Final Report: Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particles in Rats and Hamsters: An Exploratory Study

EPA Grant Number: R828112C093
Subproject: this is subproject number 093 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R828112
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Health Effects Institute (2000 — 2005)
Center Director: Greenbaum, Daniel S.
Title: Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particles in Rats and Hamsters: An Exploratory Study
Investigators: Gordon, Terry
Institution: New York University Medical Center
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: April 1, 2000 through March 31, 2005
RFA: Health Effects Institute (1996) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Health Effects , Air

Objective:

Particulate matter (PM) is the term used to define the complex mixture of small particles in the atmosphere. The size, chemical components (such asmetal, organic, and salt content), and other physical and biological properties of these particles are highly variable from place to place and from season to season. Particle properties are also influenced by their source (which may be either natural processes or human activities such as driving vehicles) as well as by changes the particles undergo in the atmosphere. Epidemiologic studies have indicated that exposure to PM is associated with increases in morbidity and mortality, particularly in individuals with compromised cardiopulmonary function. A plausible mechanism linking particles and patho-physiologic effects has not been established, however. Thus, toxicologic studies in appropriate animal models and in humans are critical in trying to establish how PM may exert its adverse health effects. The Health Effects Institute funded the study described in this Research Report as part of a program intended to identify critically needed information.

Summary/Accomplishments (Outputs/Outcomes):

Dr Terry Gordon and colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine conducted an exploratory study to test the effects of exposure to PM derived from New York City air on the rodent cardiopulmonary system. They hypothesized that PM would have greater, possibly fatal, effects in animals with compromised cardiopulmonary function than in normal animals. To maximize possible effects, they concentrated particles up to 10 times their level in ambient air, using for the first time in an exposure study an instrument known as the Gerber concentrator, which concentrates particles of 0.2 to 2.5 ?m in diameter. Gordon and colleagues exposed animals for up to 6 hours to these particles in concentrations that ranged from approximately 150 to 900 ?g/m 3 . They exposed normal rats and hamsters, rats injected with monocrotaline to induce right-heart hypertrophy and pulmonary hypertension, and hamsters with a genetic cardiomyopathy. The investigators evaluated changes in heart rate and electrocardiogram intervals, mechanical pulmonary function, and inflammatory parameters. The majority of experiments involved normal and monocrotaline-injected young rats.

The investigators found little or no effect of concentrated ambient PM exposure on cardiac, mechanical pulmonary, or inflammatory measures in the rats and hamsters they studied. One of the few significant effects of concentrated PM was a small increase in heart rate of young rats in the 6 hours after exposure, but this increase was not found on all exposure days. Similar small effects were occasionally noted in monocrotaline-injected animals. Thus, the results indicated that the compromised rats and hamsters appeared no more sensitive to PM effects than age-matched control animals.

Previous studies have demonstrated that some types of PM can induce cardiac effects that may be fatal in monocrotaline-injected rats, but the effects reported in the current study were not life threatening. The current study used concentrated ambient particles, which might be expected to increase the likelihood of observing effects, but the study also used small numbers of animals (6 maximum) and small numbers of experiments, factors expected to reduce the likelihood of observing effects of exposure. Differences between the chemical composition and dose of PM components (such as metals) in other studies also may explain the discrepant findings.

A recent study reported cardiac effects of concentrated ambient PM from Boston air in dogs, and particularly in dogs with induced coronary occlusion. In addition to the different species and models of cardiac conditions, differences in the levels of various PM components at distinct geographic locations may explain the differences in results. Comparing the particles used in this study with those used in Boston is difficult because Gordon and colleagues determined particle mass and sulfate but did not fully characterize the particles to which the rodents were exposed. No firm conclusions can be reached from this study about the sensitivity of these rodent models to concentrated PM, and the appropriateness of using these models?rightheart failure and pulmonary hypertension in particular?to represent a high-risk subset in the human population is uncertain.

Supplemental Keywords:

Air, ambient air quality, air toxics, epidemiology, health effects, particulate matter, biochemistry, motor vehicle emissions, diesel exhaust, animal models, mobile sources., RFA, Scientific Discipline, Health, Air, Toxicology, particulate matter, air toxics, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Risk Assessments, mobile sources, Biochemistry, ambient air quality, lung injury, particulates, motor vehicles, exposure and effects, human health effects, inhalability, air pollutants, lung, animal model, engines, diesel exhaust, air pollution, environmental health effects, automobiles, emissions, human exposure, ambient particle health effects, inhalation, particulate exposure, lung inflammation, coronary artery disease, inhalation toxicology, inhaled, PM, human health, cardiovascular disease

Progress and Final Reports:

