Final Report: Experimental and Modeling Studies of Chlorocarbon Incineration, PIC Formation, and Emissions Control

EPA Grant Number: R825511C020
Subproject: this is subproject number 020 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R825511
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: HSRC (1989) - Northeast HSRC
Center Director: Sidhu, Sukh S.
Title: Experimental and Modeling Studies of Chlorocarbon Incineration, PIC Formation, and Emissions Control
Investigators: Barat, Robert , Bozzelli, Joseph W.
Institution: New Jersey Institute of Technology
EPA Project Officer: Hahn, Intaek
Project Period: January 15, 1997 through January 14, 1999
RFA: Hazardous Substance Research Centers - HSRC (1989) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Hazardous Substance Research Centers , Land and Waste Management


The goals of this portion of the work are: 1) execution of experiments in a well defined bench scale combustor to simulate selected incinerator operating conditions, 2) modeling of these experiments with detailed reaction mechanisms, 3) completion and validation of a reactor engineering model of incinerator afterburners which incorporates detailed mechanisms of hydrocarbon and chlorocarbon combustion chemistry, 4) demonstration of active process control for minimization of unwanted emissions, 5) demonstration of novel soot control technologies, and 6) investigation of non-halogenated flame retardants.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

Rationale: In order to minimize products of incomplete combustion (PICs) and other undesirable emissions during incineration, a fundamental understanding of the active chemical and physical processes must be developed. Building upon a strong foundation developed over the last several years at NJIT using bench experiments and detailed mechanistic calculations, numerous insights have been gained on a fundamental level into chlorocarbon incineration and hydrocarbon combustion. We have transferred these learnings to the next larger scale - a large pilot scale incinerator afterburner at EPA in order to characterize non-idealities and failure modes. In addition, the demonstration of advanced soot control techniques meets the renewed emphasis on reduction of ambient particulate matter levels. The Montreal Protocol has effectively banned Freons, and spurred the search for halogen-free flame retardants.

Approach: A multi-task approach continues to be employed to meet the multiple objectives. We are using the well-characterized, two-stage turbulent flow combustion facility. Gas samples are withdrawn from either chamber and subjected to on-line analyses by gas chromatography (for hydrocarbons and chlorocarbons), ion specific electrodes (for HCl), and continuous emission monitors (for CO, CO2, O2, NOx, and total hydrocarbons). A pre-concentrating trap is used to increase sensitivity for the detection of low-level PICs such as benzene. An on-line data acquisition and active process control capability is under development to control the combustor during selected experiments. These experimental runs are simulated with NJIT detailed reaction mechanisms. A novel on-line, optical analyzer for monitoring of PICs and other emissions, developed in conjunction with a small New Jersey company, is nearly complete and ready for demonstration on the combustor. This analyzer, together with the active process control, offers a significant opportunity for advanced control of incinerator emissions. An electrocatalytic reactor was used to reduce soot emissions from a stationary combustor. A sodium-based flame retardant has been investigated in a laminar flame.

Status: Excellent progress is being made on a long-term effort to limit PICs using active process monitoring and control. Several components are in place for experiments in feedback control of the combustor, including electronic valves and a computer-based feedback controller. Active temperature control using a virtual (computer-based) proportional controller has been demonstrated. An optical monitor, which will provide rapid, on-line, PIC concentrations, is nearly ready for installation on the stack of the staged combustor. A micro-trap for detection of low (parts-per-billion) levels of benzene from the combustion gases has been demonstrated on-line.

Work is effectively complete on characterizing the EPA/RTD incinerator afterburner. Comparisons were made between measured PIC concentrations and model predictions. Sensitivity analysis and rate-of-production-based pathway analyses for PICs is being completed. Final computations are in progress to understand the effects of sodium as a hydrocarbon flame inhibitor. In addition, the impact of chlorine on the inhibitory effects of sodium in a methane/air flame have being examined. The soot emissions study is complete, and in the documentation phase. The potential viability of the electro-catalytic reactor has been established. Modeling has shown the importance of soot particle size distribution on the capture efficiency of the reactor.

Technology Transfer and Outreach Plan: We have effectively completed the modeling of PIC formation in a pilot-scale incinerator afterburner located at the EPA in Research Triangle Park, NC. Using a reactor engineering model together with detailed reaction mechanisms, important insights into the non-idealities of afterburners have been gained. The insights gained will improve afterburner design and enhance public confidence in incineration since afterburners process the effluent gases from rotary kiln incinerators, and represent a second stage of combustion (destruction) to minimize PIC emissions.

