Final Report: Research Consortium on Ozone and Fine Particle Formation in California and in the Northeastern United States: Cal Tech, Carnegie Mellon, Georgia Institute, NJIT, Oregon Institute, UC-Irvine, UC-Riverside Report

EPA Grant Number: R826371C002
Subproject: this is subproject number 002 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R826371
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Research Consortium on Ozone and Fine Particle Formation in California and in the Northeastern United States
Center Director: Seinfeld, John
Title: Research Consortium on Ozone and Fine Particle Formation in California and in the Northeastern United States: Cal Tech, Carnegie Mellon, Georgia Institute, NJIT, Oregon Institute, UC-Irvine, UC-Riverside Report
Investigators: Kleeman, Michael J.
Institution: California Institute of Technology , Carnegie Mellon University , Georgia Institute of Technology , New Jersey Institute of Technology , Oregon Graduate Institute of Science & Technology , University of California - Irvine , University of California - Riverside
EPA Project Officer: Shapiro, Paul
Project Period: April 15, 1998 through April 14, 2003
RFA: Special Opportunity in Tropospheric Ozone (1997) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Air

Objective:

This is one of the projects conducted by the Research Consortium. The objective of this research project is to evaluate the effect of emissions control strategies on both ozone and particulate matter (PM) concentrations.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

Software was developed to produce gridded emissions files, in which particles released from different source classes could be compiled separately. The emissions software identifies a subset of the total particulate emissions to be included in each source class based either on its unique Source Classification Code (SCC) number, or the composition profile assigned to that SCC number. The software can read standard libraries of composition profiles that describe the size and composition distribution of airborne PM released from different sources.

The first three-dimensional (3D) Eulerian source-oriented mechanistic air quality model capable of predicting regional contributions to the airborne particle size distribution was developed (Kleeman and Cass, 2001). The source-oriented gridded emissions files produced by the emissions processing software described above were used as inputs to the new 3D Eulerian model. The advection operators in the CIT airshed model were updated from the Finite Element Method to the Accurate Space Derivative method. The gas-to-particle conversion operators developed for use with the Lagrangian source-oriented mechanistic air quality model (Kleeman, et al., 1999) were linked into the new model to predict the accumulation of secondary PM.

The source-oriented air quality model tracks approximately 10-20 times more particle-phase information than other aerosol processes air quality models (10 particle classes and 15 particlesizes versus 1 particle class and 8 particle sizes), and so the computational burden is proportionally larger. A parallel solution algorithm was formulated, and a clustered computer system was constructed to overcome the computational burden associated with the source-oriented mechanistic formulation.

The new 3D Eulerian source-oriented mechanistic air quality model was applied to the region surrounding Los Angeles, CA, during September 23-25, 1996. Surface meteorology measurements were compiled into a central database and interpolated to produce diagnostic fields. Wind speed and direction above the earth’s surface were interpolated based on measurements made using a lower atmospheric radar profiler located at Los Angeles International Airport, and rawinsonde data were collected at Edwards Air Force Base, Vandenberg Air Force Base, and San Nicolas Island. Initial conditions for the model calculations were interpolated based on routine measurements of gas-phase pollutants (O3, NOx, SOx, CO, CO2, RHC) made at 28 monitoring sites and special measurements of particle size and composition made at 4 monitoring sites.

Figures 1 and 2 illustrate that predicted concentrations of ozone and airborne PM concentrations are in good agreement with measurements at most of the receptor sites within the model region. Figure 3 shows source contributions to the regional distribution of PM2.5 in Southern California. The source-oriented mechanistic air quality model provides a regulatory tool that can be used to evaluate the effect of emissions control strategies on both ozone and PM concentrations.

Emissions inventories and meteorological fields were developed for secondary organic aerosol modeling in the South Coast Air Basin (Griffin, et al., 2003). Particulate emissions inventories including detailed organic species needed for the accurate prediction of secondary organic aerosol formation were built for the period September 7-9, 1993. The resulting model predictions represent one of the most advanced simulations of secondary organic aerosol formation to date.

