Final Report: Mixed Metal Removal and Recovery by Hollow Fiber Membrane-Based Extractive Adsorber

EPA Grant Number: R825511C056
Subproject: this is subproject number 056 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R825511
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: HSRC (1989) - Northeast HSRC
Center Director: Sidhu, Sukh S.
Title: Mixed Metal Removal and Recovery by Hollow Fiber Membrane-Based Extractive Adsorber
Investigators: Sirkar, Kamalesh K. , Chilukuri, R. , Saraf, A. , Yang, Z. F.
Institution: New Jersey Institute of Technology
EPA Project Officer: Hahn, Intaek
Project Period: June 1, 1995 through May 31, 1997
RFA: Hazardous Substance Research Centers - HSRC (1989) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Hazardous Substance Research Centers , Land and Waste Management


The goals of the project are: 1) study the feasibility, efficiency and equilibrium behavior in simultaneous extraction of cationic heavy metals (Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, etc) and anionic heavy metals (Cr+6 present as HCrO4- etc.) into a solvent mixture of acidic extractants and basic extractants present in a diluent; 2) study the fixed bed behavior of a hollow fiber membrane-based extractor acting as an extractive adsorber for mixed metal feed solution and a stagnant mixed extractant in the shell side; 3) study the regeneration of the shell-side mixed extractant by sequential stripping of cations and simultaneous stripping of anions employing a two-fiber -set membrane extractor.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

Rationale: Employing acidic and basic complexing extractants mixed in a diluent previous studies have shown that one can simultaneously extract heavy metals present as both cations and anions. Previous results with separate extractants in a hollow fiber device indicated considerable synergy if an anionic species is removed along with a cationic species due to pH control. If this synergy is maintained with mixed extractants, then the mixed extractants can not only cut down the number of membrane extractors or conventional extractors, but also improve the extraction efficiency .

Approach: 1) Study the extraction equilibrium behavior of mixed heavy metals Cu2+ and Cr6+ between water at various pH and a mixed organic extractant containing LIX 84 (to extract Cu2+) and tri-n-octylamine (TOA) (for Cr6+) in kerosene; 2) study batch stripping behavior of mixed heavy metals from mixed extractant into a sequence of stripping solutions of various pH; 3) build a 2-fiber-set membrane extractor, each fiber set having 1000 fibers of polypropylene (Celgard X-10, 100 m ID, 150 m OD ). Build a flow loop around the membrane extractor for a fixed bed extraction study of the breakthrough behavior of the mixed heavy metals in aqueous waste solutions; 4) study the sequential stripping of individual heavy metal cations and simultaneous stripping of anions from the shell side solvent in the hollow fiber device.

Status: We have experimentally studied the system of an aqueous mixture of the cation Cu2+ and Cr6+ (present as an anion HCrO4- ) vis-a-vis the extracting solvent mixture of the acidic extractant LIX 84 and the basic extractant TOA. In batch extraction studies with mixed extractants the distribution coefficient mi of Cu2+ between the organic and the aqueous phases was increased by an order of magnitude at a value of 0.2 for the molar ratio of extractants (TOA/(LIX 84 +TOA)); the value of mi for Cr6+ was also increased by an order of magnitude, however, at the molar ratio of extractants of 0.6. Thus, mixed extractants lead to drastically increased extraction of the cation Cu2+ and the anionic form of Cr6+. The total molar concentration of a 1:1 ratio of mixed extractant (LIX 84 and TOA) in diluent kerosene was varied and there was significant dependence of the increase in mi on the total mixed extractant concentration. Batch stirred stripping studies indicated highly improved stripping performances. Cr6+ could be easily be concentrated into NaHCO3 stripping solution and Cu2+ into a H2SO4 solution. The emulsion problem in extraction appeared to have been eliminated. Fixed bed extraction behavior was studied with the mixed extractants on the shell side and an aqueous feed containing Cr6+ and Cu2+ flowing in the tube side. For feed concentrations of Cu2+ and Cr6+ in the range of 100-124 ppm and 56-58 ppm respectively, the results indicated that the fixed extractive adsorber concept works and purifies the waste water containing mixed metals effectively. We have to optimize the process. Further, recovery and concentration of more metals (>2) needs to be considered.

Client/Users: Researchers in hydrometallurgy and waste water treatment; Corporations handling waste treatment or membrane technologies; U.S Government.

