2005 Progress Report: Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II: Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species

EPA Grant Number: R828678C006
Subproject: this is subproject number 006 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R824834
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)
Center Director: Beskid, Craig
Title: Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II: Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species
Investigators: Weisel, Clifford P. , Colome, Steven D. , Morandi, Maria T. , Spektor, Dalia , Stock, Tom , Turpin, Barbara , Zhang, Junfeng
Institution: Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute , The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: January 1, 1997 through January 31, 2005
Project Period Covered by this Report: January 1, 2004 through January 31, 2005
RFA: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) (1997) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Targeted Research

Objective:

The Relationship Between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) study was funded by the National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) in response to Request for Applications 96-01. The project is comprised of three studies initially independently funded: (1) a study funded by NUATRC with Dr. Clifford Weisel at Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI) as principal investigator; (2) a study funded by the Health Effects Institute (HEI) with Dr. Jim Zhang of EOHSI as principal investigator; and (3) a study funded by HEI with Dr. Barbara Turpin of Rutgers University as principal investigator.

Because the two HEI studies complemented and added to the initial study funded by NUATRC, both organizations have treated the three studies as one so that the results can be reported in a coherent manner.

The overall objectives of the RIOPA study are to: (1) investigate the relationships of indoor, outdoor, and personal air concentrations of VOCs, carbonyl compounds, and particulate matter (PM2.5), and in-vehicle concentrations of carbonyl compounds, and (2) quantify the outdoor contribution to indoor and personal air concentrations of the measured pollutants.

A secondary objective of the study was to make paired measurements in the adults and children to determine whether air toxic exposure estimates of adults could be used for children.

The specific aims of the study are to: (1) compare indoor, outdoor, and personal air (and in-vehicle for carbonyl compounds) concentrations of the pollutants measured in the RIOPA; (2) examine the effects of a number of variables (e.g., season, house type, city/state) on measured concentrations and indoor/outdoor relationships; (3) quantify the contribution of outdoor sources to indoor concentrations of the measured pollutants; and (4) determine indoor source strengths of the measured pollutants that are primarily generated indoors.

The Results of the Study are presented in two reports.

Progress Summary:

Report #1 “Relationship of Indoor Outdoor and Personal Air”

  • This report has been published as NUATRC Research Report 7: Weisel CP, Zhang J, Turpin BJ, Morandi MT, Colome S, Stock TH, Spektor DM, and others. (2005). “Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) Part I. Collection Methods and Descriptive Analyses.”
  • This report is currently available on the NUATRC Web Site http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/mleland/.

Report #2: “Contributions of Outdoor PM sources to Indoor and Personal Exposures: Analysis of PM Species Concentrations” Focused on the PM Speciation and Apportioning of Sources

A draft final report was received in February 2004. The report was reviewed by a team of external peer-reviewers and the HEI-NUATRC Special Review Panel. The panel members suggested revisions to the report that included additional analysis, clarification of certain issues, and organization of the report. A revised Final Report was received in December 2004. The report was being reviewed by the HEI-NUATRC Special Review Panel and has been approved for publication with minor revisions.

The HEI-NUATRC Special Review Panel commentary on the report has been discussed and is currently being prepared by NUATRC and HEI staff.

Main findings presented in the draft Final Report are as follows.

During the RIOPA study, 48-hour integrated indoor, outdoor, and personal PM2.5 samples were collected in 219 homes (169 homes twice) in Elizabeth, New Jersey; Houston, Texas; and Los Angeles County, California. The samples were collected between summer 1999 and spring 2001. Indoor and outdoor air samples suitable for gas and particle phase organic analyses were collected in 152 homes (132 homes twice). Samples or subsets of samples were analyzed for PM2.5 mass, functional groups, elements, organic and elemental carbon, and gas and particle phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and chlordanes. Air exchange rate, temperature, relative humidity, questionnaire data, and time-activity information were also collected and measured.

Median indoor, outdoor, and personal PM2.5 mass concentrations were 14.4, 15.5, and 31.4 µg/m3. Personal PM2.5 concentrations were significantly greater and more variable than indoor and outdoor concentrations. Several approaches were applied to quantify the distributions of PM2.5 of ambient and nonambient origin, some using PM2.5 mass concentrations and others using PM2.5 species concentrations. Estimates of PM of outdoor origin made with more accurate assumptions had broader distributions and higher means than would be obtained by the use of a single infiltration factor for all homes and days. This exercise quantifies several types of errors that are introduced when central-site PM is used as a surrogate for PM exposure. Possible implications of exposure error to PM epidemiology are discussed. The best estimate of the mean ambient contribution (percent) to the indoor PM2.5 mass concentration for RIOPA homes is 73 percent. The mean ambient contribution to personal exposure was estimated to be 26 percent.

Organic matter was the major constituent of PM2.5 generated indoors. Particulate organic matter (corrected for artifacts) constituted 49 percent, 54 percent, and 61 percent of PM2.5 mass inside RIOPA California, New Jersey, and Texas homes, respectively. At least 50 percent but probably closer to 70 percent of this organic matter, on average, was emitted or formed indoors. Functional group analysis provided some insights into the composition and properties of the indoor-generated organic PM2.5. Chlordane, a very minor but mutagenic semivolatile organic mixture previously used as a termiticide, was found to be mostly of indoor origin. High emission rates were most frequently seen in homes built from 1945-1959.

An analysis of the change in gas-particle partitioning with transport of outdoor PAHs to the indoor environment was conducted and illustrates that chemical thermodynamics can alter the concentration and composition of ambient PM as it is transported indoors. Although PM2.5 nitrate was not measured in RIOPA, indirect evidence is provided in RIOPA species mass balance results that PM2.5 nitrate is largely lost during outdoor-to-indoor transport, as reported by Lunden, et al. (2003). This results in dramatic changes in the mass and composition of ambient-generated PM2.5 at California homes. The impact of such transformations on epidemiological measurement error warrants further investigation.

