2004 Progress Report: Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II: Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species

EPA Grant Number: R828678C006
Subproject: this is subproject number 006 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R824834
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)
Center Director: Beskid, Craig
Title: Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II: Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species
Investigators: Weisel, Clifford P. , Colome, Steven D. , Morandi, Maria T. , Spektor, Dalia , Stock, Tom , Turpin, Barbara , Zhang, Junfeng
Institution: Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute , The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: January 1, 1997 through January 31, 2005
Project Period Covered by this Report: January 1, 2003 through January 31, 2004
RFA: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) (1997) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Targeted Research

Objective:

The Relationship Between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) study was funded by the Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) in response to Request for Applications (RFA) 96-01. The project comprises three studies initially independently funded: (1) a study funded by NUATRC with Dr. Clifford Weisel at the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI) as principal investigator; (2) a study funded by the Health Effects Institute (HEI) with Dr. Jim Zhang of EOHSI as the principal investigator; and (3) a study funded by HEI with Dr. Barbara Turpin of Rutgers University as the principal investigator.

Because the two HEI studies complemented and added to the initial study funded by NUATRC, both organizations have treated the three studies as one so that the results can be reported in a coherent manner.

The overall objectives of this RIOPA study were to: (1) investigate the relationships of indoor, outdoor, and personal air concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbonyl compounds, and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and in-vehicle concentrations of carbonyl compounds; and (2) quantify the outdoor contribution to indoor and personal air concentrations of the measured pollutants.

A secondary objective of the study was to make paired measurements in the adults and children to determine whether air toxic exposure estimates of adults could be used for children.

The specific aims of the study were to: (1) compare indoor, outdoor, and personal air (and in-vehicle for carbonyl compounds) concentrations of the pollutants measured in the RIOPA: (2) examine the effects of a number of variables (e.g., season, house type, city/state) on measured concentrations and indoor/outdoor relationships; (3) quantify the contribution of outdoor sources to indoor concentrations of the measured pollutants; and (4) determine indoor source strengths of the measured pollutants that are primarily generated indoors.

The study involved 100 homes with non-smoking participants in each of the three urban centers. These three geographically distinct locations are expected to have different climates and housing characteristics. Most participating homes were measured twice during two different seasons to obtain a wide distribution of air exchange rates.

The study measured indoor and outdoor air concentrations of VOCs, aldehydes, PM2.5, and air exchange rates, as well as personal exposure in adults and children, in a set of two 48-hour sampling periods in the three distinct urban centers. In-vehicle exposure to aldehydes was measured for residents of these homes. In addition, the fine particulate matter was speciated for chemical composition and source apportionment.

The study is in compliance with Institutional Review Boards of the University of Dentistry and Medicine of New Jersey; Rutgers University; and the University of Texas. Human consent procedures met governmental guidelines. The study also is in compliance with appropriate quality control and quality assurance procedures as per NUATRC and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. An external auditor was hired to ensure data quality. The audit involved documenta­tion and tracking of the data set, review of the questionnaires, and calculations using some randomly selected homes. Three quality assurance data audit visits were conducted under the RIOPA project at each of the respective co-investigator’s study basis of operation (one in New Jersey, one in California, and one in Texas).

The results of the study are presented in two reports. The first report, entitled “Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air,” involved the description and analyses of data on VOCs, aldehydes and fine particulate mass. The second report, entitled “Contributions of Outdoor PM Sources to Indoor and Personal Exposures: Analysis of PM Species Concentrations,” focused on the PM speciation and apportioning of sources.

Progress Summary:

Report #1 “Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air”

The fieldwork for the RIOPA study was completed in February 2001. Sample analyses were completed between March 2001 and May 2001. HEI and the NUATRC received a draft final report for the RIOPA VOC study in March 2002. The draft final report was reviewed by a team of external peer reviewers and the HEI and NUATRC special review panel. A revised final report was received by the Center in April 2003, which integrated responses to the external and internal reviews. The report underwent a second review by a team of external peer reviewers and the Special Review Panel. A final revised version of the report was received in January 2004 and is currently undergoing scientific editing and review with commentary by the HEI and NUATRC Special Review Committee.

The specific aims of this report are to: (1) compare indoor, outdoor, and personal air (and in-vehicle for carbonyl compounds) concentrations of the pollutants measured in the RIOPA; (2) examine the effects of a number of variables (e.g., season, house type, city/state) on measured concentrations and indoor/outdoor relationships; (3) quantify the contribution of outdoor sources to indoor concentrations of the measured pollutants using measured air exchange rates; and (4) determine indoor source strengths of the measured pollutants that are primarily generated indoors.

The investigators did not pursue one of the original aims of the RIOPA study, which was to evaluate ambient air toxic concentrations as a function of proximity of homes to specific sources. This goal will be the focus of future studies involving the RIOPA data set.

