jones J, Maberti S, Wall SJ. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the indoor and outdoor air of three cities in the U.S. Environmental Science & Technology 2002;36(12):2552-2559. R828678C006 (2002)
    R828678C006 (2003)
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  • Journal Article Naumova YY, Offenberg JH, Eisenreich SJ, Meng Q, Polidori A, Turpin BJ, Weisel CP, Morandi MT, Colome SD, Stock TH, Winer AM, Alimokhtari S, Kwon J, Maberti S, Shendell D, Jones J, Farrar C. Gas/particle distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coupled outdoor/indoor atmospheres. Atmospheric Environment 2003;37(5):703-719. R828678C006 (2007)
    R828678C006 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Offenberg JH, Naumova YY, Turpin BJ, Eisenreich SJ, Morandi MT, Stock T, Colome SD, Winer AM, Spektor DM, Zhang J, Weisel CP. Chlordanes in the indoor and outdoor air of three U.S. cities. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(10):2760-2768. R828678C006 (2005)
    R828678C006 (2006)
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    R828678C016 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Polidori A, Turpin B, Meng QY, Lee JH, Weisel C, Morandi M, Colome S, Stock T, Winer A, Zhang J, Kwon J, Alimokhtari S, Shendell D, Jones J, Farrar C, Maberti S. Fine organic particulate matter dominates indoor-generated PM2.5 in RIOPA homes. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 2006;16(4):321-331. R828678C006 (2007)
    R828678C006 (Final)
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  • Journal Article Reff A, Turpin BJ, Porcja RJ, Giovennetti R, Cui W, Weisel CP, Zhang J, Kwon J, Alimokhtari S, Morandi M, Stock T, Maberti S, Colome S, Winer A, Shendell D, Jones J, Farrar C. Functional group characterization of indoor, outdoor, and personal PM2.5: results from RIOPA. Indoor Air 2005;15(1):53-61. R828678C006 (2005)
    R828678C006 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Reff A, Turpin BJ, Offenberg JH, Weisel CP, Zhang J, Morandi M, Stock T, Colome S, Winer A. A functional group characterization of organic PM2.5 exposure: results from the RIOPA study. Atmospheric Environment 2007;41(22):4585-4598. R828678C006 (2007)
  • Full-text: Science Direct Full Text
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  • Journal Article Weisel CP, Zhang J, Turpin BJ, Morandi MT, Colome S, Stock TH, Spektor DM, Korn L, Winer A, Alimokhtari S, Kwon J, Mohan K, Harrington R, Giovanetti R, Cui W, Afshar M, Maberti S, Shendell D. Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) study: study design, methods and quality assurance/control results. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 2005;15(2):123-137. R828678C006 (2004)
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    RFA, Scientific Discipline, Health, PHYSICAL ASPECTS, Air, POLLUTANTS/TOXICS, HUMAN HEALTH, particulate matter, Air Pollution, air toxics, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Exposure, Chemicals, Risk Assessments, Physical Processes, Atmospheric Sciences, Biology, copollutant exposures, atmospheric particulate matter, fine particles, PM 2.5, air pollutants, acute lung injury, chemical mixtures, chronic health effects, lung inflammation, particulate exposure, residential air exchange rates, industrial air pollution, human exposure, Acute health effects, inhaled, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), indoor/outdoor relationships, atmospheric chemistry, airborne urban contaminants, acute exposure

    Relevant Websites:

    http://www.healtheffects.org Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 1997
  • 1998
  • 1999
  • 2000
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • 2004 Progress Report
  • Final Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R824834    Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R824834C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles - A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
    R824834C002 Cardiopulmonary Response to Particulate Exposure
    R824834C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
    R824834C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
    R824834C005 Methods Development Project for a Study of Personal Exposures to Toxic Air Pollutants
    R824834C006 Relationship Between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA)
    R824834C007 Development of the "Leland Legacy" Air Sampling Pump
    R824834C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban Residences
    R824834C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
    R824834C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
    R828678C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles—A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
    R828678C002 Cardiopulmonary Effects of Metal-Containing Particulate Exposure
    R828678C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
    R828678C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
    R828678C005 Oxygenated Urban Air Toxics and Asthma Variability in Middle School Children: A Panel Study (ATAC–Air Toxics and Asthma in Children)
    R828678C006 Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II: Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species
    R828678C007 Development of the “Leland Legacy” Air Sampling Pump
    R828678C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor PAHs in Urban Residences 98-03B
    R828678C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
    R828678C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
    R828678C011 A Pilot Geospatial Analysis of Exposure to Air Pollutants (with Special Attention to Air Toxics) and Hospital Admissions in Harris County, Texas
    R828678C012 Impact of Exposure to Urban Air Toxics on Asthma Utilization for the Pediatric Medicaid Population in Dearborn, Michigan
    R828678C013 Field Validation of the Sioutas Sampler and Leland Legacy Pump – Joint Project with EPA’s Environmental Technology Validation Program (ETV)
    R828678C014 Performance Evaluation of the 3M Charcoal Vapor Monitor for Monitor Low Ambient Concentrations of VOCs
    R828678C015 RIOPA Database Development
    R828678C016 Contributions of Outdoor PM Sources to Indoor and Personal Exposures: Analysis of PM Species Concentrations” Focused on the PM Speciation and Apportioning of Sources
    R828678C017 The Short and Long-Term Respiratory Effects of Exposure to PAHs from Traffic in a Cohort of Asthmatic Children