2001 Progress Report: Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane

EPA Grant Number: R828678C010
Subproject: this is subproject number 010 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R824834
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)
Center Director: Beskid, Craig
Title: Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
Investigators: Claiborn, Candis , Larsen, Timothy , Sheppard, Lianne (Elizabeth) A.
Institution: Washington State University , University of Washington
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: May 1, 1999 through June 30, 2005
Project Period Covered by this Report: May 1, 2000 through June 30, 2001
RFA: Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) (1997) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Targeted Research

Objective:

The objectives of this project are to: (1) determine associations between cardiovascular, respiratory outcomes, and particulate toxic and transition metals in Spokane; and (2) apportion particulate metals to relative sources.

The goal of this study is to evaluate the associations among ambient levels of particulate matter, toxic metals (Sb, As, Cr, Co, Mn, Hg, Se, Cd, and Ni), transition metals (Ti, V, and Fe), in comparison to several health endpoints such as emergency room (ER) visits for asthma, hospital admissions for asthma and other respiratory outcomes, and total respiratory mortality. This will be accomplished using time-series and source apportionment methods on a Spokane, WA, daily data set that spans 7 years. Investigators will analyze archived daily fine and coarse particulate samples collected in Spokane over 4 years (1995-1998), via a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) grant, and add to this another 3 years of samples that will be collected during the period of NUATRC support. Thus, a total of 7 years of data will be available for analysis. Particulate matter metals content on both archived samples and samples collected during this period of support will be determined via a combination of energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and instrument neutron activation (INAA). These INAA analyses will be conducted via support from the EPA. Susceptible populations that will be targeted for study will include elderly and non-elderly age groups and individuals with pre-existing chronic conditions such as asthma. Health outcomes to be examined will include:

• Hospital admissions for respiratory or cardiovascular causes only, for both causes, and for specific respiratory cause (e.g., asthma). Both elderly and non-elderly subgroups will be monitored.
• Emergency Room visits for asthma.
• Respiratory and cardiovascular mortality in elderly and non-elderly.

Progress Summary:

This study was initiated by the Center in May 1999, under a precious EPA grant (Grant No. R824834C010). The study was funded in response to NUATRC RFA 98-02, "Contribution of Metals in Ambient Particles to Particulate Associated Health Effects." The project is expected to be completed in May 2003. The study is in compliance with the Institutional Review Board of Washington State University. The study provided and followed appropriate quality assurance and quality control procedures.

During 2001, Dr. Claiborn reported progress on elemental analysis, health outcome measurements, master database development, source apportionment, preliminary data analysis, and manuscript submission.

In the preliminary summary of human health effects, PM2.5 was associated with increased respiratory ER admissions at multiple lags. PM10 was associated with increased respiratory ER admissions for a 3-day lag only. The strongest association was found for pneumonia and acute upper respiratory infection, at multiple lags, while no association between PM and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/mortality or asthma was found (perhaps due to small numbers of reported asthma).

Future Activities:

In the next year, the investigators will attempt to input some of the missing particulate matter values. They will examine both single and multiple pollutants as linear terms of exposure, and look directly at various transition metals. They also will look at sources from positive matrix factorization (PMF) and/or chemical mass balance (CMB) analysis in health effect analyses. Collection and analysis of the particulate samples will continue, as will efforts to develop a master data file. Originally conducted source apportionment analyses will be enhanced with the addition of the INAA analyses. The investigators also will identify those metals associated with distinct point sources versus those that are generally present with area sources.