The results for this study show that personal and indoor air concentrations of many measured VOCs and carbonyl compounds were dominated by indoor sources. Several measured species had personal concentrations higher than either indoor or outdoor concentrations, indicating the presence of some sources closely related to personal activities. Some species had no significant indoor sources in the majority of the RIOPA homes, and thus indoor concentrations were mainly determined by outdoor concentrations in these homes. The range of distributions of air concentrations measured for the VOCs, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, PM2.5, and air exchange rates, were generally consistent with values reported previously in the literature.

The study made simultaneous measurements of indoor concentrations, outdoor concentrations, air exchange rates, and room volumes. This enabled the investigators to use a mass balance model, under the steady-state approximation, to examine the relative contributions of outdoor and indoor sources to measured indoor concentrations on a home-by-home basis. Estimated indoor source strengths exhibited large home-to-home variations for VOCs and carbonyl compounds. The source strengths data, derived from hundreds of RIOPA homes, contribute to the literature of air toxics exposure. These estimates present, for the first time for many compounds, a cohesive set of measurements across a range of air toxics in paired indoor, outdoor, and personal samples along with air exchange rate and questionnaire results. These can be used for future indoor air quality analyses.

Report #2: “Contributions of Outdoor PM Sources to Indoor and Personal Exposures: Analysis of PM Species Concentrations” Focused on the PM Speciation and Apportioning of Sources

A draft final report was received in February 2004. The report was reviewed by a team of external peer reviewers and the HEI-NUATRC Special Review Panel. The panel members suggested revisions to the report that included additional analysis, clarification of certain issues, and organization of the report. A revised final report was received in December 2004. The report is being reviewed by the HEI-NUATRC Special Review Panel.

The abstract below summarizes the main findings reported in this study.

During the RIOPA study, 48-hour integrated indoor, outdoor and personal PM2.5 samples were collected in 219 homes (169 homes twice) in Elizabeth, NJ; Houston, TX; and Los Angeles County, CA. The samples were collected between summer 1999 and spring 2001. Indoor and outdoor air samples suitable for gas and particle phase organic analyses were collected in 152 homes (132 homes twice). Samples or subsets of samples were analyzed for PM2.5 mass, functional groups, elements, organic and elemental carbon, and gas and particle phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and chlordanes. Air exchange rate, temperature, relative humidity, questionnaire data, and time-activity information were also collected and measured.

Median indoor, outdoor, and personal PM2.5 mass concentrations were 14.4, 15.5, and 31.4 μg/m3, respectively. Personal PM2.5 concentrations were significantly greater and more variable than indoor and outdoor concentrations. Several approaches were applied to quantify the distributions of PM2.5 of ambient and non-ambient origin, some using PM2.5 mass concentrations and others using PM2.5 species concentrations. Estimates of “PM of outdoor origin” made with more accurate assumptions had broader distributions and higher means than would be obtained by the use of a single infiltration factor for all homes and days. This exercise quantifies several types of errors that are introduced when central-site PM is used as a surrogate for PM exposure. Possible implications of exposure error to PM epidemiology are discussed. The best estimate of the mean ambient contribution (percent) to the indoor PM2.5 mass concentration for RIOPA homes is 73 percent. The mean ambient contribution to personal exposure was estimated to be 26 percent.

Organic matter was the major constituent of PM2.5 generated indoors. Particulate organic matter (corrected for artifacts) constituted 49 percent, 54 percent, and 61 percent of PM2.5 mass inside RIOPA California, New Jersey, and Texas homes, respectively. At least 50 percent, but probably closer to 70 percent, of this organic matter, on average, was emitted or formed indoors. Functional group analysis provided some insights into the composition and properties of the indoor-generated organic PM2.5. Chlordane, a very minor but mutagenic semi-volatile organic mixture previously used as a termiticide, was found to be mostly of indoor origin. High emission rates were most frequently seen in homes built from 1945-1959.

An analysis of the change in gas-particle partitioning with transport of outdoor PAHs to the indoor environment was conducted and illustrates that chemical thermodynamics can alter the concentration and composition of ambient PM as it is transported indoors. While PM2.5 nitrate was not measured in RIOPA, indirect evidence is provided in RIOPA species mass balance results that PM2.5 nitrate is largely lost during outdoor-to-indoor transport. This results in dramatic changes in the mass and composition of ambient-generated PM2.5 at California homes. The impact of such transformations on epidemiological measurement error warrants further investigation.

Future Activities:

We plan to complete and publish the Final Report #1, along with the commentary, early spring 2005. The NUATRC Report #2 is expected to be edited and published by the fall of 2005.