Future Activities:

Part II of the RIOPA Research Report is expected to be published by the summer of 2006.


Journal Articles on this Report : 3 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 40 publications 21 publications in selected types All 19 journal articles
Other center views: All 144 publications 62 publications in selected types All 53 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Meng QY, Turpin BJ, Korn L, Weisel CP, Morandi M, Colome S, Zhang JJ, Stock T, Spektor D, Winer A, Zhang L, Lee JH, Giovanetti R, Cui W, Kwon J, Alimokhtari S, Shendell D, Jones J, Farrar C, Maberti S. Influence of ambient (outdoor) sources on residential indoor and personal PM2.5 concentrations: analyses of RIOPA data. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 2005;15(1):17-28. R828678C006 (2005)
R828678C006 (2006)
R828678C006 (2007)
R828678C006 (Final)
R828678C016 (2006)
  • Abstract from PubMed
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  • Abstract: JESEE-Abstract
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  • Other: JESEE-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Offenberg JH, Naumova YY, Turpin BJ, Eisenreich SJ, Morandi MT, Stock T, Colome SD, Winer AM, Spektor DM, Zhang J, Weisel CP. Chlordanes in the indoor and outdoor air of three U.S. cities. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(10):2760-2768. R828678C006 (2005)
    R828678C006 (2006)
    R828678C006 (2007)
    R828678C006 (Final)
    R828678C016 (2006)
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  • Abstract: ES&T-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Reff A, Turpin BJ, Porcja RJ, Giovennetti R, Cui W, Weisel CP, Zhang J, Kwon J, Alimokhtari S, Morandi M, Stock T, Maberti S, Colome S, Winer A, Shendell D, Jones J, Farrar C. Functional group characterization of indoor, outdoor, and personal PM2.5: results from RIOPA. Indoor Air 2005;15(1):53-61. R828678C006 (2005)
    R828678C006 (2006)
    R828678C006 (2007)
    R828678C006 (Final)
    R828678C016 (2006)
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    air pollution, urban, monitoring, exposure, methods, indoor air, volatile organic compounds, VOCs, particulate matter, PM, environmental policy, exposure, health risk assessment, physical processes, risk assessments, susceptibility/sensitive population/genetic susceptibility, air toxics, genetic susceptibility, acute health effects, acute cardiovascular effects, acute exposure, acute lung injury, air contaminant exposure, air quality, airborne urban contaminants, airway disease, aldehydes, assessment of exposure, atmospheric particulate matter, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary response, children, children’s environmental health, chronic health effects, copollutants, copollutant exposures, environmental hazard exposures, fine particles, health effects, human exposure, human health risk, human susceptibility, inhaled pollutants, long-term exposure, lung inflammation, particulate exposure, sensitive populations, susceptible subpopulations, toxics,, RFA, Scientific Discipline, Health, PHYSICAL ASPECTS, Air, POLLUTANTS/TOXICS, HUMAN HEALTH, particulate matter, Air Pollution, air toxics, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Exposure, Chemicals, Risk Assessments, Physical Processes, Atmospheric Sciences, Biology, copollutant exposures, atmospheric particulate matter, fine particles, PM 2.5, air pollutants, acute lung injury, chemical mixtures, chronic health effects, lung inflammation, particulate exposure, residential air exchange rates, industrial air pollution, human exposure, Acute health effects, inhaled, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), indoor/outdoor relationships, atmospheric chemistry, airborne urban contaminants, acute exposure

    Relevant Websites:

    http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/mleland/ Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 1997
  • 1998
  • 1999
  • 2000
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • 2004 Progress Report
  • Final Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R824834    Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R824834C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles - A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
    R824834C002 Cardiopulmonary Response to Particulate Exposure
    R824834C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
    R824834C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
    R824834C005 Methods Development Project for a Study of Personal Exposures to Toxic Air Pollutants
    R824834C006 Relationship Between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA)
    R824834C007 Development of the "Leland Legacy" Air Sampling Pump
    R824834C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban Residences
    R824834C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
    R824834C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
    R828678C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles—A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
    R828678C002 Cardiopulmonary Effects of Metal-Containing Particulate Exposure
    R828678C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
    R828678C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
    R828678C005 Oxygenated Urban Air Toxics and Asthma Variability in Middle School Children: A Panel Study (ATAC–Air Toxics and Asthma in Children)
    R828678C006 Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II: Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species
    R828678C007 Development of the “Leland Legacy” Air Sampling Pump
    R828678C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor PAHs in Urban Residences 98-03B
    R828678C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
    R828678C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
    R828678C011 A Pilot Geospatial Analysis of Exposure to Air Pollutants (with Special Attention to Air Toxics) and Hospital Admissions in Harris County, Texas
    R828678C012 Impact of Exposure to Urban Air Toxics on Asthma Utilization for the Pediatric Medicaid Population in Dearborn, Michigan
    R828678C013 Field Validation of the Sioutas Sampler and Leland Legacy Pump – Joint Project with EPA’s Environmental Technology Validation Program (ETV)
    R828678C014 Performance Evaluation of the 3M Charcoal Vapor Monitor for Monitor Low Ambient Concentrations of VOCs
    R828678C015 RIOPA Database Development
    R828678C016 Contributions of Outdoor PM Sources to Indoor and Personal Exposures: Analysis of PM Species Concentrations” Focused on the PM Speciation and Apportioning of Sources
    R828678C017 The Short and Long-Term Respiratory Effects of Exposure to PAHs from Traffic in a Cohort of Asthmatic Children