Journal Articles on this Report : 3 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 13 publications 7 publications in selected types All 7 journal articles
Other center views: All 144 publications 62 publications in selected types All 53 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Finn D, Rumburg B, Claiborn C, Bamesberger L, Siems WF, Koenig J, Larson T, Norris G. Sampling artifacts from the use of denuder tubes with glycerol based coatings in the measurement of atmospheric particulate matter. Environmental Science & Technology 2001;35(1):40-44. R828678C010 (2001)
R828678C010 (2003)
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R828678C010 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: ES&T
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  • Journal Article Rumburg B, Alldredge R, Claiborn C. Statistical distributions of particulate matter and the error associated with sampling frequency. Atmospheric Environment 2001;35(16):2907-2920. R828678C010 (2001)
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    R828678C010 (Final)
  • Full-text: Science Direct Full Text
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  • Abstract: Science Direct Abstract
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  • Other: Science Direct PDF
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  • Journal Article Vaughan JK, Claiborn C, Finn D. April 1998 Asian dust event over the Columbia Plateau. Journal of Geophysical Research 2001;106(D16):18381-18402. R828678C010 (2001)
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    R828678C010 (Final)
  • Abstract: AGU Abstract
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    urban, air pollution, metals, PM2.5, particulate matter, asthma, respiratory disease, exposure., RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, Air, Geographic Area, POLLUTANTS/TOXICS, Air Pollution, particulate matter, air toxics, Health Risk Assessment, Air Pollution Effects, Chemicals, State, Epidemiology, Risk Assessments, Biochemistry, Environmental Monitoring, Engineering, Chemistry, & Physics, health effects, urban air quality, urban air, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, air pollutants, human health effects, aerosol particles, atmospheric particles, air sampling pump, air sampling, chemical composition, chemical detection techniques, Washington (WA), human exposure, lung inflamation, particulate exposure, environmental contaminants, personal cascade impactor sampler, urban air pollution, human health, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), airborne urban contaminants, biomarker, human health risk, cardiovascular disease

    Relevant Websites:

    Previously Funded Project: R824834C010

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 1999
  • 2000
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • 2004 Progress Report
  • Final Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R824834    Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC)

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R824834C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles - A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
    R824834C002 Cardiopulmonary Response to Particulate Exposure
    R824834C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
    R824834C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
    R824834C005 Methods Development Project for a Study of Personal Exposures to Toxic Air Pollutants
    R824834C006 Relationship Between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA)
    R824834C007 Development of the "Leland Legacy" Air Sampling Pump
    R824834C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban Residences
    R824834C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
    R824834C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
    R828678C001 Air Toxics Exposures Among Teenagers in New York City and Los Angeles—A Columbia-Harvard Study (TEACH)
    R828678C002 Cardiopulmonary Effects of Metal-Containing Particulate Exposure
    R828678C003 VOC Exposure in an Industry Impacted Community
    R828678C004 A Study of Personal Exposure to Air Toxics Among a Subset of the Residential U.S. Population (VOC Project)
    R828678C005 Oxygenated Urban Air Toxics and Asthma Variability in Middle School Children: A Panel Study (ATAC–Air Toxics and Asthma in Children)
    R828678C006 Relationship between Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part II: Analyses of Concentrations of Particulate Matter Species
    R828678C007 Development of the “Leland Legacy” Air Sampling Pump
    R828678C008 Source Apportionment of Indoor PAHs in Urban Residences 98-03B
    R828678C009 Development of a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler (PCIS)
    R828678C010 Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane
    R828678C011 A Pilot Geospatial Analysis of Exposure to Air Pollutants (with Special Attention to Air Toxics) and Hospital Admissions in Harris County, Texas
    R828678C012 Impact of Exposure to Urban Air Toxics on Asthma Utilization for the Pediatric Medicaid Population in Dearborn, Michigan
    R828678C013 Field Validation of the Sioutas Sampler and Leland Legacy Pump – Joint Project with EPA’s Environmental Technology Validation Program (ETV)
    R828678C014 Performance Evaluation of the 3M Charcoal Vapor Monitor for Monitor Low Ambient Concentrations of VOCs
    R828678C015 RIOPA Database Development
    R828678C016 Contributions of Outdoor PM Sources to Indoor and Personal Exposures: Analysis of PM Species Concentrations” Focused on the PM Speciation and Apportioning of Sources
    R828678C017 The Short and Long-Term Respiratory Effects of Exposure to PAHs from Traffic in a Cohort of Asthmatic Children