Supplemental Keywords:

Incineration, Chlorocarbon, incomplete combustion, Emission, Control., RFA, Scientific Discipline, Waste, Geographic Area, Remediation, Environmental Chemistry, Hazardous Waste, Environmental Monitoring, Ecological Risk Assessment, Hazardous, Incineration/Combustion, Environmental Engineering, EPA Region, fate and transport, hazardous waste management, hazardous waste treatment, advanced treatment technologies, industrial waste, in situ remediation, hazardous waste incineration, products of incomplete combustion (PIC), air pollution control, remediation technologies, emission controls, modeling, hazadous waste streams, combustion technology, combustion control, treatment technologies, incineration, real time monitoring, technology transfer, Region 2, combustion contaminants

Progress and Final Reports:

Original Abstract
  • 1997

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R825511    HSRC (1989) - Northeast HSRC

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R825511C001 Development of Mechanisms and Kinetic Models on Formation of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans from Aromatic Precursors
    R825511C002 Real-Time Monitoring and Control of Emissions from Stationary Combustors and Incinerators
    R825511C003 Development of Sampling Systems for Continuous Monitoring of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
    R825511C004 Investigation into the Effectiveness of DNAPL Remediation Strategies in Fractured Media
    R825511C005 Advanced Leak Detection and Location Research: Extending the SERDP-funded Technical Base
    R825511C006 Three-Dimensional Geostatistical Site Characterization with Updating
    R825511C007 Anaerobic Biodegradation of PAHs in Soils and Dredged Sediments: Characterizing, Monitoring and Promoting Remediation
    R825511C008 Substrate Accelerated Death and Extended Lag Phases as Causes of the Recalcitrance of Halogenated Compounds in Anoxic Environments
    R825511C009 Fate and Transport of Nonionic Surfactants
    R825511C010 In Situ Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and PAHs in Contaminated Salt Marsh Sediments
    R825511C011 Design and Operation of Surfactant-Enhanced Bioslurry Reactors
    R825511C012 Experimental Study of Overland Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts
    R825511C013 Development of a Framework for Evaluation of Leaching from Solid Waste
    R825511C014 Use of a New Leaching Test Framework for Evaluating Alternative Treatment Processes for Mercury Contaminated Mixed Waste (Hazardous and Radioactive)
    R825511C015 Field Pilot Test of In Situ Ultrasonic Enhancement Coupled With Soil Fracturing to Detoxify Contaminated Soil
    R825511C016 Development of Sampling Systems for Continuous Monitoring of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
    R825511C017 Field Demonstration of the Use of Reactive Zero-Valence Iron Powder to Treat Source Zone Sites Impacted by Halogenated Volatile Organic Chemicals
    R825511C018 Technology Transfer of Continuous Non-Methane Organic Carbon (C-NMOC) Analyzer
    R825511C019 Field Sampling and Treatability Study for In-Situ Remediation of PCB's and Leachable Lead with Iron Powder
    R825511C020 Experimental and Modeling Studies of Chlorocarbon Incineration, PIC Formation, and Emissions Control
    R825511C021 Experimental Studies and Numerical Modeling of Turbulent Combustion During Thermal Treatment of Hazardous Wastes: Applied Research for the Generation of Design and Diagnostic Tools
    R825511C022 Electrochemical Sensor for Heavy Metals in Groundwater - Phase IV
    R825511C023 Novel Molecular Tools for Monitoring In-Situ Bioremediation
    R825511C024 Surfactant-Enhanced Bioremediation of Soils in the Presence of an Organic Phase
    R825511C025 Enhanced Microbial Dechlorination of PCBs and Dioxins in Contaminated Dredge Spoils
    R825511C026 Toward A Risk-Based Model for Bioremediation of Multicomponent NAPL Contaminants
    R825511C027 Removal and Recovery of VOCs and Oils from Surfactant-Flushed Recovered Water by Membrane Permeation
    R825511C029 Field Pilot Test of In-Situ Ultrasonic Enhancement Coupled With Soil Fracturing to Detoxify Contaminated Soil in Cooperation with McLaren/Hart Environmental Engineers at the Hillsborough, NJ Site
    R825511C030 In-Situ Field Test of Electroremediation of a Chromate-Contaminated Site in Hudson County, New Jersey
    R825511C031 Electrokinetic Removal of Heavy Metals and Mixed Hazardous Wastes from Partially and Fully Saturated Soils
