2004 Progress Report: Technical Outreach Services for Communities and Technical Assistance to BrownfieldsEPA Grant Number: R829515C006
Subproject: this is subproject number 006 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R829515
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
Center: HSRC - Rocky Mountain Regional Hazardous Substance Research Center for Remediation of Mine Waste Sites
Center Director: Shackelford, Charles D.
Title: Technical Outreach Services for Communities and Technical Assistance to Brownfields
Investigators: Burgher, Karl
Current Investigators: Burgher, Karl , Mellott, Kevin
Institution: Montana Tech of the University of Montana
EPA Project Officer: Lasat, Mitch
Project Period: October 1, 2001 through September 30, 2006
Project Period Covered by this Report: October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004
Project Amount: Refer to main center abstract for funding details.
RFA: Hazardous Substance Research Centers - HSRC (2001) RFA Text | Recipients Lists
Research Category: Hazardous Waste/Remediation , Land and Waste Management
Technical Outreach Services for Communities (TOSC)
The TOSC Program was created in 1994 to provide technical assistance to communities impacted by hazardous wastes. This program is invaluable to communities facing hazardous substance management issues that may threaten their health or environment. By using the educational resources of the participating universities, citizens gain a better understanding of the problem, allowing them to make informed decisions and participate more fully in activities that affect their communities. This technical assistance is provided to communities free of charge and is based on the following principles:
- A partnership between a community and TOSC is “two-way.” TOSC will contribute valuable, independent, and necessary information and expertise to assist the community in addressing hazardous waste problems. The community will contribute knowledge, expertise, and time.
- A TOSC/community partnership reflects a commitment to fostering and sustaining a relationship for the time period required for meeting the needs of the community.
- A TOSC/community partnership is an opportunity for TOSC to learn ways to continuously improve its technical assistance outreach.
- TOSC/community partnerships are characterized by the principles of trust, neutrality, and flexibility.
Montana Tech of the University of Montana, a member of the Rocky Mountain Regional Hazardous Substance Research Center (HSRC), has been associated with the TOSC Program since 1994. Montana Tech continually adds communities using the established site selection process, pending available resources. In this endeavor, the Rocky Mountain Regional HSRC will meet the following TOSC Program objectives:
- create technical assistance materials tailored to the identified needs of a community;
- inform community members about existing technical assistance materials, such as publications, videos, and Web sites;
- provide technical information to help community members become active participants in cleanup and environmental development activities;
- provide independent and credible technical assistance to communities affected by hazardous substance problems;
- review and interpret technical documents and other materials for affected communities;
- and sponsor workshops, short courses, and other learning experiences to explain basic science and environmental policy related to hazardous substances.
Technical Assistance to Brownfields (TAB)
The brownfields issue is one of President Bush’s and former U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Christie Whitman’s priorities. In his 2002 budget, President Bush proposed increasing brownfields funding to $97.7 million for EPA. Brownfields are defined by the EPA as “abandoned, idled, or under-used industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination.” These brownfields sites are often targets for cleanup and redevelopment because they typically have low to medium levels of environmental contamination (as opposed to Superfund sites, which may have very high concentrations of a wide variety of contaminants). Redevelopment of brownfields properties also has emerged as a top priority for local governments, environmentalists, industry, and other stakeholders. The brownfields boom is fueled by prospects of urban renewal, job creation, profits, and environmental improvement. Indeed, the growing number of brownfields success stories testifies to the potential of putting America’s lands back to productive, sustainable use. To succeed in brownfields, however, a local community must juggle a complex set of factors, such as funding and financing schemes, cleanup tools and technologies, multiple levels of regulation, issues of legal liability, risk assessment, real estate, and public participation. Success in brownfields is no easy task, despite the abundance of information on the issue.
The Rocky Mountain Regional HSRC TAB Program is directed by Karl Burgher at Montana Tech and addresses brownfields sites throughout EPA Region 8. The objective of the Rocky Mountain Regional HSRC TAB Program is to provide technical assistance to meet the needs and desires of the community or group seeking assistance.
Activities to provide technical assistance can take many forms, including leadership training, risk assessment, training concerning brownfields processes and site assessment, and technical information concerning cleanup alternatives. Leadership training for community leaders focuses on the technical side of cleanup activities, interaction with government agencies, environmental regulations, cleanup technologies, and risk assessment. Risk assessment training is provided for local government planners, developers, and community members to help build knowledge of basic mechanisms and protocols of risk assessment. Topics include site inventory, characterization, end use, and environmental quality requirements as part of the measurement of risk. Training covering the technical aspects of the brownfields redevelopment process is provided to a variety of stakeholders. Specific subject matter is tailored to local requirements and interests. Training on the assessment of hazardous waste sites helps community leaders and local government environmental professionals develop a better understanding of site assessment principles. Sessions focus on integration of assessment with land use decisions and provide information about the acceptable tools for data collection.
Local government officials, developers, and environmental/planning professionals are provided with the technical information needed and taught how to make decisions on the use of appropriate technology for sustainable land use.
The TAB Program differs from the TOSC Program, yet should incorporate similar principles of involving stakeholders, meeting stakeholder needs, building trust, creating teams of individuals with a wide range of expertise, and continuous improvement. Our approach, therefore, includes the following:
- Because TAB projects involve a wide range of contaminants and issues, the Rocky Mountain Regional HSRC will assemble an interdisciplinary group of faculty and staff to work with the projects. The group of faculty and staff will vary with project needs.
- In addition to identifying appropriate faculty and TAB staff, stakeholders with a wide variety of opinions must be consulted.
- The TAB Program will work with the group requesting assistance to develop an initial agreement that establishes community needs and describes outcomes.
- Evaluation of TAB projects will be ongoing. The initial agreement will identify mechanisms for formal evaluations.
The Rocky Mountain Regional HSRC is assisting EPA Region 8 brownfields in many ways, including:
- the development of print-based materials (the creation of handbooks or compilation and review of literature);
- face-to-face meetings, conferences, seminars, and workshops;
- and the use of technologies (such as the Internet, including the development of Web sites, Internet-based instruction, Internet conferencing, or electronic newsletters).