Journal Articles on this Report : 4 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 40 publications 21 publications in selected types All 19 journal articles
Other center views: All 144 publications 62 publications in selected types All 53 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Naumova YY, Eisenreich SJ, Turpin BJ, Weisel CP, Morandi MT, Colome SD, Totten LA, Stock TH, Winer AM, Alimokhtari S, Kwon J, Shendell D, Jones J, Maberti S, Wall SJ. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the indoor and outdoor air of three cities in the U.S. Environmental Science & Technology 2002;36(12):2552-2559. R828678C006 (2002)
R828678C006 (2003)
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R828678C006 (2006)
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R828678C006 (Final)
R828678C016 (2006)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: ES&T-Abstract
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  • Journal Article Weisel CP. Assessing exposure to air toxics relative to asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002;110(Suppl 4):527-537. R828678C006 (2002)
    R828678C006 (2003)
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    R828678C006 (2006)
    R828678C006 (Final)
    R828678C016 (2006)
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  • Journal Article Weisel CP, Zhang J, Turpin BJ, Morandi MT, Colome S, Stock TH, Spektor DM, Korn L, Winer A, Alimokhtari S, Kwon J, Mohan K, Harrington R, Giovanetti R, Cui W, Afshar M, Maberti S, Shendell D. Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) study: study design, methods and quality assurance/control results. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 2005;15(2):123-137. R828678C006 (2004)
    R828678C006 (2006)
    R828678C006 (2007)
    R828678C006 (Final)
    R828678C016 (2006)
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  • Abstract: ResearchGate-Abstract
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  • Other: JEAEE-Full Text PDF
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  • Journal Article Zhang J, Zhang L, Fan Z, Ilacqua V. Development of the personal aldehydes and ketones sampler based upon DNSH derivatization on solid sorbent. Environmental Science & Technology 2000;34(12):2601-2607. R828678C006 (2003)
    R828678C006 (2004)
    R828678C006 (2006)
    R828678C006 (Final)
    R828678C016 (2006)
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  • Other: ResearchGate-Abstract
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    air pollution, urban, monitoring, exposure, methods, indoor air, volatile organic compounds, VOCs, particulate matter, PM, environmental policy, exposure, health risk assessment, physical processes, risk assessments, susceptibility/sensitive population/genetic susceptibility, air toxics, genetic susceptibility, acute health effects, acute cardiovascular effects, acute exposure, acute lung injury, air contaminant exposure, air quality, airborne urban contaminants, airway disease, aldehydes, assessment of exposure, atmospheric particulate matter, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary response, children, children’s environmental health, chronic health effects, copollutants, copollutant exposures, environmental hazard exposures, fine particles, health effects, human exposure, human health risk, human susceptibility, inhaled pollutants, long-term exposure, lung inflammation, particulate exposure, sensitive populations, susceptible subpopulations, toxics,, RFA, Scientific Discipline, Health, PHYSICAL ASPECTS, Air, POLLUTANTS/TOXICS, HUMAN HEALTH, particulate matter, Air Pollution, air toxics, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Exposure, Chemicals, Risk Assessments, Physical Processes, Atmospheric Sciences, Biology, copollutant exposures, atmospheric particulate matter, fine particles, PM 2.5, air pollutants, acute lung injury, chemical mixtures, chronic health effects, lung inflammation, particulate exposure, residential air exchange rates, industrial air pollution, human exposure, Acute health effects, inhaled, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), indoor/outdoor relationships, atmospheric chemistry, airborne urban contaminants, acute exposure

    Relevant Websites:

    http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/mleland/ Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 1997
  • 1998
  • 1999
  • 2000
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • Final Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R824834    Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R824834C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles - A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
    R824834C002 Cardiopulmonary Response to Particulate Exposure
    R824834C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
    R824834C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
    R824834C005 Methods Development Project for a Study of Personal Exposures to Toxic Air Pollutants
    R824834C006 Relationship Between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA)
    R824834C007 Development of the "Leland Legacy" Air Sampling Pump
    R824834C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban Residences
    R824834C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
    R824834C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
    R828678C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles—A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
    R828678C002 Cardiopulmonary Effects of Metal-Containing Particulate Exposure
    R828678C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
    R828678C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
    R828678C005 Oxygenated Urban Air Toxics and Asthma Variability in Middle School Children: A Panel Study (ATAC–Air Toxics and Asthma in Children)
    R828678C006 Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II: Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species
    R828678C007 Development of the “Leland Legacy” Air Sampling Pump
    R828678C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor PAHs in Urban Residences 98-03B
    R828678C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
    R828678C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
    R828678C011 A Pilot Geospatial Analysis of Exposure to Air Pollutants (with Special Attention to Air Toxics) and Hospital Admissions in Harris County, Texas
    R828678C012 Impact of Exposure to Urban Air Toxics on Asthma Utilization for the Pediatric Medicaid Population in Dearborn, Michigan
    R828678C013 Field Validation of the Sioutas Sampler and Leland Legacy Pump – Joint Project with EPA’s Environmental Technology Validation Program (ETV)
    R828678C014 Performance Evaluation of the 3M Charcoal Vapor Monitor for Monitor Low Ambient Concentrations of VOCs
    R828678C015 RIOPA Database Development
    R828678C016 Contributions of Outdoor PM Sources to Indoor and Personal Exposures: Analysis of PM Species Concentrations” Focused on the PM Speciation and Apportioning of Sources
    R828678C017 The Short and Long-Term Respiratory Effects of Exposure to PAHs from Traffic in a Cohort of Asthmatic Children