Journal Articles:

No journal articles submitted with this report: View all 3 publications for this subproject

Supplemental Keywords:

Heavy Metals, Chromium, Recovery, Hollow Fiber, Membrane, Adsorbsion., RFA, Scientific Discipline, Waste, Water, POLLUTANTS/TOXICS, Environmental Chemistry, Chemistry, Chemicals, Biochemistry, Hazardous Waste, Chemistry and Materials Science, Bioremediation, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Hazardous, Groundwater remediation, Engineering, Chemistry, & Physics, biodegradability, wastewater, biodegradation, cometabolism, hollow fiber membrane reactors, membrane bioreactors, contaminated soil, membrane processes, contaminated groundwater, groundwater contamination, chlorinated organics, hollow fiber membrane extractor, contaminated aquifers, heavy metals, chlorinated solvents, contaminated soils

Progress and Final Reports:

Original Abstract
  • 1995

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R825511    HSRC (1989) - Northeast HSRC

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R825511C001 Development of Mechanisms and Kinetic Models on Formation of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans from Aromatic Precursors
    R825511C002 Real-Time Monitoring and Control of Emissions from Stationary Combustors and Incinerators
    R825511C003 Development of Sampling Systems for Continuous Monitoring of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
    R825511C004 Investigation into the Effectiveness of DNAPL Remediation Strategies in Fractured Media
    R825511C005 Advanced Leak Detection and Location Research: Extending the SERDP-funded Technical Base
    R825511C006 Three-Dimensional Geostatistical Site Characterization with Updating
    R825511C007 Anaerobic Biodegradation of PAHs in Soils and Dredged Sediments: Characterizing, Monitoring and Promoting Remediation
    R825511C008 Substrate Accelerated Death and Extended Lag Phases as Causes of the Recalcitrance of Halogenated Compounds in Anoxic Environments
    R825511C009 Fate and Transport of Nonionic Surfactants
    R825511C010 In Situ Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and PAHs in Contaminated Salt Marsh Sediments
    R825511C011 Design and Operation of Surfactant-Enhanced Bioslurry Reactors
    R825511C012 Experimental Study of Overland Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts
    R825511C013 Development of a Framework for Evaluation of Leaching from Solid Waste
    R825511C014 Use of a New Leaching Test Framework for Evaluating Alternative Treatment Processes for Mercury Contaminated Mixed Waste (Hazardous and Radioactive)
    R825511C015 Field Pilot Test of In Situ Ultrasonic Enhancement Coupled With Soil Fracturing to Detoxify Contaminated Soil
    R825511C016 Development of Sampling Systems for Continuous Monitoring of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
    R825511C017 Field Demonstration of the Use of Reactive Zero-Valence Iron Powder to Treat Source Zone Sites Impacted by Halogenated Volatile Organic Chemicals
    R825511C018 Technology Transfer of Continuous Non-Methane Organic Carbon (C-NMOC) Analyzer
    R825511C019 Field Sampling and Treatability Study for In-Situ Remediation of PCB's and Leachable Lead with Iron Powder
    R825511C020 Experimental and Modeling Studies of Chlorocarbon Incineration, PIC Formation, and Emissions Control
    R825511C021 Experimental Studies and Numerical Modeling of Turbulent Combustion During Thermal Treatment of Hazardous Wastes: Applied Research for the Generation of Design and Diagnostic Tools
    R825511C022 Electrochemical Sensor for Heavy Metals in Groundwater - Phase IV
    R825511C023 Novel Molecular Tools for Monitoring In-Situ Bioremediation
    R825511C024 Surfactant-Enhanced Bioremediation of Soils in the Presence of an Organic Phase
    R825511C025 Enhanced Microbial Dechlorination of PCBs and Dioxins in Contaminated Dredge Spoils
    R825511C026 Toward A Risk-Based Model for Bioremediation of Multicomponent NAPL Contaminants
    R825511C027 Removal and Recovery of VOCs and Oils from Surfactant-Flushed Recovered Water by Membrane Permeation
    R825511C029 Field Pilot Test of In-Situ Ultrasonic Enhancement Coupled With Soil Fracturing to Detoxify Contaminated Soil in Cooperation with McLaren/Hart Environmental Engineers at the Hillsborough, NJ Site
    R825511C030 In-Situ Field Test of Electroremediation of a Chromate-Contaminated Site in Hudson County, New Jersey
    R825511C031 Electrokinetic Removal of Heavy Metals and Mixed Hazardous Wastes from Partially and Fully Saturated Soils
