Final Report: Integrated Assessment of the Public Health Effects of Climate Change for the United States

EPA Grant Number: R824995
Title: Integrated Assessment of the Public Health Effects of Climate Change for the United States
Investigators: Patz, J. F.
Institution: The Johns Hopkins University
EPA Project Officer: Hunt, Sherri
Project Period: October 1, 1996 through September 30, 1999
Project Amount: $2,700,728
RFA: Global Climate (1996) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Global Climate Change , Ecological Indicators/Assessment/Restoration , Climate Change

Objective:

The objectives of the research project were to: (1) assess the potential impact of climate change on important regional public health endpoints, including water-borne diseases (Cryptosporidiosis and Cholera) and vector-borne diseases (Hantavirus, Dengue and Lyme disease); and (2) appropriately characterize and communicate this information to support policy development and analysis.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

The amount of research conducted and published in peer review journals across many fields of health and environmental sciences is evident (see Publications/Presentations below). In each of the projects, key new findings have been made in better understanding the link between climate and human health. These are specific to each disease listed below. Our findings will serve as an excellent foundation for further integration across these public health threats and across climate change assessments from other sectors.

Cryptosporidiosis. We completed the first historical analysis of reported waterborne disease outbreaks (all agents, not just cryptosporidium) across the entire United States since 1948, as potentially related to preceding rainfall. Using Monte Carlo analysis, a statistically significant association was found, suggesting rainfall intensity in a watershed as a contributing factor in disease outbreaks (Curriero, et al., 2001; Rose, et al., 2000). More policy relevant analysis included other important risk factors; in our Lancaster study area, 64 percent of livestock operations located within the 100-year flood plain tested positive for Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in manure samples (Graczyk, et al., 2000). Work is still ongoing to establish a statistical relationship between C. parvum oocyst density and weather and watershed characteristics in the Susquehanna River basin.

Intermediate steps in this integrated assessment have led to major advances in hydrological runoff modeling achieved by this research. Papers by Brutsaert and Parlange, Cahill, et al., Gibson and Najjar, Najjar, and Szilagyi, et al. (listed and annotated in the Publications section below) add much to improving hydrologic modeling relevant to microbial contamination of drinking water sources. Also, economic analysis for baseline costs of cryptosporidiosis cases was completed (Kocagil, et al., 1998) and strategies provided for improving risk communication to stakeholders (Fisher, 1998).

Cholera. In the Chesapeake Bay, the presence of V. cholerae bacteria was significantly correlated with temperature and total bacterial counts, with the maximum detected in samples collected from the Baltimore Harbor. These results suggest that temperature is a leading factor in determining the population of V. cholerae in the Chesapeake Bay (Jiang, et al., 2000a). Fresh water sites had fewer isolates compared to the brackish water sites, suggesting that salinity also alters the dynamics of the V. cholerae population. Because no virulence factors were found in the isolated bacteria, this population presents low public health risk under current conditions in the bay. In our Mexico study site, sea surface temperature and precipitation data obtained from satellite sensors were used along with epidemiological data from the Ministry of Health. Temperature was always an important parameter associated with increased cholera cases.

Several key findings emerged from our Peruvian study site. Warm temperatures from El Ni?o during 1997/98 led to a doubling of childhood hospital admissions for diarrheal disease (Checkley, et al., 2000). Also, from sewage sampling, a threshold ambient temperature of 19.3?C was predictive of occurrence of V cholera O1 in sewage and subsequent cases of cholera in Lima (Speelmon, et al., 2000). Our epidemiological study of the 1991 massive cholera epidemic (Seas, et al., 2000) revealed 11 initial cases of cholera occurring at nearly the same time, but spread geographically (>1,000 Km) in location. With no cases identified in the previous year, these results suggest regional environmental or climatic conditions as among key determining factors in the 1991 epidemic.