Benefits of this project are many. The project will provide assistance to a variety of stakeholders. The Rocky Mountain Regional HSRC will involve faculty and staff from the Center, depending on community needs and faculty expertise. The effectiveness of outreach programs will be improved by incorporating a variety of face-to-face and technology-based methods to work with stakeholders. Our ultimate goal is to assist in the redevelopment of brownfields properties by providing information and support to communities.
Because of the many different types of communities served and the wide variety of contaminants and issues, the creation of a single method to work with all communities is not possible. The principles of the TOSC Program, however, indicate several best practices that will be applied.
Principle 1. A partnership between a community and TOSC is “two-way.” TOSC will contribute valuable, independent, and necessary information and expertise to assist the community in addressing hazardous waste problems. The community will contribute knowledge, expertise, and time.
- Because communities require assistance in understanding issues involving a variety of contaminants, the Rocky Mountain Regional HSRC will assemble an interdisciplinary group of faculty and staff to work with communities as necessary. The group of faculty and staff will vary with community needs.
- In addition to identifying appropriate faculty and TOSC staff, it is important to include and consult individuals with a wide variety of opinions and to involve stakeholdersfrom the community and from local, state, and federal agencies.
Principle 2. A TOSC/community partnership reflects a commitment to fostering and sustaining a relationship for the time period required for meeting the needs of the community.
- An important initial step in creating this partnership is to work with the community to jointly develop a needs assessment. This needs assessment will be conducted for those projects that emerged from the site selection process established by the TOSC Program.
- The community and the TOSC Program will develop an initial agreement that establishes community needs and describes outcomes. This agreement will indicate a continued commitment by the TOSC Program.
Principle 3. A TOSC/community partnership is an opportunity for TOSC to learn ways to continuously improve its technical assistance outreach.
Community evaluation of the project will be ongoing. The initial agreement will identify mechanisms for formal evaluation twice per year and at important milestones (per http://www.toscprogram.org/tosc-overview.html). The agreement also will include procedures and contact information in the event the community is not satisfied with the assistance that it receives.
Principle 4. TOSC/community partnerships are characterized by the principles of trust, neutrality, and flexibility.
This principle indicates best practices, such as being inclusive of all stakeholders and working with communities to jointly develop needs assessments, initial agreements, and mechanisms for continuing evaluation by communities.
There are many activities that can be conducted to assist communities, including:
- Conducting technical presentations and seminars.
- Performing technical document reviews.
- Providing literature related to treatment technologies.
- Conducting workshops related to risk.
- Providing assistance with redevelopment projects (such as field demonstrations).
- Participating in public meetings.
- Helping the community group develop its capacity to monitor sites (e.g., determining access to monitoring data).
- Providing information on health and environmental risk of applicable contaminants.
The Rocky Mountain Regional HSRC provides assistance through:
- the development of print-based materials (creation of handbooks or compilation and review of literature);
- face-to-face meetings, seminars, and workshops;
- and the use of technologies (such as the Internet, including development of Web sites, Internet-based instruction, or electronic newsletters).
The Rocky Mountain Regional HSRC provides assistance, as needed, related to scientific and engineering issues, policy, and human and ecological health. The Rocky Mountain Regional HSRC also provides assistance to communities that must deal with all types of contaminated sites. In addition, the Rocky Mountain Regional HSRC provides information and assistance to other HSRC’s that may be dealing with issues concerning mining wastes and acid mine drainage, upon request by the Rocky Mountain Regional HSRC.
Status of Current TOSC Sites
Rocky Mountain Steel Mill (RMSM), Pueblo, Colorado, Collateral Grant
Background. The RMSM is an integrated steelmaking facility located on a 639-acre site in Pueblo, Colorado. The RMSM also is a major recycler of scrap metal and is one of only two plants in the country that manufacture rail. The city of Pueblo is located about 105 miles south of Denver with a population of approximately 125,000, primarily Hispanic. Currently, the RMSM facility employs approximately 800 people.
In 1996, the RMSM, together with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE), initiated a 30-year Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action Program. A total of 82 areas of concern, or solid waste management units (SWMUs), that contain waste material were identified at the site by the RMSM and CDPHE. Under this corrective action program, the RMSM has committed $35 million to clean up SWMUs at the facility.
Concerns. The RCRA Corrective Action Program, as it pertains to the SWMU cleanup as well as the solid and hazardous waste issue, are the primary concerns associated with the RMSM.
Activities/Status. After receiving input from the Pueblo community, draft fact sheets were prepared by TOSC on the RCRA and the RCRA Corrective Action Program for the RMSM facility. In addition, a brochure was created to update the community about the continuing cleanup at the RMSM. In general, TOSC helped assist the community of Pueblo in understanding the impacts of hazardous waste and the RCRA corrective action activities at the facility. TOSC will continue to attend public meetings and update and prepare additional fact sheets as necessary. Fact sheets prepared at this point on RCRA activities are as follows:
Pueblo Fact Sheet #1: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
Pueblo Fact Sheet #2: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action Program - Rocky Mountain Steel Mills (RMSM)
Pueblo Fact Sheet #3: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action Progress RMSM
Pueblo Fact Sheet #4: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) Identification
Pueblo Fact Sheet #5: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Solid Waste Management Unit Identification (SWMU) Cleanup Process
Pueblo Fact Sheet #6: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Solid Waste Management Unit Identification (SWMU) Cleanup Status
Pueblo Fact Sheet #20: Population and Health Statistics
Accomplishments. The TOSC Program has been engaged with the RMSM in the Pueblo community since the fall of 2002. During that time, TOSC has met with stakeholders and facilitated meetings between the stakeholders. Primary accomplishments for this project include interaction with the various stakeholders and identification of the various technical issues associated with this site. To assist the community of Pueblo in understanding the impacts of hazardous waste and the RCRA corrective action activities at the RMSM facility, draft fact sheets were prepared and presented at the April 7, 2003, public meeting in Pueblo. In October 2003, TOSC was represented at a Citizens Advisory Commission (CAC) Public Involvement Meeting. During this meeting, the issue of the amount of public involvement that would be allowed in the RCRA permitting process was discussed. TOSC also attended a CAC Meeting prior to the Public Involvement Meeting concerning road improvements for the Public Chemical Depot. This is a major safety issue for the community. Also in October, TOSC has facilitated meetings between EPA and John Garcia (Yardmaster) for the RMSM. The main focus of the meeting was on collecting information about the environment inside the RMSM for both the management and worker. TOSC currently is working with Sarah Bruestle on developing an educational series as part of Pueblo’s quarterly air forum.