    R825511C032 Effects of Clay Charge and Confining Stresses on Soil Remediation by Electroosmosis
    R825511C033 Assessment of Surfactant Enhanced Bioremediation for Soils/Aquifers Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
    R825511C034 In-Situ Bioremediation of Organic Compounds: Coupling of Mass Transfer and Biodegradation
    R825511C035 Investigation into the Effectiveness of DNAPL Remediation Strategies in Fractured Media
    R825511C036 Field Pilot Scale Demonstration of Trench Bio-Sparge: An In-Situ Groundwater Treatment Technology
    R825511C037 In-Situ Reductive Dehalogenation of Aliphatic Compounds by Fermentative Heterotrophic Bacteria
    R825511C038 The Effect of Carbon-Nitrogen Ratios on Bacterial Transport and Biodegradation Rates In Soils
    R825511C039 Ultrasonic Enhancement of Soil Fracturing Technologies for In-Situ Detoxification of Contaminated Soil
    R825511C040 Full Field Demonstration of Integrated Pneumatic Fracturing and In-Situ Bioremediation
    R825511C041 Determination of Adsorption and Desorption Behavior of Petroleum Products on Soils
    R825511C042 Evaluation of the Potential for Complete Bioremediation of NAPL-Contaminated Soils Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
    R825511C043 Characterization of Subsurface NAPL Distributions at Heterogeneous Field Sites
    R825511C044 Development of a Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatograph/Microwave Induced Plasma/Mass Spectrometer (TDGC/MIP/MS) for On-site Analysis of Organic and Metal Contaminants
    R825511C045 Using Trainable Networks for a Three-dimensional Characterization of Subsurface Contamination
    R825511C046 Application of Advanced Waste Characterization to Soil Washing and Treatment
    R825511C047 Electrochemical Sensor for Heavy Metals in Groundwater Phase III
    R825511C048 Improved Luminescence Sensors for Oxygen Measurement
    R825511C049 Preconcentration, Speciation and Determination of Dissolved Heavy Metals in Natural Waters, using Ion Exchange and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
    R825511C050 Experimental and Modeling Studies of Chlorocarbon Incineration and PIC Formation
    R825511C051 PIC Emission Minimization: Fundamentals and Applications
    R825511C052 Project Title: Development of a Two Stage, Pulse Combustion, VOC Destruction Technology
    R825511C053 Development of Sampling Systems for Continuous Monitoring of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
    R825511C054 FTIR Analysis of Gaseous Products from Hazardous Waste Combustion
    R825511C055 Toxic Metals Volatilization for Waste Separation and Real-time Metals Analyses
    R825511C056 Mixed Metal Removal and Recovery by Hollow Fiber Membrane-Based Extractive Adsorber
    R825511C057 Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from Contaminated Groundwater and Soils by Pervaporation
    R825511C058 Simultaneous SO2/NO Removal/Recovery by Hollow Fiber Membrane
    R825511C059 Superfund Sites and Mineral Industries Method
    R825511C060 Soil Washing of Mixed Organics/Metal Contamination
    R825511C061 Removal of Cesium, Strontium, Americium, Technetium and Plutonium from Radioactive Wastewater
    R825511C062 Development of a Method for Removal of Nonvolatile Organic Materials from Soil using Flotation
    R825511C063 Recovery of Evaporative Fuel Losses by Vapor Permeation Membranes
    R825511C064 Surfactant Selection Protocol for Ex Situ Soil Washing
    R825511C065 Biofiltration for the Control of Toxic Industrial VOCs Emissions
    R825511C066 Catalytic Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds in Water
    R825511C067 Soil Washing for Remediating Metal Contaminated Soils
    R825511C068 Aqueous Absorption and Kinetics of NO by Strong Oxidizing Agents
    R825511C069 Remediation of Dredging Spoils
    R825511C070 Freeze Concentration for Zero-Effluent Processes
    R825511C071 Life Cycle/Pollution Prevention Response to Executive Order 12856
    R825511C072 Faster Better, Cheaper Hazardous Waste Site Characterization and Cleanup: an Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Strategy Employing Dynamic Workplans
    R825511C073 Development of a Comprehensive Computer Model for the Pneumatic Fracturing Process
    R825511C074 Technology Demonstration and Validation of CFAST Field Analytical Instrumentation for Use in Hazardous Waste Site Characterization, Clean-up and Monitoring
    R825511C075 XFLOW: Training Software Simulating Contaminant Site Characterization and Remediation