2002 Progress Report: Diminishing Materials Use and Air Pollutants in Foundries via an Integrated Advanced Oxidation Process: Characterization of Materials and Pollutants at the Nano-Scale

EPA Grant Number: R829581
Title: Diminishing Materials Use and Air Pollutants in Foundries via an Integrated Advanced Oxidation Process: Characterization of Materials and Pollutants at the Nano-Scale
Investigators: Cannon, Fred S. , Komarneni, Sridhar , Voigt, Robert C.
Current Investigators: Cannon, Fred S. , Bhide, Harsh , Clobes, Jason , Firebaugh, Joel , Furness-Newburge, Jim , Goudzwaard, Jeff , Komarneni, Sridhar , Land, Josh , Milan-Segovia, Nohemi , Voigt, Robert C. , Wang, Yujue
Institution: Pennsylvania State University
EPA Project Officer: Richards, April
Project Period: January 1, 2002 through December 31, 2004
Project Period Covered by this Report: January 1, 2002 through December 31, 2003
Project Amount: $325,000
RFA: Technology for a Sustainable Environment (2001) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Sustainability , Pollution Prevention/Sustainable Development


The objectives of this research project are to: (1) use advanced oxidation (AO) to diminish emissions and materials use in foundries that use green sand; (2) employ a consortium of protocols to characterize and better understand the nano-scale effects that this AO process has on green sand materials and air emissions; (3) experimentally identify and model AO effects as a function of distance from the molten metal interface; (4) apply these nano-scale data to further enhance the extent to which the AO process effectively preserves and activates the coal within the green sand, so that it further adsorbs and/or retains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and thus prevents pollution before it happens; (5) apply these nano-scale data to enhance the extent to which the AO process preserves and activates clay that appears to be "dead" (i.e., unusable) in a manner that further diminishes the wasting of spent clay; and (6) interface on the validation of these improvements at full-scale foundries, via onsite trials that are informally coordinated by The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) team in collaboration with ongoing foundry operations.

Progress Summary:

Throughout the research period, tests have been conducted to characterize the effects of an AO system on emissions reduction and sand property improvements in green sand foundries. Emission testings were performed in both pilot-scale and full-scale iron casting foundries. In preproduction trials conducted at a pilot foundry, AO processing reduced VOC emissions by 40-60 percent and 15-40 percent for noncored and cored castings, respectively; while during production trials at pilot foundry and at full-scale foundries, AO processing reduced VOC emissions by 40-65 percent and 30-45 percent for noncored and cored castings, respectively. Benzene emissions diminished by 40-50 percent for noncored castings; and by 0-30 percent for cored castings. A portion of the reduced emissions have occurred because the AO process allows a foundry to employ less clay (measured as methylene blue clay) and coal (measured via Loss on Ignition).

Sand system perfomance and control of the green sand system during the installation and operation of an AO system in a full-scale green sand foundry also were investigated. Significant AO process events and the corresponding sand system control actions and responses during the 2-year history of AO system startup and operation were recorded. Improvements in sand system performance and reductions of bonding material consumption (by 20-30 percent) because of AO-driven sand system optimization were observed.

Experiments conducted at Penn State examined the effects of AO processing on green sand physicochemical properties. Surface charge and pore volume distribution of AO or non-AO treated green sand were compared. Generally, AO treated green sand provided greater surface charge distribution and had more pore volume in both the microporous and mesoporous range. The authors hypothesize that this contributes to the improved performance of sand system in full-scale foundries. Different combinations of pilot-scale AO processes were tested, and measurements of various advanced oxidants in the AO aqueous solution were performed to better understand AO chemisty and AO kinetics.

Future Activities:

In the next year, we will continue characterizing the physical-chemical nature of the green sand treated with AO, and continue to characterize the AO species generated by this process. Specifically, for an array of AO doses, we will continue to monitor pore volume distribution, x-ray diffraction, surface charge, green compressive strength, and emissions released upon rapid heating. We also plan to explore means of improving performance.

Journal Articles on this Report : 3 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other project views: All 8 publications 8 publications in selected types All 7 journal articles
Type Citation Project Document Sources
Journal Article Glowacki CR, Crandell GR, Cannon FS, Clobes JK, Voigt RC, Furness JC, McComb BA, Knight SM. Emissions studies at a test foundry using an advanced oxidation-clear water system. Transactions of the American Foundry Society 2003;111:579-598. R829581 (2002)
R829581 (Final)
  • Abstract: American Foundry Society - Abstract
  • Journal Article Goudzwaard JE, Kurtti CM, Andrews JH, Cannon FS, Voigt RC, Firebaugh JE, Furness JC, Sipple DL. Foundry emissions effects with an advanced oxidation blackwater system. Transactions of the American Foundry Society 2003;111:1191-1211. R829581 (2002)
    R829581 (Final)
  • Abstract: American Foundry Society - Abstract
  • Journal Article Land JD, Voigt RC, Cannon FS, Furness JC, Goudzwaard J, Luebben H. Performance and control of a green sand system during the installation and operation of an advanced oxidation system. American Foundry Society Transactions 2002;110:705-715. R829581 (2002)
    not available

    Supplemental Keywords:

    environmentally conscious manufacturing, waste minimization, sustainable development, ozone, oxidants, volatile organic compound, VOC, VOC removal, pollution prevention, industry, Northeast, Midwest, Midatlantic, Southwest, geographic area, sustainable industry/business, toxics, chemical engineering, chemistry, civil/environmental engineering, environmental chemistry, new/innovative technologies, state, sustainable environment, cleaner production/pollution prevention, Pennsylvania, PA, advanced oxidation, AO, AO process, air emissions, air pollutants, foundries, characterization of materials, characterization of pollutants, clean technology, cleaner production, emission controls, engineering, environmentally friendly technology, flame ionization detection, foundry industry, foundry mold and core processing, green sand mold material, green technology, hazardous emissions, industrial design for environment, industrial innovations, industry pollution prevention research, materials reduction, metal casting industry, nano-scale, process modification, sustainable development, waste minimization., RFA, Scientific Discipline, Toxics, Geographic Area, Sustainable Industry/Business, Chemical Engineering, cleaner production/pollution prevention, Environmental Chemistry, Sustainable Environment, Chemistry, State, VOCs, Technology for Sustainable Environment, Civil/Environmental Engineering, New/Innovative technologies, Chemistry and Materials Science, Environmental Engineering, industrial design for environment, characterization of materials, materials reduction, air pollutants, cleaner production, sustainable development, waste minimization, waste reduction, environmentally conscious manufacturing, Pennsylvania, foundary industry, foundry industry, environmentally friendly technology, hazardous emissions, clean technology, VOC removal, advanced oxidation process, green sand mold material, emission controls, nano-scale, engineering, process modification, industry pollution prevention research, metal casting industry, industrial innovations, pollution prevention, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), air emissions, green technology, PA, foundry mold and core processing, air pollutants at foundries, characterization of pollutants

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • Final Report