2005 Progress Report: Study of Phthalates in Pregnant Woman and Children

EPA Grant Number: R829436
Title: Study of Phthalates in Pregnant Woman and Children
Investigators: Swan, Shanna Helen , Calafat, Antonia , Kruse, Robin , Lasley, Bill L. , Redmon, Bruce , Sparks, Amy , Wang, Christina
Institution: University of Missouri - Columbia , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Harbor-UCLA Medical Center , University of California - Davis , University of Iowa , University of Minnesota , University of Rochester
Current Institution: University of Rochester , CDC , Harbor-UCLA Medical Center , University of California - Davis , University of Iowa , University of Minnesota , University of Missouri - Columbia
EPA Project Officer: Hunt, Sherri
Project Period: August 1, 2001 through January 31, 2005 (Extended to July 31, 2007)
Project Period Covered by this Report: August 1, 2004 through January 31, 2005
Project Amount: $2,779,164
RFA: Endocrine Disruptors: Epidemiologic Approaches (2001) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Economics and Decision Sciences , Health , Safer Chemicals , Endocrine Disruptors


The objective of this research project is to assess the risks posed by environmental phthalate levels to reproductive health. In particular we are asking: (1) Does in utero phthalate exposure alter breast and genital development? (2) How do infants’ pre- and post-natal sensitivity to phthalates compare? (3) What are major sources of phthalate exposure for pregnant women and infants? (4) Do phthalate metabolite levels vary with ethnicity and geography? (5) Do genital and breast measurements vary with ethnicity and geography? (6) How is phthalate metabolism altered by pregnancy?

Progress Summary:

By March 1, 2006, we had:

  • Completed recruitment: Total sample size was 460 mothers and their babies (453 singletons and 7 pairs of twins).
  • Completed infants’ physical examinations: Total number was 639 baby examinations (455 first exams, 184 second).
  • Completed urine collection: Final number of samples was: 438 baby urine samples (at first exam) and 447 postnatal maternal urine samples.
  • Obtained phthalate metabolites in maternal prenatal urine, postnatal urine, and infant urine on 214 mothers and babies, as well as in an additional 110 prenatal samples.
  • Conducted product use analysis for the first 214 mothers.
  • Conducted analyses of anogenital distance (AGD) in males among the first 214 mother-child pairs.
  • Met with staff pediatricians to evaluate and revise pediatric exam for future study.

Future Activities:

During Year 5 of the project, we expect to:

  • Obtain AGD norms and the relationship of AGD to penile size and testicular descent in a data set that includes all 455 babies with at least one physical examination.
  • Obtain phthalate analyses on the remaining 475 mothers and baby urine samples.
  • Conduct analyses of AGD and prenatal phthalate exposure on complete data set.
  • Conduct analysis of baby exams and prenatal and baby levels in all mothers and children.
  • Complete analysis of phthalates and birth outcomes (with Adibi, Whyatt, and Hauser).
  • Complete analysis of product use and infant hormones (with S. Sathyanarayana).

Journal Articles on this Report : 2 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other project views: All 34 publications 9 publications in selected types All 8 journal articles
Type Citation Project Document Sources
Journal Article Marsee K, Woodruff TJ, Axelrad DA, Calafat AM, Swan SH. Estimated daily phthalate exposures in a population mothers of male infants exhibiting reduced anogenital distance. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(6):805-809. R829436 (2005)
R829436 (Final)
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Full-text: EHP
  • Other: EHP PDF
  • Journal Article Swan SH, Main KM, Liu F, Stewart SL, Kruse RL, Calafat AM, Mao CS, Redmon JB, Ternand CL, Sullivan S, Teague JL. Decrease in anogenital distance among male infants with prenatal phthalate exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(8):1056-1061. R829436 (2005)
    R829436 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    phthalates, prenatal exposure, sexual development, geography, ethnicity, endocrine, endocrine disruptors, epidemiology, ethnicity, infants, neonates, health, biochemistry, chemistry, environmental exposure and risk, human health, health risk assessment, risk assessments, susceptibility, sensitive population, genetic susceptibility, childhood development, children, developmental biology, developmental effects, endocrine disrupting chemicals, epidemiologic studies, exposure, exposure studies, human growth and development, infants, metabolites, pregnancy, pregnant women, reproductive health,, RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, Health Risk Assessment, Chemistry, Epidemiology, Endocrine Disruptors - Environmental Exposure & Risk, endocrine disruptors, Risk Assessments, Susceptibility/Sensitive Population/Genetic Susceptibility, Biochemistry, genetic susceptability, Endocrine Disruptors - Human Health, childhood development, infants, metabolites, prenatal exposure, endocrine disrupting chemicals, exposure, exposure studies, sexual development, developmental effects, children, developmental biology, human growth and development, pregnant women, pregnancy, reproductive health, phthalates, epidemiologic studies

    Relevant Websites:

    http://www.urmc.rochester.edu/obgyn/sff Exit

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • 2004
  • 2006 Progress Report
  • Final Report