Army Depot/Rural Farmers, Avondale, Colorado
Background. Boone and Avondale are small agricultural communities adjacent to the Pueblo Chemical Depot. The communities are generally poor, with Hispanics making up a large part of the population.
The Depot currently is undergoing decommissioning and closure under the Base Reuse and Closure Act. The base currently is storing more than 750,000 chemical rounds containing mustard agent. These rounds are scheduled for neutralization and destruction over the next 10 years. Additionally, historic activities at the Depot have resulted in the release of explosive constituents into the groundwater. This plume contaminated the Avondale Municipal Well, causing the Army to install filters on the well and to construct a groundwater barrier on the perimeter of the base.
Finally, the Pueblo Chemical Depot contains more than 40 SWMUs. These SWMUs are being remediated under the RCRA and managed by the CDPHE.
Concerns. The primary concern in this area is groundwater contamination from the Army Depot.
Activities/Status. Both the groundwater contamination and the proposed destruction of chemical weapons have created controversy and concern within the nearby communities. The communities have reached out for assistance within the larger community and among various regulatory agencies. TOSC has assisted the community in understanding the options available in connection with the regulatory and administrative processes that are active at the site. The farmers and ranchers in the area have discussed a need for an agricultural risk assessment. The TOSC Program has given several options for obtaining a risk assessment, including approaching the Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment for the financial resources to equip the community with the appropriate information.
Currently, we are using an Institutional Control Map of the impacted environmental area that we created with Kansas State University along with current maps from the Army Corps of Engineers to produce an up-to-date map to present to the community of Avondale. This project will provide the community with planning information and help from the Kansas State University Energizing Institutional Control Program.
This map was updated in August per the request of Debbie Anderson of the CDPHE. Our map was redistributed to the Army Depot, Avondale Water District Manager Michelle Deal, and Debbie Anderson.
Accomplishments. The TOSC Program has assisted the farmers and ranchers in the area with options to obtain a risk assessment through the various agencies that are associated with the site. The TOSC programs of the Rocky Mountain Region HSRC and the Midwest Center have combined efforts in creating an Institutional Control Map of the impacted environmental area surrounding Avondale. This map should provide the community a greater awareness of their environmental issues.
Salt Creek Community, Colorado
Background. The Salt Creek residence is located near the RMSM and a local scrap yard. During investigations and background work on the RMSM, we became familiar with a variety of environmental issues that have been concerns of this neighborhood for years. The people have had concerns with burning cars for copper scrap recovery, aluminum smelting, and fluid deposition from scrapped cars. In addition, semi-size trucks utilize a neighborhood street running by a park, and the citizens are concerned with the safety of their children. The neighborhood’s demographics are 95 percent Hispanic and relatively poor as compared to the rest of Pueblo, Colorado, and can be classified as an environmental justice site.
Concerns. The primary concern of the neighbor community is air pollution associated with the RMSM. Lead also is a major concern with the community because of the age of the buildings (pre-1960). As with many small predominantly poor neighborhoods, waste and abandoned buildings also are a concern with this community.
Activities/Status. TOSC initiated discussions with local residences concerning air and groundwater quality. With TOSC’s assistance, the residences started a local community group and have sent a letter expressing their concerns to the state of Colorado. TOSC has been teaching the neighborhood leaders how to work within the state and federal environmental framework.
The community group with which TOSC is working went door to door within the community, educating the community about the recently completed project of collecting all the mercury thermometers and thermostats and replacing them with digital (nonmercury) units. The TOSC Program has turned this work back to the EPA Environmental Justice and the Diocese of Pueblo.
A short course was presented in May 2004 to the community of Salt Creek and Bessemer to educate residents about lead in their immediate environment. This session was held in a Bessemer neighborhood facility.
Accomplishments. The development of a community group, associated with the environmental concerns of the community, has provided the Salt Creek community with a voice that can be heard by the appropriate authorities. The TOSC Program conducted site visits in September 2002, as well as monthly visits and meetings from April to July 2003. During that time, TOSC met with stakeholders and facilitated meetings between the stakeholders.
TOSC will continue to work with the community to provide additional educational opportunities, similar to the “Lead Health Effects” course that was provided in May 2004. That course has been posted on the community’s Web site to provide the community with limitless access to the information.
Rocky Boy Indian Reservation, Montana
Background. Rocky Boy’s Indian Reservation provides a home for about 2,500 members of the Chippewa-Cree Tribe. One story depicts how the name “Rocky Boy” was derived from the name of a leader of a band of Chippewa Indians. It actually meant “Stone Child,” but it was not translated correctly from Chippewa into English, and the name “Rocky Boy” evolved. The reservation is near the Canadian border, in north central Montana. It is graced by the Bear Paw Mountains, which provide dramatic contrast to the flat bottomland of the area.
Rocky Boy’s residents, who work on the reservation, are employed by the schools, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Indian Health Service, and tribal government. There also are some wheat farming and post-pole production on the reservation. The tribe is working actively toward development of its natural resources to be able to provide more jobs and income for its people. Stone Child College is located in Rocky Boy’s Agency. A 2-year college, Stone Child offers associate degrees in Arts and Sciences. There are future plans for a cultural center on the campus.
Concerns. Surface water and groundwater quality are major concerns of the Rocky Boy Agency. This area is inflicted with Superfund issues as well as underground storage tanks (USTs), illegal dumping, and agriculture pollution.
Activities/Status. One of the major concerns on the Rocky Boy Reservation is groundwater that potentially has been impacted by a former Superfund site and agency landfill. The tribe primarily is concerned with protecting culturally significant plant species and groundwater/surface water protection. The TOSC Program will continue to provide education upon request concerning these issues.
Accomplishments. The TOSC Program has been engaged with the Rocky Boy Reservation since the summer of 2001. During that time, TOSC has provided an educational short course to the faculty and students at Stone Child College as well as the Tribal Environmental Protection Program and Water Program Associates. In 2001, the TOSC Program provided a “Groundwater Monitoring” short course, which coincided with a “Cultural Risk” course instructed by Brenda Brandon of the Technical Outreach Services for Natural American Communities Program (Haskell Indian Nations University). In 2002, TOSC provided assistance to the Rocky Boy Environmental Program with UST issues. In 2003, the TOSC Program provided two short courses, “Groundwater and Surface Water” and “Geology of the Bear Paw Mountains.”