Environmental analysis comprised of seawater and plankton samples from 500 meters offshore at four different marine stations along the coast of Trujillo, Lima and Arequipa, Peru. During August 1997 to September 1999, V. cholerae O1 was cultured from 5 percent of the samples and detected in a "viable but non-culturable" (VBNC) state in 16 percent. V. cholerae O139 was detected in a VBNC state in 27 percent of the samples, but on further analysis, these strains were found to belong to the O22 serogroup. However, the presumptive presence of the V. cholerae O22, ancestor of the dangerous O139 serogroup, suggests the possibility that a new pathogenic serogroup may be emerging.

Hantavirus. We have found that high risk areas for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome can be predicted based on satellite generated risk maps of climate-dependent land cover over 6 months in advance (Glass, et al., 2000). Predicted risk paralleled vegetative growth, supporting the hypothesis that heavy rainfall from El Ni?o in 1992 was associated with higher rodent populations that triggered the Hantavirus outbreak in 1993. Landsat satellite remote sensing images from 1995, a non El Ni?o "control" year, showed low risk in the region, whereas the images from the 1998 strong El Ni?o again showed high risk areas. Trapping mice in the field (collectors blinded to risk category), validated these satellite generated risk maps with mouse populations directly related to risk level, with a correlation factor over 0.90 (Glass, et al., unpublished data). Risk classification also was consistent with the numbers of HPS cases in 1994, 1996, 1998, and 1999. Our methods, developed in partnership with CDC and the Indian Health Service are already being implemented for disease prevention in the southwest by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS).

Dengue Fever. The dengue fever transmission model (DENSiM) was improved to better account for water container temperature and water height, important to larval mosquito development rates (Chen, et al., 1998). Dengue simulation model runs have been completed for Brownsville, Texas using the Hadley Center HADCM2 and VEMAP interpolated climate projections for the years 2030, 2060 and 2100. Dengue transmission simulation shows very high sensitivity to relative humidity and temperature (e.g., excessive dryness limits mosquito survival). Also, while warm temperatures generally increase transmission dynamics, the extreme high temperatures predicted by HADCM2 for Texas diminish the risk of dengue in this location. Dengue is currently more relevant to our other study site, the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico, where we have completed all field data collection, and are currently completing model simulation runs. It is expected that these results will differ from those of Texas due to humidity differences. These findings that better characterize the relationship between climate and risk of dengue transmission have international public health application, and can be used to optimize environmental intervention strategies to bring disease risk below threshold levels that are determined by climatic conditions.

Lyme Disease. In the mid-Atlantic region, tick survey data was analyzed for 15 locales. Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) data provided landcover characteristics based on satellite imagery and, along with 10-year retrospective climate values (1984-93) were entered into the USDA Lyme simulation model (LYMSiM) to determine baseline Lyme disease risk via the vertebrate hosts involved in maintaining its life cycle: white-tailed deer and white-footed mice. With the exception of a few sparsely forested sites, deer carriage of the Ixodes tick approached 100 percent and mouse infection by the Lyme spirochete varied between 60-80 percent for the baseline model runs. Under climate change scenarios from GCMs generated from GFDL and Max Plank transient 2 (2020) and transient 3 (2050), the risk of infection increases for mice in most locales, and tick carriage remains high for deer. Transient 2 models yielded slightly higher infection rates than transient 3 models. Plans are already underway to apply this simulation modeling to another EPA project in the upper Midwest, where Lyme disease also is endemic.


