Final Report: Physicochemical Parameters of Combustion Generated Atmospheres as Determinants of PM Toxicity

EPA Grant Number: R827351C005
Subproject: this is subproject number 005 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R827351
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: EPA NYU PM Center: Health Risks of PM Components
Center Director: N/A
Title: Physicochemical Parameters of Combustion Generated Atmospheres as Determinants of PM Toxicity
Investigators: Chen, Lung Chi
Institution: New York University School of Medicine
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: June 1, 1999 through May 31, 2005 (Extended to May 31, 2006)
RFA: Airborne Particulate Matter (PM) Centers (1999) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Particulate Matter , Air

Objective:

Combustion generated particles often make up a significant portion of ambient particulate matter (PM) in many regions. This study examines the hypothesis that the toxicological effects associated with combustion-generated PM depend upon specific physicochemical characteristics of the particles. PM effluents from high temperature processes, such as fossil fuel combustion and pyrometallurgical systems, consist of inorganic materials having a wide size range and chemical composition, including H2SO4 and unreacted SO2. Such effluents have been shown to be toxicologically active. Freshly formed acidic fly ash atmospheres (containing SO2 and ultrafine particles with transition metals on their surface) produce decrements in lung function (Amdur, et al., 1986; Chen, et al., 1990). Furthermore, sulfuric acid as a coating on particle surfaces has been shown to be 10 fold more potent in producing pulmonary effects than are pure acid droplets of the same H+ concentration (Amdur and Chen, 1989). Epidemiological data have indicated increased daily mortality to be associated with particulate air pollution indices, and a significant contribution from SO2 could not be ruled out (HEI, 1995). Since SO2, by itself, has low toxicity, it is reasonable to speculate that a synergistic interaction between SO2 and particles may have been responsible for these observed effects (Amdur and Chen, 1989; Amdur, et al., 1986).

Several human panel studies in the U.S. and the MONICA study in Europe (Gold, et al., 1998; Pope, et al., 1998; Shy, et al., 1998; Peters, et al., 1998), as well as animal studies (Watkinson, et al., 1998; Lovett, et al., 1998; Nadziejko, et al., 1997) have suggested an association between PM and changes in host homeostasis. In this study, cardiopulmonary effects are measured in healthy and compromised animals exposed by inhalation to laboratory-generated particle atmospheres having precisely defined physicochemical characteristics.

This study examined the hypothesis that the toxicological effects associated with combustion-generated PM depend upon specific physicochemical characteristics of the particles and determined the influence of physicochemical parameters of combustion generated PM on the time course, dose response, and persistence of particle-induced cardiopulmonary effects.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

This project was closely integrated with Project 4 (R827351C006; Nadziejko, PI) in the measurement of cardiopulmonary effects upon exposures to various PM atmospheres. The accomplishments of Project 4 are separately reported by Dr. Nadziejko.

We have developed two furnace systems to produce realistic combustion effluents, and have successfully produced a mixture of carbon, SO2, and metal (iron or copper). This allows determination of specific components, especially metals, which may be responsible for adverse health effects, and an assessment of whether any effects could be nonspecific, i.e., they follow inhalation of any type of particle. For the work described herein, the electronics for temperature regulations of both furnace systems were updated. To produce Fe (or Cu), and S coated carbon particles, sucrose solutions containing varying concentrations of Fe(NO3)3 (or Cu(NO3)2) were produced by a nebulizer and burned in the furnace system previously used to produce coal fly ash. The mass median diameters (MMD, determined by a Mercer impactor) of particles produced by a Collison nebulizer (before combustion) using 10 sucrose solutions (each containing 1117 ppm Fe) were 0.9 μm. When a 10% sucrose solution containing 1117 ppm Fe (or Cu) was burned in the furnace at 750°C in the presence of 1 ppm SO2, ultrafine particles with a median diameter of 32 ± 1.3 nm (34.0 ± 7.4 nm for Cu) and sg of 1.55 were produced. Number concentrations as high as 1.9 x 107 particles/cc were achieved. XRF was used to measure the concentrations of iron, copper, and sulfur in these particles. At this combustion condition, the particles produced from this furnace contained 35.1% and 3.6% by mass of iron and sulfur, respectively (30.6% copper and 6.9% sulfur when copper was used). It appeared that copper is almost twice as efficient (6.9% vs. 3.6%) in converting sulfur dioxide gas to particle-associated sulfur.

Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to furnace gas or 450 μg/m3 of these particles for 3 hours and their lungs were lavaged 24 hr post exposure. A lead oxide diffusion denuder was used to remove SO2 from the exposure atmospheres. None of the exposure atmospheres produce changes in LDH levels in the lavage fluid. However, those aerosols containing a mixture of iron, SO2, and carbon produced a 6.8 fold increase over the furnace gas control for the total number of cells in the lavage, whereas particles containing copper, SO2, and carbon did not produce any change in this parameter. The results are shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Effects of Ultrafine Particles in Rats

Exposure Atmospheres

Total Cell Counts (106)

LDH (BB unit)

Furnace Gas

0.70 ± 0.14

95.5 ± 10.2

SO2 + carbon

1.52 ± 0.31

78.7 ± 6.3

Copper + SO2 + carbon

1.52 ± 0.23

80.0 ± 13.5

Iron + SO2 + carbon

4.77 ± 0.41*

113.7 ± 28.2

Values were mean ± SE, (n=4 to 7 per exposure group).
* significantly different than furnace gas control (p < 0.0001).

Conclusions:

Sulfur dioxide absorbed/adsorbed on iron particles was capable of inducing lung inflammation that was not seen with sulfur dioxide alone or adsorbed on other types of particles.

References:

Amdur MO, Chen LC. Furnace generated acid aerosols: speciation and pulmonary effects. Environmental Health Perspectives 1989;79:147-150.

Amdur MO, Sarofim AF, Neville M, Quann RJ, McCarthy JF, Elliot JF, Lam HF, Rogers AE, Conner MW. Coal combustion aerosols and SO2: An interdisciplinary analysis. Environmental Science & Technology 1986;20:138-145.

Chen LC, Lam HF, Kim EJ, Guty J, Amdur M.O. Pulmonary effects of ultrafine coal fly ash inhaled by guinea pigs. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1990;29:169-184.

Gold DR, Litonjua A, Schwartz J, Verrier M, Milstein R, Larson A, Lovett E, Verrier R. Cardiovascular vulnerability to particulate air pollution. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1998;157:A261.

Lovett EG, Verrier RL, Catalano P, Sioutas C, Murthy GGK, Wolfson JM, Ferguson ST, Koutrakis P, Reinisch U, Killingsworth CR, Coull B, Godleski JJ. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis suggests altered autonomic influence in canines exposed to concentrated ambient air particles (CAPs). American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1998;157:A260.

Nadziejko C, Chen LC, Zelikoff JT, Gordon T. Hematological and cardiovascular effects of acute exposure to ambient particulate matter. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 155:A247 (1997).

Peters A, Perz S, Doring A, Stieber J, Koenig W, Wichmann HE. Increased heart rate during an air pollution episode. Presented at the Fourteenth HEI Annual Conference, Boston, MA, April 5-7, 1998.

Pope CA III, Dockery DW, Kanner RE, Villegas M, Schwartz J. Daily changes in oxygen saturation and pulse rate associated with particulate air pollution and barometric pressure. Presented at the Fourteenth HEI Annual Conference, Boston, MA, April 5-7, 1998.

Shy C, Creason J, Williams R, Liao D, Zweidinger R, Watts R, Devlin R, Hazucha M, Nestor J. Physiological responses of elderly persons to particulate air pollution. Presented at the Fourteenth HEI Annual Conference, Boston, MA, April 5-7, 1998.

Watkinson WP, Campen MJ, Kodavanti UP, Ledbetter AD, Costa DL. Effects of inhaled residual oil fly ash particles on electrocardiographic and thermoregulatory parameters in normal and compromised rats. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1998;157:A150.