Bessemer Residence, Pueblo, Colorado
Background. The Bessemer Residence, a small community located in Pueblo due west of Highway 25, is predominantly comprised of single-family homes for approximately 4,000 residents. This neighborhood has been subject to environmental contamination from the RMSM for more than 100 years. The neighborhood has formed an organization, the Bessemer Area Neighborhood Development (BAND), to help the neighborhood address community issues. The pressing issues facing the largely Hispanic neighborhood are neighborhood redevelopment, lead contamination, air emissions from the RMSM, and trash on neighborhood streets and alleys. TOSC has been working with BAND to determine how we can be of assistance regarding environmental issues.
Concerns. The primary concern of the neighbor community is air pollution associated with the RMSM. Lead also is a major concern with the community because of the age of the buildings (pre-1960). As with many small predominantly poor neighborhoods, waste and abandoned buildings also are a concern with this community.
Activities/Status. In March 2004, BAND organized a meeting to inform the local population about the ongoing process of community development. TOSC attended the meeting to be fully cognizant of the ongoing process of sustainable development within the Bessemer community. This awareness helped keep TOSC up to date on community activities. In May 2004, TOSC provided a joint informative session with the Salt Creek neighborhood on the topic of the health effects of lead.
Accomplishments. The TOSC Program has been engaged with BAND in the Pueblo community since the fall of 2003. BAND was created to spearhead the redevelopment of the community, of which TOSC has been supportive. TOSC has been able to create a standing relationship with the leaders of BAND, which has led to several meetings with community members. This interaction with the community, along with the established relationship with BAND leaders, has given TOSC an excellent view of the community’s needs and future involvement.
Background. Rico is a small mining town set in the mountains in southeastern Colorado, about 25 miles from the historic mining town, Telluride. The town has a population of about 150 people in the winter, which increases to about 250 in the summer, the majority of which are Caucasian. In mid-year 2003, EPA started to sample for lead in the soils associated with the mine tailings. This action uncovered an immediate health threat to the community that required immediate cleanup. The Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO), the principle responsible party (PRP), EPA, and the town of Rico have been in the process of planning the cleanup action.
Concerns. Historic mining has left a legacy of environmental issues resulting from past mining practices (i.e., surface water and groundwater contamination as well as massive mine tailings located throughout the town).
Activities/Status. The members of the town of Rico have little knowledge of the wide variety of mining issues that beset the town, so TOSC is working on providing a short course about basic mining issues.
TOSC members also attended two public meetings that were held in July and August. For the July meeting, Willis Weight and Kevin Mellott traveled to Rico to attend a town meeting. TOSC was introduced to the community. TOSC’s role in this community will be to provide educational outreach on mining-related issues. TOSC also provided the Rico City Council with an educational CD produced by the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP).
The August meeting was a Dolores River Stakeholders Meeting. This meeting brought together all of the stakeholders within the Dolores River Corridor, which provided each of the various groups an opportunity to discuss the issues that concerned them.
Accomplishments. Thus far, TOSC has been able to spend time in the community meeting with both community members as well as the town board. We currently are developing a solid relationship with the town board so as to be of assistance in any topics of concern.
TOSC also has provided various parties associated with the Dolores River Corridor with MWTP CDs that contain information associated with the numerous research projects being conducted by MWTP. This information will help with the initial understanding of some of the various mining-related issues that Rico may face.
Utelite Cement Plant, Davis County, Utah
Background. The TOSC Program has been contacted by a concerned citizen (Holly Mae Pendergast) concerning the possible expansion to the Utelite Cement Plant. I have spoken with Mrs. Pendergast and explained to her what TOSC can provide to her community. We are still in the initial stages of developing a relationship and determining TOSC’s role. Bob Smitter of Georgia Tech also is looking into this site. We feel that if TOSC does become involved with this site, a joint effort between the Rocky Mountain Regional HSRC and the South Southwest HSRC would be the best avenue to explore in serving this community.
Concerns. The community is concerned about zoning issues, as well as the possible groundwater contamination associated with the mining activity. Noise and air pollution also have upset community members.
Activities/Status. TOSC has been in contact with Holly Mae Pendgast (concerned citizen), who initially contacted TOSC. Mrs. Pendgast contacted TOSC because of concerns associated with the Utelite Plant’s plans for expansion. Those concerns have been alleviated since the August meeting with the plant. Mrs. Pendgast still is concerned with health and water issues, and TOSC will assist her by providing information upon her request.
Accomplishments. TOSC has provided Mrs. Pendgast with a sounding board, which in turn provided her with a sense of empowerment in contacting the Utelite Plant. By communicating with the plant owner, many of her questions and concerns have been answered. She still is interested in learning more about the possible health issues associated with the mining process, and TOSC will continue to provide information to her and her community.
Status of Inactive TOSC Sites
United Steel Workers, Pueblo, Colorado
Background. The RMSM plant has been a fixture in South Central Pueblo for more than 100 years. For years, the plant was the largest employer in Pueblo. Currently, the plant employs about 800 workers. Much of the community surrounding the plant is Hispanic and has expressed concerns about the air emissions from operations. The state of Colorado and the Air Division of the CDHPE have initiated air monitoring efforts, both at the plant and offsite.
Concern. The primary concern has been air quality.
Activities/Status. TOSC has prepared fact sheets that describe air quality and air pollution issues. TOSC has educated the community on how and where to request information on air quality issues from the active regulatory agencies. TOSC has coordinated with the state of Colorado and EPA Region 8 to gather information on the impacts of plant air emissions as a result of changes mandated by state and federal consent decrees. TOSC has met with representatives of the union to ascertain what additional information the union wanted to determine how to deal with air quality issues relating to the emissions from the RMSM plant. Data from EPA/CDPHE air monitoring in Pueblo should be available and helpful to the union. A review meeting for the consent decree was planned for June but cancelled. The TOSC Program will discontinue service, but EPA Environmental Justice will continue to work with the United Steel Workers.