Journal Articles on this Report : 41 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other project views: All 129 publications 47 publications in selected types All 45 journal articles
Type Citation Project Document Sources
Journal Article Benson K, Kocagil P, Shortle J. Climate change and health in the Mid-Atlantic Region. Climate Research 2000;14(3):245-253. R824995 (1999)
R824995 (2000)
R824995 (Final)
  • Full-text: Inter-Research-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Inter-Research-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Brutsaert W, Parlange MB. Hydrologic cycle explains the evaporation paradox (scientific correspondence). Nature 1998;396(6706):30. R824995 (Final)
  • Full-text: ReadCube-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Nature-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Cahill AT, Parlange MB, Jackson TJ, O'Neill P, Schmugge TJ. Evaporation from nonvegetated surfaces: surface aridity methods and passive microwave remote sensing. Journal of Applied Meteorology 1999;38(9):1346-1351. R824995 (Final)
  • Full-text: AMS-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: AMS-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: AMS-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Checkley W, Epstein LD, Gilman RH, Figueroa D, Cama RI, Patz JA, Black RE. Effects of El Niño and ambient temperature on hospital admissions for diarrhoeal diseases in Peruvian children. Lancet 2000;355(9202):442-450. R824995 (1999)
    R824995 (2000)
    R824995 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Abstract & Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Lancet-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Cheng S, Kalkstein LS, Focks DA, Nnaji A. New procedures to estimate water temperatures and water depths for application in climate-dengue modeling. Journal of Medical Entomology 1998;35(5):646-652. R824995 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: Oxford Journals-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: ResearchGate-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Choopun N, Louis V, Huq A, Colwell RR. Simple procedure for rapid identification of Vibrio cholerae from the aquatic environment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2002;68(2):995-998. R824995 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: Applied and Environmental Microbiology-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Applied and Environmental Microbiology-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Applied and Environmental Microbiology-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Chun J, Huq A, Colwell RR. Analysis of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio mimicus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1999;65(5):2202-2208. R824995 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: Applied and Environmental Microbiology-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: Applied and Environmental Microbiology-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: Applied and Environmental Microbiology-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Colwell R, Huq A. Marine ecosystems and cholera. Hydrobiologia 2001;460(1-3):141-145. R824995 (Final)
  • Abstract: Springer-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Curriero FC, Lele S. A composite likelihood approach to semivariogram estimation. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 1999;4(1):9-28. R824995 (1999)
    R824995 (2000)
    R824995 (Final)
  • Full-text: IBS - Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: JSTOR-Preview
    Exit
  • Journal Article Curriero FC, Patz JA, Rose JB, Lele S. The association between extreme precipitation and waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States, 1948-1994. American Journal of Public Health 2001;91(8):1194-1199. R824995 (2000)
    R824995 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: AJPH-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: AJPH-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: AJPH-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Curriero FC, Hohn ME, Liebhold AM, Lele SR. A statistical evaluation of non-ergodic variogram estimators. Environmental and Ecological Statistics 2002;9(1):89-110. R824995 (Final)
  • Full-text: ResearchGate-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Springer-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: University of Alberta-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Easterling DR. Development of regional climate scenarios using a downscaling approach. Climatic Change 1999;41(3-4):615-634. R824995 (1999)
    R824995 (2000)
    R824995 (Final)
  • Full-text: University of Nebraska-Lincoln-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Springer-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Fisher A. The challenges of communicating health and ecological risks. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 1998;4(3):623-626. R824995 (Final)
  • Abstract: Taylor & Francis-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Gil AI, Louis VR, Rivera ING, Lipp E, Huq A, Lanata CF, Taylor DN, Russek-Cohen E, Choopun N, Sack RB, Colwell RR. Occurrence and distribution of Vibrio cholerae in the coastal environment of Peru. Environmental Microbiology 2004;6(7):699-706. R824995 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: NCSU-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Wiley-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Glass GE, Cheek JE, Patz JA, Shields TM, Doyle TJ, Thoroughman DA, Hunt DK, Enscore RE, Gage KL, Irland C, Peters CJ, Bryan R. Using remotely sensed data to identify areas at risk for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2000;6(3):238-247. R824995 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: CDC-Full Text HTML
  • Abstract: CDC-Abstract
  • Other: CDC-Full Text PDF