Original Abstract
  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R828112    Health Effects Institute (2000 — 2005)

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R828112C042 Does Inhalation of Methanol Vapor Affect Human Neurobehavior?
    R828112C043 Human Responses to Nitrogen Dioxide
    R828112C044 The Role of Inflammation in Ozone-Induced Lung Injury
    R828112C045 How Does Exercise Affect the Dose of Inhaled Air Pollutants?
    R828112C046 How Do Chemicals in Diesel Engine Exhaust Damage DNA?
    R828112C047 Effect of Nitrogen Dioxide on Bacterial Respiratory infection in Mice
    R828112C048 Effects of Ozone Exposure on Airway Epithelium
    R828112C049 Inhalation of Aldehydes and Effects on Breathing
    R828112C050 Does Ozone Cause Precancerous Changes in Cells?
    R828112C051 Effects of Formaldehyde on Human Airway Epithelial Cells Exposed in a Novel Culture System
    R828112C052 Carbon Monoxide and Cardiac Arrhythmias
    R828112C053 Effects of Formaldehyde and Particle-Bound Formaldehyde on Lung Macrophage Functions
    R828112C054 Mechanisms for Protecting Lung Epithelial Cells Against Oxidant Injury
    R828112C055 Relationship of Nitropyrene-Derived DNA Adducts to Carcinogenesis
    R828112C056 Particle Trap Effects on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions
    R828112C057 Carbon Monoxide and Atherosclerosis
    R828112C058 Nitrogen Dioxide and Respiratory Illness in Children
    R828112C059 Noninvasive Methods for Measuring Ventilation in Mobile Subjects
    R828112C060 Oxidant Air Pollutants and Lung Cancer: An Animal Model
    R828112C061 Detection of Carcinogen-DNA Adducts: Development of New Methods
    R828112C062 Effects of Carbon Monoxide on Heart Muscle Cells
    R828112C063 Development of Personal Ozone Samplers: Three Approaches
    R828112C064 Development of Biomarkers to Monitor Carcinogen Exposure
    R828112C065 Effects of Prolonged Ozone Inhalation on Collagen Structure and Content in Rat Lungs
    R828112C065II Prolonged Ozone Exposure and the Contractile Properties of Isolated Rat Airways
    R828112C065III Changes in Complex Carbohydrate Content and Structure in Rat Lungs Caused by Prolonged Ozone Inhalation
    R828112C065IV Genetic Control of Connective Tissue Protein Synthesis After Prolonged Ozone Inhalation
    R828112C065V Pulmonary Function Alterations in Rats After Chronic Ozone Inhalation
    R828112C065VII Prolonged Ozone Exposure Leads to Functional and Structural Changes in the Rat Nose
    R828112C065VIII - IX Studies of Changes in Lung Structure and Enzyme Activitiesin Rats After Prolonged Exposure to Ozone
    R828112C065X An Innovative Approach to Analyzing Multiple Experimental Outcomes: A Case Study of Rats Exposed to Ozone
    R828112C065XI The Consequences of Prolonged Inhalation of Ozone on Rats: An Integrative Summary of the Results of Eight Collaborative Studies
    R828112C066 Interactive Effects of Nitropyrenes in Diesel Exhaust
    R828112C067 Detection of Formaldehyde–DNA Adducts: Development of New Methods
    R828112C068I Comparison of the Carcinogenicity of Diesel Exhaust and Carbon Black in Rat Lungs
    R828112C068II An Investigation of DNA Damage in the Lungs of Rats Exposed to Diesel Exhaust
    R828112C068III No Evidence For Genetic Mutations Found In Lung Tumors From Rats Exposed To Diesel Exhaust or Carbon Black
    R828112C069 Noninvasive Determination of Respiratory Ozone Absorption: The Bolus-Response Method
    R828112C070 The Effects of Inhaled Oxidants and Acid Aerosols on Pulmonary Function
    R828112C071 Biochemical Consequences of Ozone Reacting with Membrane Fatty Acids
    R828112C072 DNA Mutations in Rats Treated with a Carcinogen Present in Diesel Exhaust
    R828112C073 Developmental Neurotoxicity of Inhaled Methanol in Rats
    R828112C074 Methanol Distribution in Non Pregnant and Pregnant Rodents
    R828112C075 Is Increased Mortality Associated with Ozone Exposure in Mexico City?
    R828112C076 Effects of Fuel Modification and Emission Control Devices on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions
    R828112C077 Metabolic Studies in Monkeys Exposed to Methanol Vapors
    R828112C078 Effects of Ozone on Pulmonary Function and Airway Inflammation in Normal and Potentially Sensitive Human Subjects
    R828112C079 Improvement of a Respiratory Ozone Analyzer
    R828112C080 Mechanism of Oxidative Stress from Low Levels of Carbon Monoxide
    R828112C081 Long-Term Exposure to Ozone: Development of Methods to Estimate Past Exposures and Health Outcomes