Accomplishments. TOSC interacted with the steel workers, the union, and the community in helping to identify the various technical issues associated with this site. TOSC’s role as a facilitator has provided the community with a greater understanding of technical issues as well as interaction with the various agencies associated with the site.
Community Health Study, Pueblo, Colorado
Background. Community concerns regarding air pollution have been active and vocal in Pueblo. Much of that concern has grown out of observing health problems in the community, and although regulatory agencies are working to reduce emissions from local point sources, the community is concerned with the possible legacy from historic emissions. In response to this concern, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and the CDPHE have agreed to design and carry out a public health consultation in the city of Pueblo. This effort will take more than 1 year to complete.
Concern. Long-term exposure and inhalation of contaminated air has been the primary concern at this site.
Activities/Status. TOSC worked with the citizen’s groups, which are concerned about community health in Pueblo, by providing information on public health consultations, the community’s role in defining the scope of work, and how the community can participate in the ongoing work of cooperating agencies. Moreover, community concerns likely will lead to issues that are beyond the ability of the ATSDR/CHPHE to address in this effort. The community has voiced concerns about the form and content of a proposed health study by the ATSDR and CDPHE. In fact, the community has decided to ask that a Public Health Consultation not be preformed and that more comprehensive air quality data be collected. This site will be closed by TOSC and turned back to the EPA Environmental Justice Program.
Accomplishments. The TOSC Program has empowered the citizen’s groups to question the form and content of the proposed health study by the ATSDR and CDPHE. The groups have decided that more information concerning the air quality data is necessary before a Public Health Consultation is performed.
Black Hills Army Depot, South Dakota
Background. The former Black Hills Army Depot is located 10 miles southwest of Edgemont, South Dakota. Nicknamed “Igloo” for the 830 large, concrete, earth-covered ammunition storage igloos peppered throughout the 21,095-acre former munitions depot, Black Hills was used for long-term storage of ammunition, propellants, and chemical agents. The depot was closed in 1967, and the property subsequently was purchased by several individuals and organizations.
Environmental restoration activities at the former Black Hills Army Depot is facing increasing scrutiny and criticism from local residents. Historically from Kansas State University, the TOSC Program has worked with the Restoration Advisory Board (RAB) in providing a forum in which the members of the community and representatives from the Army, EPA, and state regulatory agency work together to achieve a common goal (i.e., cleanup).
Concerns. The primary concerns at this site have been contaminated soil and groundwater and contaminant transfer.
Site History. The TOSC Program has been engaged with this site prior to the restructuring of the national HSRCs. Kansas State University, the former lead institution of the Great Plains/Rocky Mountain Regional HSRC, was the last active TOSC Program on the ground at this site. The Rocky Mountain Regional HSRC has attempted to open lines of communication with the community stakeholders by mailing brochures and letters to 40 community members and RAB participants in April 2003. TOSC also was discussed in a 2003 RAB newsletter.
Activities/Status. TOSC has spoken with Jill Solberg and Linda Wagner of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Joanne Lineburg of the South Dakota Department of Environmental Quality, Blasé Leven and Michael Lambert of Kansas State University, and Jeff Mashburn of EPA. TOSC also has obtained background information on the site, including site history. In addition, a RAB newsletter discussed TOSC’s services. TOSC mailed brochures and letters to 40 community members and RAB participants. No telephone calls or e-mail messages were made to the TOSC office. This site is closed because of a lack of community requests and budget.
Accomplishments. Kansas State University has participated on the ground at this site, but the Rocky Mountain Regional HSRC has not.
Bonner Development Group (BDG), Montana
Background. The Milltown Dam, built at the confluence of the Clark Fork and Blackfoot Rivers in 1907, acts as a repository for sediment and mining wastes. Sediment from upstream mining activities accumulated in the reservoir and caused the formation of a groundwater arsenic plume that impacted Milltown’s drinking water supply. EPA added the site to its National Priorities List in September 1983.The site is being addressed through the combined actions of federal and state agencies and the PRPs, primarily ARCO and the Northwestern Energy Corporation. The Milltown Reservoir/Clark Fork River Superfund Site is divided into three operable units: Clark Fork River, Milltown Water Supply, and Milltown Reservoir Sediments.
Concerns. The primary concerns at this site include economic redevelopment, historic preservation, a groundwater arsenic plume, and sediment and mining wastes.
Site History. The BDG contacted TOSC in late August 2003. An introduction to the TOSC Program was presented to the BDG in September 2003. On October 9, 2003, TOSC members attended a public meeting presented by the Montana Natural Damage Restoration Program.
Activities/Status. The BDG requested that the TOSC Program provide technical assistance to the communities of Milltown and Bonner concerning the issues pertaining to the Milltown Dam removal. At present, TOSC members have attended two meetings concerning the state’s proposed plan for reclamation and remediation. The BDG also has requested that the TOSC Program provide some outreach to the community concerning the regulations that must be followed to destroy a historical building. This is a concern because the state of Montana’s proposed plan would include the removal of the powerhouse associated with the dam. This building has been listed as a historical building, and the BDG would like to preserve this building if possible.
Accomplishments. The TOSC Program was contacted by the BDG in late August 2003. TOSC Program members presented an introduction of the TOSC Program to the BDG in September 2003. On October 9, 2003, TOSC members attended a public meeting presented by the Montana Natural Damage Restoration Program.
Status of Current TAB Sites
Crow Nation, Montana
Background. A former carpet mill (Bighorn Carpet Mill) located on the Crow Tribal Reservation has been designated a brownfield site by EPA. The Crow Nation has received a Brownfields Pilot Grant to perform an environmental site assessment and plan for cleanup. This work will allow the Crow Nation to develop plans for converting the property into a productive community-based facility.
Concerns. The primary concerns at this site include issues related to water quality, coal bed methane, coal mining, public health, USTs, groundwater, nonpoint pollution, and environmental justice.
Activities/Status. The TAB Program has provided education to the Crow community on the possible health hazards associated with the chemicals that may have been used at the Big Horn Carpet Mill. The TAB Program has facilitated communication between Willis Weight, Ph.D., and the Crow Tribe concerning groundwater and surface water mapping for the entire reservation. The TAB Program will continue to assist the Crow Tribal government by reviewing the document and assisting with public outreach.