  • Journal Article Graczyk TK, Evans BM, Shiff CJ, Karreman HJ, Patz JA. Environmental and geographical factors contributing to watershed contamination with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Environmental Research 2000;82(3):263-271. R824995 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Graczyk TK, Fayer R, Knight R, Mhangami-Ruwende B, Trout JM, Da Silva AJ, Pieniazek NJ. Mechanical transport and transmission of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by wild filth flies. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2000;63(3-4):178-183. R824995 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: AJTMH-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: AJTMH-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Graczyk TK, Knight R, Gilman RH, Cranfield MR. The role of non-biting flies in the epidemiology of human infectious diseases. Microbes and Infection 2001;3(3):231-235. R824995 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Graczyk TK, Grimes BH, Knight R, Da Silva AJ, Pieniazek NJ, Veal DA. Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia carried by synanthropic flies by combined fluorescent in situ hybridization and a monoclonal antibody. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2003;68(2):228-232. R824995 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: AJTMH-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: AJTMH-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: AJTMH-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Graczyk TK, Conn DB, Lucy F, Minchin D, Tamang L, Moura LNS, DaSilva AJ. Human waterborne parasites in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from the Shannon River drainage area, Ireland. Parasitology Research 2004;93(5):385-391. R824995 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Springer-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Graczyk TK, Knight R, Tamang L. Mechanical transmission of human protozoan parasites by insects. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 2005;18(1):128-132. R824995 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: ASM-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: ASM-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ASM-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Hardjito L, Huq A, Colwell RR. The influence of environmental conditions on the production of pigment by Serratia marcescens. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 2002;7(2):100-104. R824995 (Final)
  • Full-text: Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: Springer-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Islam MS, Siddika A, Khan MNH, Goldar MM, Sadique MA, Kabir ANMH, Huq A, Colwell RR. Microbiological analysis of tube-well water in a rural area of Bangladesh. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2001;67(7):3328-3330. R824995 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: AEM-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: AEM-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: AEM-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Ivanova EP, Chun J, Romanenko LA, Matte ME, Mikhailov VV, Frolova GM, Huq A, Colwell RR. Reclassification of Alteromonas distincta Romanenko et al. 1995 as Pseudoalteromonas distincta comb. nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 2000;50(1):141-144. R824995 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: IJSEM-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: IJSEM-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: IJSEM-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Ivanova EP, Romanenko LA, Chun J, Matte MH, Matte GR, Mikhailov VV, Svetashev VI, Huq A, Maugel T, Colwell RR. Idiomarina gen. nov., comprising novel indigenous deep-sea bacteria from the Pacific Ocean, including descriptions of two species, Idiomarina abyssalis sp. nov. and Idiomarina zobellii sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 2000;50(2):901-907. R824995 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: IJSEM-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: IJSEM-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: IJSEM-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Ivanova EP, Matte GR, Matte MH, Coenye T, Huq A, Colwell RR. Characterization of Pseudoalteromonas citrea and P. nigrifaciens isolated from different ecological habitats based on REP-PCR genomic fingerprints. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 2002;25(2):275-283. R824995 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Jiang SC, Louis V, Choopun N, Sharma A, Huq A, Colwell RR. Genetic diversity of Vibrio cholerae in Chesapeake Bay determined by amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2000;66(1):140-147. R824995 (1999)
    R824995 (2000)
    R824995 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: AEM-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: AEM-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: AEM-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Jiang SC, Matte M, Matte G, Huq A, Colwell RR. Genetic diversity of clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae determined by amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2000;66(1):148-153. R824995 (1999)
    R824995 (2000)
    R824995 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: ASM-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: ASM-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ASM-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Kocagil P, Demarteau N, Fisher A, Shortle JS. The value of preventing Crytosporidium contamination. Risk–Health, Safety & Environment 1998;9(2):175-196. R824995 (1999)
    R824995 (2000)
    R824995 (Final)
  • Abstract: HEINOnline-Preview
    Exit
  • Journal Article Lobitz B, Beck L, Huq A, Wood B, Fuchs G, Faruque ASG, Colwell R. Climate and infectious disease: use of remote sensing for detection of Vibrio cholerae by indirect measurement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97(4):1438-1443. R824995 (1999)
    R824995 (2000)