    R825511C032 Effects of Clay Charge and Confining Stresses on Soil Remediation by Electroosmosis
    R825511C033 Assessment of Surfactant Enhanced Bioremediation for Soils/Aquifers Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
    R825511C034 In-Situ Bioremediation of Organic Compounds: Coupling of Mass Transfer and Biodegradation
    R825511C035 Investigation into the Effectiveness of DNAPL Remediation Strategies in Fractured Media
    R825511C036 Field Pilot Scale Demonstration of Trench Bio-Sparge: An In-Situ Groundwater Treatment Technology
    R825511C037 In-Situ Reductive Dehalogenation of Aliphatic Compounds by Fermentative Heterotrophic Bacteria
    R825511C038 The Effect of Carbon-Nitrogen Ratios on Bacterial Transport and Biodegradation Rates In Soils
    R825511C039 Ultrasonic Enhancement of Soil Fracturing Technologies for In-Situ Detoxification of Contaminated Soil
    R825511C040 Full Field Demonstration of Integrated Pneumatic Fracturing and In-Situ Bioremediation
    R825511C041 Determination of Adsorption and Desorption Behavior of Petroleum Products on Soils
    R825511C042 Evaluation of the Potential for Complete Bioremediation of NAPL-Contaminated Soils Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
    R825511C043 Characterization of Subsurface NAPL Distributions at Heterogeneous Field Sites
    R825511C044 Development of a Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatograph/Microwave Induced Plasma/Mass Spectrometer (TDGC/MIP/MS) for On-site Analysis of Organic and Metal Contaminants
    R825511C045 Using Trainable Networks for a Three-dimensional Characterization of Subsurface Contamination
    R825511C046 Application of Advanced Waste Characterization to Soil Washing and Treatment
    R825511C047 Electrochemical Sensor for Heavy Metals in Groundwater Phase III
    R825511C048 Improved Luminescence Sensors for Oxygen Measurement
    R825511C049 Preconcentration, Speciation and Determination of Dissolved Heavy Metals in Natural Waters, using Ion Exchange and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
    R825511C050 Experimental and Modeling Studies of Chlorocarbon Incineration and PIC Formation
    R825511C051 PIC Emission Minimization: Fundamentals and Applications
    R825511C052 Project Title: Development of a Two Stage, Pulse Combustion, VOC Destruction Technology
    R825511C053 Development of Sampling Systems for Continuous Monitoring of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
    R825511C054 FTIR Analysis of Gaseous Products from Hazardous Waste Combustion
    R825511C055 Toxic Metals Volatilization for Waste Separation and Real-time Metals Analyses
    R825511C056 Mixed Metal Removal and Recovery by Hollow Fiber Membrane-Based Extractive Adsorber
    R825511C057 Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from Contaminated Groundwater and Soils by Pervaporation
    R825511C058 Simultaneous SO2/NO Removal/Recovery by Hollow Fiber Membrane
    R825511C059 Superfund Sites and Mineral Industries Method
    R825511C060 Soil Washing of Mixed Organics/Metal Contamination
    R825511C061 Removal of Cesium, Strontium, Americium, Technetium and Plutonium from Radioactive Wastewater
    R825511C062 Development of a Method for Removal of Nonvolatile Organic Materials from Soil using Flotation
    R825511C063 Recovery of Evaporative Fuel Losses by Vapor Permeation Membranes
    R825511C064 Surfactant Selection Protocol for Ex Situ Soil Washing
    R825511C065 Biofiltration for the Control of Toxic Industrial VOCs Emissions
    R825511C066 Catalytic Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds in Water
    R825511C067 Soil Washing for Remediating Metal Contaminated Soils
    R825511C068 Aqueous Absorption and Kinetics of NO by Strong Oxidizing Agents
    R825511C069 Remediation of Dredging Spoils
    R825511C070 Freeze Concentration for Zero-Effluent Processes
    R825511C071 Life Cycle/Pollution Prevention Response to Executive Order 12856
    R825511C072 Faster Better, Cheaper Hazardous Waste Site Characterization and Cleanup: an Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Strategy Employing Dynamic Workplans
    R825511C073 Development of a Comprehensive Computer Model for the Pneumatic Fracturing Process
    R825511C074 Technology Demonstration and Validation of CFAST Field Analytical Instrumentation for Use in Hazardous Waste Site Characterization, Clean-up and Monitoring
    R825511C075 XFLOW: Training Software Simulating Contaminant Site Characterization and Remediation