Accomplishments. The TAB Program has provided a constant link between EPA and the Crow Tribal government during the political changes. During this time, the TAB Program has assisted the Crow Tribal government in maintaining a brownfields presence while working with several new Brownfields Coordinators. The TAB Program also has provided outreach on the status of the Big Horn Carpet Mill to the Crow community. In March 2004, the TAB Program participated with the Crow Brownfields Program in providing the Crow community with an update of the various brownfields projects. Information was provided on the Big Horn Carpet Mill’s Phase I and II Assessment and the Crow Brownfields Job Training Program. In addition, the Crow Brownfields Program’s State and Tribal Response Program award was announced. This was the second meeting to help inform the community of the progress of the brownfields programs. The TAB Program in conjunction with the Crow Brownfields Job Training Program have provided the Crow community with extensive outreach associated with the environmental issues that plague the Crow Reservation.
Fort Belknap Reservation, Montana
Background. The Gross Ventre and Assiniboine Tribes, referred to as the Fort Belknap Indian Community (FBIC), reside on the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation. In 1888, an act of Congress established the reservation. The site for the Fort Belknap Agency as the government headquarters was informally established in 1889. The reservation is located in remote north central Montana, is included in portions of Blaine and Phillips Counties, and is about 40 miles from the Canadian border. The boundaries of the reservation are the Milk River to the north, the Little Rocky Mountains to the south, and survey lines to the east and west.
On July 19, 2001, EPA awarded the FBIC a Brownfields Assessment Demonstration Pilot Grant. There currently are two sites that have been designated by EPA and the Fort Belknap Community Council as Brownfields Assessment Pilot Sites; the Old Agency Landfill and the Snake Butte rock quarry, both of which are located wholly on tribally owned lands. The Old Agency Landfill, located 1 mile east of the agency, was in operation for approximately 60 years. During this time, the landfill reportedly accepted residential, industrial, and agricultural wastes and allegedly received unspecified amounts of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls. Residents, federal agencies, and health facilities utilized the landfill for years since the agency was formed in the early 1900s. The landfill was closed in 1970. The Snake Butte rock quarry, located approximately 10 miles south of the agency, was utilized by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the 1930s for obtaining rip-rap during the construction of the Fort Peck Dam. Upon completion of the dam, the butte was left without any form of cleanup. There remains evidence of blasting, railroad construction, and other debris that have damaged the area.
Concerns. The primary concerns related to this site include mining issues, landfills, groundwater, environmental justice, chemical contamination, pollution prevention, and cultural sites.
Activities/Status. The TAB Program has provided brownfields workshops to the Fort Belknap community and has worked with the Fort Belknap Environmental Protection Program in evaluating Requests for Proposals (RFPs) associated with the Brownfields Assessment Grant. The TAB Program also has been assisting the FBIC with completing the reporting requirements associated with the Brownfields Job Training Program. The TAB Program will continue to assist in public outreach and education to the Fort Belknap community.
Accomplishments. The TAB Program began working with the FBIC in the fall of 2002, although Montana Tech and MWTP have had a long working relationship with the FBIC. In 2002, the FBIC requested assistance with their Brownfields Assessment Grant, concerning the Snake Butte rock quarry and a former landfill located near the Milk River. This program has provided environmental education to the Fort Belknap Reservation and has worked closely with Sherry Bishop, Fort Belknap’s Brownfields Coordinator, assisting with reports and questions concerning brownfields programs. The TAB Program has assisted the FBIC with public outreach planning as well as review of the RFP process and technical review of the Phase I and Phase II Assessment reports. The FBIC was awarded a Brownfields Job Training Grant in June 2003 and has requested assistance in providing education associated with the grant.
Bear Paw Development, Hill County, Montana
Background. Hill County is located in north central Montana, covering an area of approximately 2,896 square miles with a total population of 16,673 (or a population density of approximately 5.8 persons per square mile). The largest community within Hill County is Havre, with a population of 9,621 (based on the 2000 census), and the primary industry in the county is agriculture. Hill County also includes a portion of the Rocky Boy’s Indian Reservation and is the regional trade center for the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation. According to the 2000 census, 2,884 American Indians live in Hill County.
The Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) Railway maintenance shop is located in Havre, along with a diesel-refueling stop for all trains traveling Montana’s northern line. A total of approximately 35 trains per day travel through Havre and utilize the diesel refueling station. A variety of light manufacturing plants also are located in the community as well as former gas stations, paint shops, dry cleaners, and various agriculture-related businesses.
Concerns. The concerns related to this site include railroad refueling and maintenance areas (BNSF), abandoned USTs, former industrial properties, former auto body repair and paint shops, nonpoint source pollution, and groundwater contamination.
Activities/Status. Because this project is in the early stages, the TAB Program’s primary goal will be to help identify potential development opportunities and to provide information and support to Hill County and the Havre community. The TAB Program will offer various meetings and workshops to help the community better understand the technical issues surrounding the brownfields program.
Hill County’s Brownfields Grant Proposal was denied by EPA for funding last year, and Hill County chose not to submit a grant proposal this year so that they can clearly define their future goals and objectives concerning brownfields properties. They have requested training sessions for brownfields and groundwater from the TAB Program to help them better understand the brownfields program as well as help them address and educate the community on some of the local environmental issues that currently impact them. In addition, the TAB Program, working with Kansas State University, has developed an Institutional Control Map of contaminated areas for city planning. This map was the center of attention during our “TAB Brownfields 101” course, provided in March 2004. The community stakeholders that attended this workshop were provided an opportunity to view the maps as well as make comments. The TAB Program will continue to provide education to the community of Havre.
Accomplishments. At the request of Hill County, TAB personnel completed a site visit and presentation of TAB capabilities in March 2003, and Hill County submitted the application for funding to EPA in March 2003. Hill County was not awarded funding; however, Hill County intended to resubmit the application this year. They chose not to resubmit so that they could clearly define their future goals and objectives concerning brownfields properties and increase their chance of future funding. They have requested training sessions for a variety of topics such as brownfields development, introductory hydrogeology, and groundwater contamination from the TAB Program. In cooperation with Kansas State University, TAB personnel developed an Institutional Control Map of contaminated areas for potential future city planning and brownfields development. A draft map was completed and reviewed, with final editing performed at Kansas State University. This map will serve as a tool for Havre and provides an example case study for Kansas State University to develop an institutional control project. The TAB Program provided an introduction to brownfields to the community stakeholders during a March 2004 visit.
Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Montana
Background. The Blackfeet Indian Reservation is in northwestern Montana along the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains. Canada borders its 1.5 million acres to the north and to the west is Glacier National Park. The largest community on the reservation is Browning, home to Blackfeet Community College. There are eight major lakes and 175 miles of fishing streams on the reservation. Tribal permits are required to fish on the reservation. The tribe operates four campgrounds. There are 14,700 enrolled tribal members, and about 7,000 live on or near the reservation.
A manufacturing plant on the reservation produces pencils, pens, and markers. This factory is the center of concern with the community. This site was a former Superfund site, and the community is concerned with the cleanup that took place. One of the brownfields program’s goals is to sample the groundwater near the pencil factory for trichloroethylene. Other major uses of the land are ranching and farming. The principal crops are wheat, barley, and hay.
Concerns. The Blackfeet Reservation is an Environmental Justice Community with issues of groundwater contamination, Superfund cleanup, and illegal and abandoned waste dumps. These activities have taken a toll on the quality of life, both physically and spiritually.
Activities/Status. The TAB Program conducted a half-day “Brownfields 101” course at Blackfeet Community College in April 2004. The TAB Program has provided the Blackfeet Environmental Department with samples of successful Brownfields Job Training Program proposals.
Accomplishments. A “Brownfields 101” course was conducted in April 2004. This course was broadcasted on the local channels to the Blackfeet community. The TAB Program also has been contacted by the Blackfoot Environmental Program to provide a technical review of their Brownfields Job Training Grant.
Status of Inactive TAB Sites
Spirit Lake Reservation, Fort Totten, North Dakota
Background. The Spirit Lake Sioux belong to the Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Band. The tribe’s ancestral grounds lie in what is now Minnesota. An 1862 gold discovery in Minnesota enticed gold seekers and settlers through Minnesota Sioux Country, resulting in the Minnesota Uprising that same year. Following this conflict, many of the Sisseton-Wahpeton Band migrated southwest to what is now known as the Fort Totten, North Dakota, area. The reservation was established in 1867 by a treaty between the U.S. government and the Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Band. Candeska Cikana Community College recently received a Brownfields Training Grant and has requested TAB assistance.
Concerns. The concerns at this site include contamination to groundwater and surface water, brownfields issues, hazardous waste, and cultural issues.
Activities/Status. Fort Totten and Candeska Cikana Community College, located on the Spirit Lake Reservation, have contacted the TAB Program requesting assistance with their Brownfields Job Training Grant. In particular, they needed help locating educational contractors. The TAB Program has provided assistance in locating and contacting a contractor to provide job training. This was completed, and assistance was terminated. This site will be closed.
Accomplishments. The TAB Program has provided Fort Totten and Candeska Cikana Community College with the contact information to local educational contractors as requested.
Gold Hill Mesa Tailings Site, Colorado Springs, Colorado
Background. This 200-acre site formerly contained a gold ore processing plant. The ore was shipped to the site from mines located in the Cripple Creek mining area. The site, located within the city limits of Colorado Springs, has been abandoned for several years.
Recently, the site has been proposed for high-density residential use. An environmental assessment was performed under the state of Colorado’s Voluntary Cleanup Program. The results of that assessment identified the presence of several heavy metals in the soils and concluded that the site was appropriate for residential use if soil was stabilized and a cap placed over the site. Site grading is underway.
Concerns. Community members living nearby have been concerned about three principal issues:
- Does the proposed capping provide sufficient protection for the prospective residents?
- Are adequate measures being taken to suppress dust during the site grading?
- Will there be contaminated runoff from the site into the nearby stream system?
Activities/Status. TAB met with community members to ascertain concerns and to develop an understanding of the site. Community members took TAB representatives on a tour of the site and provided preliminary documentation regarding site activities. This site is temporarily closed.
Accomplishments. TAB has created an awareness of the regulatory process used in assessing this site and has facilitated access to current environmental records, thus permitting community members to decide on an appropriate course of action. TAB has directed the community to the appropriate historical and environmental documentation.
Future Activities for the RMSM. TOSC will continue to assist the community and provide an opportunity or a method for the Pueblo community to present questions and concerns regarding the RMSM facility’s hazardous waste problems or cleanup activities. In addition, TOSC will continue to interact with the community to provide the appropriate expertise to answer their questions and meet the needs of the community by creating and providing fact sheets, educational materials, and presentations as necessary.
Future Activities for the Army Depot/Rural Farmers. This work will result in creating a baseline agricultural risk assessment, engaging a technical consultant for the agricultural community, and developing a more effective working relationship with the Army and the CDPHE.
Future Activities for the Salt Creek Community. EPA recently awarded a grant to the community to investigate the status of the community’s health. TOSC will work with the community to assist in the understanding of how they can participate in this study. TOSC has been in communication with Sonya Race and David Balsick of the Bessemer Neighborhood Association to arrange for an educational outreach seminar dealing with various environmental issues. This effort will be associated with the quarterly Pueblo Air Forum.
Future Activities for the Rocky Boy Indian Reservation. The result of TOSC providing education to the Rocky Boy Indian Reservation will be community members with a better understanding of groundwater, pollution prevention from various sources, Superfund issues, and the role that various regulatory agencies play in these processes.
Future Activities for the Bessemer Residence. EPA recently awarded a grant to the community to investigate the status of the community’s health. TOSC will work with the community to assist in the understanding of how they can participate in this study. TOSC also has been in contact with Sarah R. Bruestle, Environmental Coordinator/Public Information Officer for the Pueblo City-County Health Department Environmental Health Division. Sarah has initiated an opportunity for TOSC to participate in the County Air Forum to assist with public education. The Air Forum will hold quarterly educational seminars on various issues of concern associated with community health. This relationship should provide a greater opportunity for TOSC to participate with the community.
Future Activities for Rico. Mining issues are a high priority to the town because of its impact on health and the environment, as well as concerns associated with groundwater and surface water pollution. TOSC will provide a short informative session to the community about basic mining issues, as well as basic education concerning water discharge from a nearby mining tunnel affecting their water supply.