    R824995 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: PNAS-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: PNAS-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: PNAS-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Louis VR, Russek-Cohen E, Choopun N, Rivera ING, Gangle B, Jiang SC, Rubin A, Patz JA, Huq A, Colwell RR. Predictability of Vibrio cholerae in Chesapeake Bay. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2003;69(5):2773-2785. R824995 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: AEM-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: AEM-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: AEM-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Matyjaszewski K. Environmental aspects of controlled radical polymerization. Macromolecular Symposia 2000;152(1):29-42. R824995 (Final)
    R826735 (1999)
    R826735 (Final)
  • Abstract: Wiley Online-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ReadCube-Preview
    Exit
  • Journal Article Najjar RG. The water balance of the Susquehanna River Basin and its response to climate change. Journal of Hydrology 1999;219(1-2):7-19. R824995 (1999)
    R824995 (2000)
    R824995 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDIrect-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Rivera ING, Chun J, Huq A, Sack RB, Colwell RR. Genotypes associated with virulence in environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2001;67(6):2421-2429. R824995 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: AEM-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: AEM-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: AEM-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Rivera ING, Lipp EK, Gil A, Choopun N, Huq A, Colwell RR. Method of DNA extraction and application of multiplex polymerase chain reaction to detect toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 from aquatic ecosystems. Environmental Microbiology 2003;5(7):599-606. R824995 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: Wiley-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Rose JB, Daeschner S, Easterling DR, Curriero FC, Lele S, Patz JA. Climate and waterborne disease outbreaks. Journal of the American Water Works Association 2000;92(9):77-87. R824995 (2000)
    R824995 (Final)
  • Full-text: AWWA-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: AWWA-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Seas C, Miranda J, Gil AI, Leon-Barua R, Patz J, Huq A, Colwell RR, Sack RB. New insights on the emergence of cholera in Latin America during 1991: the Peruvian experience. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2000;62(4):513-517. R824995 (1999)
    R824995 (2000)
    R824995 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: AJTMH-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: AJTMH-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Speelmon EC, Checkley W, Gilman RH, Patz J, Calderon M, Manga S. Cholera incidence and El Niño-related higher ambient temperature. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association 2000;283(23):3072-3074. R824995 (2000)
    R824995 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Abstract: JAMA-Abstract
    Exit
  • Journal Article Szilagyi J, Parlange MB. Baseflow separation based on analytical solutions of the Boussinesq equation. Journal of Hydrology 1998;204(1-4):251-260. R824995 (2000)
    R824995 (Final)
  • Full-text: ScienceDirect-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: ScienceDirect-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ScienceDirect-Full Text PDF Link
    Exit
  • Journal Article Szilagyi J, Parlange MB, Patz JA, Graczyk TK. Sensitivity of watershed runoff under humid conditions to potential climate variations. Journal of Environmental Engineering-ASCE 2002;128(7):635-642. R824995 (Final)
  • Full-text: InfoScience-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Abstract: ASCE-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: ResearchGate-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Journal Article Szostakowska B, Kruminis-Lozowska W, Racewicz M, Knight R, Tamang L, Myjak P, Graczyk TK. Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia recovered from flies on a cattle farm and in a landfill. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2004;70(6):3742-3744. R824995 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: AEM-Full Text HTML
    Exit
  • Abstract: AEM-Abstract
    Exit
  • Other: AEM-Full Text PDF
    Exit
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    global climate, human health, health effect, regionalization, habitat, integrated assessment, hydrology, public health, climate model, remote sensing, estuary, public policy, decision making, cost benefit, willingness-to-pay., RFA, Scientific Discipline, Air, Water, Hydrology, Health Risk Assessment, climate change, Atmospheric Sciences, Ecological Risk Assessment, Drinking Water, remote sensing, integrated assessments, Cholera, public health endpoints, microbial risk assessment, environmental monitoring, policy making, water-borne disease, hydrologic models, habitat diversity, climate variability, climatic models, public health effects

    Relevant Websites:

    The dedicated project site (http://www.jhu.edu/~climate) aims to appropriately characterize and communicate current research in an accessible format. The site has received several design awards and has been featured by search engines and similar sites. The web site was submitted to multiple search engines and linked to key programs and institutions in the sciences and academia.

    Design Awards: Solutions for Networking and InterNet Working (SNIN) Design Award
    Market-Tek Design Award
    Ravi's Design Elite
    HMS Beagle Web Design Pick
    Starting Point Featured Design Site
    BioMedLink Featured Site
    AltaVista Site of the Day

    The site also was featured on CNN Interactive, November 17, 1998, and written up in Environmental Health Perspectives, May 1999.

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
    1999 Progress Report
    2000 Progress Report