Figure 1. Predicted (solid line) and observed (dots) ozone concentrations in the South Coast Air Basin.

Figure 2. Predicted and observed components of airborne particles at Riverside, CA, on September 25, 1996.

Figure 3. Regional concentration of airborne PM2.5 associated with particles having their primary core from major source categories in the South Coast Air Basin averaged over each hour of the day on September 25, 1996. PM2.5 contributions include the primary particle core plus secondary PM that has accumulated on that core since release to the atmosphere. Units are µg m-3.


Journal Articles on this Report : 3 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 3 publications 3 publications in selected types All 3 journal articles
Other center views: All 49 publications 46 publications in selected types All 46 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Kleeman MJ, Hughes LS, Allen JO, Cass GR. Source contributions to the size and composition distribution of atmospheric particles:Southern California in September 1996. Environmental Science & Technology 1999;33(23):4331-4341. R826371 (Final)
R826371C002 (Final)
  • Full-text: ACS-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: ACS-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ACS-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Kleeman MJ, Cass GR. A 3D Eulerian source-oriented model for an externally mixed aerosol. Environmental Science & Technology 2001;35(24):4834-4848. R826371 (Final)
    R826371C002 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: ACS-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: ACS-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ACS-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Kleeman MJ, Eldering A, Hall JR, Cass GR. Effect of emissions control programs on visibility in southern California. Environmental Science & Technology 2001;35(23):4668-4674. R826371 (Final)
    R826371C002 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: ACS-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: ACS-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ACS-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    emissions control strategies, particulate matter, PM, total particulate emissions, source classification code, SCC, South Coast Air Basin, Southern California, CA., RFA, Scientific Discipline, Air, Ecosystem Protection/Environmental Exposure & Risk, particulate matter, Environmental Chemistry, Monitoring/Modeling, Analytical Chemistry, tropospheric ozone, Atmospheric Sciences, aerosol formation, atmospheric particulate matter, atmospheric dispersion models, fine particles, three dimensional air flow modeling, airborne particulate matter, fine particulates, ozone, air sampling, air pollution models, air quality model, chemical composition, Eulerian model, atmospheric aerosol particles, aersol particles, California, three dimensional model, atmospheric chemistry, ambient aerosol particles, fine particle formation, aerosol analyzers

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 1998
  • 1999
  • 2000
  • 2001

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R826371    Research Consortium on Ozone and Fine Particle Formation in California and in the Northeastern United States

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R826371C001 Research Consortium on Ozone and Fine Particle Formation in California and in the Northeastern United States: Cal Tech, UC-Riverside, UC-San Diego, UC-Davis Report
    R826371C002 Research Consortium on Ozone and Fine Particle Formation in California and in the Northeastern United States: Cal Tech, Carnegie Mellon, Georgia Institute, NJIT, Oregon Institute, UC-Irvine, UC-Riverside Report
    R826371C003 Research Consortium on Ozone and Fine Particle Formation in California and in the Northeastern United States: Cal Tech Report
    R826371C004 Research Consortium on Ozone and Fine Particle Formation in California and in the Northeastern United States: California - Irvine Report
    R826371C005 Research Consortium on Ozone and Fine Particle Formation in California and in the Northeastern United States: Carnegie Mellon Report
    R826371C006 Research Consortium on Ozone and Fine Particle Formation in California and in the Northeastern United States: Carnegie Mellon Report
    R826371C007 Research Consortium on Ozone and Fine Particle Formation in California and in the Northeastern United States: UC-Riverside
    R826371C008 Research Consortium on Ozone and Fine Particle Formation in California and in the Northeastern United States: Oregon Health and Science Report
    R826371C009 Research Consortium on Ozone and Fine Particle Formation in California and in the Northeastern United States: NJIT Report