Technical Report:

Long Version of Final Report (PDF) (4 pp, 44.5 K, About PDF)


Journal Articles on this Report : 5 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 5 publications 5 publications in selected types All 5 journal articles
Other center views: All 112 publications 101 publications in selected types All 89 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Nadziejko C, Fang K, Nadziejko E, Narciso SP, Zhong M, Chen LC. Immediate effects of particulate air pollutants on heart rate and respiratory rate in hypertensive rats. Cardiovascular Toxicology 2002;2(4):245-252. R827351 (2003)
R827351 (Final)
R827351C005 (2001)
R827351C005 (2002)
R827351C005 (Final)
R827351C006 (2003)
R827351C006 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Nadziejko C, Fang K, Chen LC, Gordon T, Nadas A. Quantitative analysis of cardiac data from rats monitored by telemetry: reducing within-and between-animal variability. Cardiovascular Toxicology 2002;2(4):237-244. R827351 (2003)
    R827351 (Final)
    R827351C005 (2002)
    R827351C005 (Final)
    R827351C006 (2003)
    R827351C006 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: SpringerLink-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Nadziejko C, Fang K, Narciso S, Zhong M, Su WC, Gordon T, Nadas A, Chen LC. Effect of particulate and gaseous pollutants on spontaneous arrhythmias in aged rats. Inhalation Toxicology 2004;16(6-7):373-380. R827351 (2003)
    R827351 (Final)
    R827351C005 (Final)
    R827351C006 (2003)
    R827351C006 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Taylor and Francis-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Nadziejko C, Chen LC, Nadas A, Hwang JS. The 'Fishing License' method for analysing the time course of effects in repeated measurements. Statistics in Medicine 2004;23(9):1399-1411. R827351 (2003)
    R827351 (Final)
    R827351C005 (Final)
    R827351C006 (2003)
    R827351C006 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Wiley Online - Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Narciso SP, Nadziejko E, Chen LC, Gordon T, Nadziejko C. Adaptation to stress induced by restraining rats and mice in nose-only inhalation holders. Inhalation Toxicology 2003;15(11):1133-1143. R827351 (2001)
    R827351 (Final)
    R827351C005 (2002)
    R827351C005 (Final)
    R827351C006 (2003)
    R827351C006 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Taylor and Francis-Abstract
    Exit
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    sulfur dioxide, particle, surface reactions, absorption, adsorption,, RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, PHYSICAL ASPECTS, Air, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, Waste, INDUSTRY, POLLUTANTS/TOXICS, particulate matter, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Chemicals, Risk Assessments, Environmental Monitoring, Physical Processes, Industrial Processes, Incineration/Combustion, Risk Assessment, ambient air quality, atmospheric particulate matter, particulates, combustion byproducts, air toxics, atmospheric particles, chemical characteristics, toxicology, ambient air monitoring, acute cardiovascular effects, airborne particulate matter, environmental risks, exposure, combustion emissions, dose response, air pollution, Sulfur dioxide, aerosol composition, atmospheric aerosol particles, human exposure, combustion, PM, exposure assessment, human health risk

    Relevant Websites:

    Long Version of Final Report (PDF) (4 pp, 44.5 K, About PDF)
    http://www.med.nyu.edu/environmental/ exit 

EPA
    https://www.epa.gov/research-grants/

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 1999 Progress Report
  • 2000 Progress Report
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2003
  • 2004

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R827351    EPA NYU PM Center: Health Risks of PM Components

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R827351C001 Exposure Characterization Error
    R827351C002 X-ray CT-based Assessment of Variations in Human Airway Geometry: Implications for Evaluation of Particle Deposition and Dose to Different Populations
    R827351C003 Asthma Susceptibility to PM2.5
    R827351C004 Health Effects of Ambient Air PM in Controlled Human Exposures
    R827351C005 Physicochemical Parameters of Combustion Generated Atmospheres as Determinants of PM Toxicity
    R827351C006 Effects of Particle-Associated Irritants on the Cardiovascular System
    R827351C007 Role of PM-Associated Transition Metals in Exacerbating Infectious Pneumoniae in Exposed Rats
    R827351C008 Immunomodulation by PM: Role of Metal Composition and Pulmonary Phagocyte Iron Status
    R827351C009 Health Risks of Particulate Matter Components: Center Service Core
    R827351C010 Lung Hypoxia as Potential Mechanisms for PM-Induced Health Effects
    R827351C011 Urban PM2.5 Surface Chemistry and Interactions with Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF)
    R827351C012 Subchronic PM2.5 Exposure Study at the NYU PM Center
    R827351C013 Long Term Health Effects of Concentrated Ambient PM2.5
    R827351C014 PM Components and NYC Respiratory and Cardiovascular Morbidity
    R827351C015 Development of a Real-Time Monitoring System for Acidity and Soluble Components in Airborne Particulate Matter
    R827351C016 Automated Real-Time Ambient Fine PM Monitoring System