Future Activities for the Utelite Plant. TOSC will provide the community with education and educational material upon request.
Future Activities for the United Steel Workers. This site has been closed for the TOSC Program, but the EPA Environmental Justice Program will continue working with the United Steel Workers.
Future Activities for the Community Health Study. This site has been closed by the TOSC Program, but EPA’s Environmental Justice Program will continue work.
Future Activities for the Black Hills Army Depot. TOSC has not been contacted about the site, which has been dormant for some time. TOSC now considers the site closed but will continue to monitor community requests.
Future Activities for the BDG. TOSC will continue to provide service to the BDG and the communities of Milltown and Bonner by providing technical support and public outreach. The TOSC Program will assist the Bonner community by providing information concerning historical preservation as well as economic development options pertaining to sustainable community development.
Future Activities for the Crow Nation. The TAB Program has scheduled a 1-day hydrogeology presentation for the Crow community in October. This will be presented by Willis Weight, Ph.D., P.E. The TAB Program currently is building lines of communication between the Montana Department of Environmental Quality Air Permitting Department, the Rocky Mountain Power Plant, and the Crow Nation prior to the construction and operation of a coal-burning power plant in Hardin, Montana. This plant will border the Crow Reservation and has raised questions within the community on potential health risks. This work will result in creating a baseline to environmental and industrial assessment and in developing a more effective working relationship with federal agencies for the Crow government.
Future Activities for the Fort Belknap Reservation. The award of a Brownfields Job Training Grant will provide the FBIC with a viable work force to continue the cleanup of both brownfields sit es as well any other environmental issues located on the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation. The TAB Program will continue to assist the FBIC in providing education to the community, as well as provide assistance with the Brownfields Job Training Grant.
Future Activities for Bear Paw Development. TAB will meet the needs of the community by creating and providing educational materials, workshops, and/or presentations as necessary. Overall, the public will develop an enhanced understanding of a variety of issues such as groundwater contamination from petroleum-contaminated sites and brownfields development so that private investors are more likely to consider developing local real estate. The Institutional Control Map of contaminated areas may be used as a planning tool for Havre. The TAB Program currently is working with Bear Paw Development in scheduling a hydrogeology course for the fall of 2004.
Future Activities for the Blackfeet Indian Reservation. The TAB Program will assist the Blackfoot Environmental Program in applying for a Brownfields Job Training Grant and will continue to provide technical assistance and education to the community.
Future Activities for the Spirit Lake Reservation. Future involvement with the TAB Program will be evaluated based on the need for assistance as well as budgetary issues.
Future Activities for the Gold Hill Mesa Tailings Site. This site will be closed by the TAB Program, but EPA and the state of Colorado will continue working with this community. TAB will remain accessible to community requests.
Publications/Presentations: See the list of publications/presentations included in the 2004 Annual Report Summary for R829515, which is for the Rocky Mountain Regional Hazardous Substance Research Center.
Supplemental Keywords:Technical Outreach Services for Communities, TOSC, Technical Assistance to Brownfields, TAB, groundwater, industry sectors, waste, water, ecological risk assessment, ecology, ecosystems, ecology and ecosystems, environmental chemistry, environmental engineering, geology, geochemistry, toxicology, microbiology, hazardous, hazardous waste, mining-NAIC 21, selenium, acid mine drainage, acid mine runoff, aquatic ecosystems, arsenic, contaminant transport, contaminated sediments, contaminated marine sediment, contaminated waste sites, contaminated sites, contaminated soil, field monitoring, mining-impacted runoff, sediment transport, stream ecosystems, suspended sediment, sediments, mining, remediation, metal mobility, subsurface, extraction of metals, heavy metals, leaching of toxic metals, metal release, metal wastes, metals, metals-contaminated soil, mining wastes, remediation technologies, risk assessment,, RFA, Scientific Discipline, Industry Sectors, Waste, Water, Contaminated Sediments, Remediation, Environmental Chemistry, Mining - NAIC 21, Hazardous Waste, Brownfields, Ecological Risk Assessment, Environmental Engineering, Hazardous, risk assessment, brownfield sites, contaminant transport, contaminated marine sediment, contaminated waste sites, suspended sediment, runoff, sediment transport, acid mine drainage, remediation technologies, training and outreach, stream ecosystems, natural organic matter, field monitoring, mining, Selenium, treatment, aquatic ecosystems, technical assistance, water quality, technology transfer, outreach and education, environmental education, arsenic, mining wastes, metal contamination, redox, groundwater, heavy metals, mining impacted watershed, technical outreach
Progress and Final Reports:Original Abstract
Main Center Abstract and Reports:R829515 HSRC - Rocky Mountain Regional Hazardous Substance Research Center for Remediation of Mine Waste Sites
Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
R829515C001 Redox Transformations, Complexation and Soil/Sediment Interactions of Inorganic Forms of As and Se in Aquatic Environments: Effects of Natural Organic Matter
R829515C002 Fate and Transport of Metals and Sediment in Surface Water
R829515C003 Metal Removal Capabilities of Passive Bioreactor Systems: Effects of Organic Matter and Microbial Population Dynamics
R829515C004 Evaluating Recovery of Stream Ecosystems from Mining Pollution: Integrating Biochemical, Population, Community and Ecosystem Indicators
R829515C005 Rocky Mountain Regional Hazardous Substance Research Center Training and Technology Transfer Program
R829515C006 Technical Outreach Services for Communities and Technical Assistance to Brownfields
R829515C007 Evaluation of Hydrologic Models for Alternative Covers at Mine Waste Sites
R829515C008 Microbial Reduction of Uranium in Mine Leachate by Fermentative and Iron-Reducing Bacteria
R829515C009 Development and Characterization of Microbial Inocula for High-Performance Passive Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage
R829515C010 Reactive Transport Modeling of Metal Removal From Anaerobic Biozones
R829515C011 Assessment of Electrokinetic Injection of Amendments for Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage
R829515C012 Metal Toxicity Thresholds for Important Reclamation Plant Species of the Rocky Mountains
R829515C013 An Improved Method for Establishing Water Quality Criteria for Mining Impacted Streams