    R828112C082 Effects of Ambient Ozone on Healthy, Wheezy, and Asthmatic Children
    R828112C083 Daily Changes in Oxygen Saturation and Pulse Rate Associated with Particulate Air Pollution and Barometric Pressure
    R828112C084 Evaluation of The Potential Health Effects of the Atmospheric Reaction Products of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    R828112C085 Mechanisms of Response to Ozone Exposure: The Role of Mast Cells in Mice
    R828112C086 Statistical Methods for Epidemiologic Studies of the Health Effects of Air Pollution
    R828112C087 Development of New Methods to Measure Benzene Biomarkers
    R828112C088 Alveolar Changes in Rat Lungs After Long-Term Exposure to Nitric Oxide
    R828112C089 Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Inhaled Methanol on Nonhuman Primates and Their Infant Offspring
    R828112C090 A Pilot Study of Potential Biomarkers of Ozone Exposure
    R828112C091 Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particles on the Cardiac and Pulmonary Systems of Dogs
    R828112C092 Cancer, Mutations, and Adducts in Rats and Mice Exposed to Butadiene and Its Metabolites
    R828112C093 Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particles in Rats and Hamsters: An Exploratory Study
    R828112C094I The National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study: Methods and Methodologic Issues
    R828112C094II The National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study: Morbidity and Mortality from Air Pollution in the United States
    R828112C095 Association of Particulate Matter Components with Daily Mortality and Morbidity in Urban Populations
    R828112C096 Acute Pulmonary Effects of Ultrafine Particles in Rats and Mice
    R828112C097 Identifying Subgroups of the General Population That May Be Susceptible to Short-Term Increases in Particulate Air Pollution
    R828112C098 Daily Mortality and Fine and Ultrafine Particles in Erfurt, Germany
    R828112C099 A Case-Crossover Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Out-of-Hospital Sudden Cardiac Arrest
    R828112C100 Effects of Mexico City Air on Rat Nose
    R828112C101 Penetration of Lung Lining and Clearance of Particles Containing Benzo[a]pyrene
    R828112C102 Metabolism of Ether Oxygenates Added to Gasoline
    R828112C103 Characterization and Mechanisms of Chromosomal Alterations Induced by Benzene in Mice and Humans
    R828112C104 Acute Cardiovascular Effects in Rats from Exposure to Urban Ambient Particles
    R828112C105 Genetic Differences in Induction of Acute Lung Injury and Inflammation in Mice
    R828112C106 Effects on Mice of Exposure to Ozone and Ambient Particle Pollution
    R828112C107 Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Engines Measured in Highway Tunnels
    R828112C108 Case-Cohort Study of Styrene Exposure and Ischemic Heart Disease Investigators
    R828112C110 Effects of Metals Bound to Particulate Matter on Human Lung Epithelial Cells
    R828112C111 Effect of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter on Blood Coagulation Parameters in Rats
    R828112C112 Health Effects of Acute Exposure to Air Pollution
    R828112C113 Benzene Metabolism in Rodents at Doses Relevant to Human Exposure from Urban Air
    R828112C114 A Personal Particle Speciation Sampler
    R828112C115 Validation and Evaluation of Biomarkers in Workers Exposed to Benzene in China
    R828112C116 Biomarkers in Czech Workers Exposed to 1,3-Butadiene: A Transitional Epidemiologic Study
    R828112C117 Peroxides and Macrophages in the Toxicity of Fine Particulate Matter in Rats
    R828112C118 Controlled Exposures of Healthy and Asthmatic Volunteers to Concentrated Ambient Particles in Metropolitan Los Angeles
    R828112C119 Manganese Toxicokinetics at the Blood-Brain Barrier
    R828112C120 Effects of Exposure to Concentrated Ambient Particles from Detroit Air on Healthy Rats and Rats with Features of Asthma or Mild Bronchitis
    R828112C121 Field Evaluation of Nanofilm Detectors for Measuring Acidic Particles in Indoor and Outdoor Air
    R828112C123 Time-Series Analysis of Air Pollution and Mortality: A Statistical Review
    R828112C126 Effects of Exposure to Ultrafine Carbon Particles in Healthy Subjects and Subjects with Asthma
    R828112C128 Neurogenic Responses of Rat Lung to Diesel Exhaust
    R828112C130-I Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part I. Collection Methods and Descriptive Analyses
    R828112C132 An Updated Study of Mortality Among North American Synthetic Rubber Industry Workers