1999 Progress Report: Personal PM Exposure AssessmentEPA Grant Number: R827355C003
Subproject: this is subproject number 003 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R827355
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
Center: Airborne PM - Northwest Research Center for Particulate Air Pollution and Health
Center Director: Koenig, Jane Q.
Title: Personal PM Exposure Assessment
Investigators: Liu, Sally , Claiborn, Candis , Gundel, Lara , Larson, Timothy V.
Current Investigators: Liu, Sally , Allen, Ryan , Claiborn, Candis , Kalman, Dave , Koenig, Jane Q. , Larson, Timothy V. , Simpson, Chris
Institution: University of Washington
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: June 1, 1999 through May 31, 2004 (Extended to May 31, 2006)
Project Period Covered by this Report: June 1, 1999 through May 31, 2000
Project Amount: Refer to main center abstract for funding details.
RFA: Airborne Particulate Matter (PM) Centers (1999) RFA Text | Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Particulate Matter , Air
Objective:Recent findings of the association between daily mortality and ambient daily PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations well below the 24-h National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM10 has prompted the new NAAQS for PM2.5. However, whether the population exposure to PM is related to the concentration measured at an outdoor site remains unanswered. This study was funded to provide information to resolve this crucial issue. The study subjects are patients with chronic respiratory disease and cardiovascular complications residing in the metropolitan Seattle area. Year-round personal, biological, indoor, and outdoor PM measurements, as well as other co-varying air pollutants will be taken from 60 patients. The objectives of this study are to: (1) determine the strength of the relationship of the particle exposures of high-risk subpopulations to the concentrations measured by a central monitoring station; (2) characterize the key factors influencing this relationship; and (3) link exposure data with health outcomes to focus exposure modeling on unbiased estimation of health effects.
This study is being conducted in the Seattle Metropolitan area. Personal, biological (urine and breath), indoor, and outdoor PM10, PM2.5, CO, SO2, and NO2 measurements are taken throughout the year using the Harvard/Marple personal exposure monitors for PM, passive monitors for CO, SO2, and NO2, and nephelometers for continuous PM1. The biomarker technique recently developed at the University of Washington serves as a unique tracer for ambient PM exposures. At any given time, 5 patients are monitored simultaneously and 30 patients are to be monitored in high and medium-low wood smoke seasons each year. Subjects include 30 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 30 cardiovascular patients living in either group or private homes, as well as 24 healthy subjects monitored as controls. We also collect information on personal time-location-activity-symptom, events that occur in residences that may generate or reduce PM, building characteristics, continuous CO2 concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity. Furthermore, the exposure data are supplemented with peak expiratory flow rate, pulse rate, oxygen saturation, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram measurements from all subjects.
We have monitored 23 COPD and 24 healthy subjects in the first six sessions during the high wood smoke season (October 25, 1999?March 3, 2000). On average, 8 subjects were monitored simultaneously in each 10-day session. We started the first session of the medium-low wood smoke season on March 6, 2000. All subjects who enrolled in the first season are encouraged to participate in the new monitoring sessions again.
While waiting for the Office of Management's approval, we conducted a "prepilot" study in February and March 1999, to train technicians on various personal PM monitors and to set up the standard operation protocols (SOPs). Results from the prepilot study showed that the three-cut size Respicon monitors (TSI, Inc.) are negatively biased when compared with the FRM and TEOM measurements (Table 1). Although the real-time personal DataRAM (MIE, Inc.) agreed well with nephelometer measurements, they are severely affected by relative humidity. Measurements from the Marple PEMs agreed very well with those from both FRM and TEOM.
Table 1. Prepilot study results, outdoor measurements with various PM monitors. All measurements are in mg/m3, except for first column of nephelometer data (scatter coefficients).
A pilot study was conducted during June and August 1999, on four elderly subjects. All SOPs and field/laboratory data logs were implemented and tested based on the pilot study experience. A total of 40 personal, 40 indoor, and 37 outdoor 24-h integrated PM2.5 samples were collected. The data collection rate (actual/expected measurements) for various devices was above 95 percent, except for nephelometers and CO samples due to electronic problems. The limit of detection (LOD) based on three times the standard deviation of blanks was 6.8 mg/m3. Mean concentration of personal PM2.5 is higher than indoor PM2.5, which was equivalent to outdoor PM2.5 (Table 2).
Table 2. Personal, indoor, and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations (mg/m3) in the pilot study.
We currently are processing results from the high wood smoke season in the main study. Preliminary results indicate that the LOD for the Harvard impactors, used for indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and PM10 monitoring at 10 L/min, is 0.7 mg/m3 and the imprecision is slightly less than 1 percent from the collocated samples. The LOD for Harvard PEMs for personal PM2.5 monitoring, operated at 4 L/min, is 4.8 mg/m3, while the imprecision is 4 percent. Nephelometers, which were used to measure continuous indoor and outdoor PM1 concentrations at each private and group home, had imprecision of 3 percent. The continuous PM1 concentrations exhibit spatial variation within a group home on different floors (Figure 1 below). Although PM1 concentration differed significantly, depending on the ventilation conditions (windows open/closed), the concentrations were highly correlated.
Figure 1. Nepelometry measurements
Future Activities:We will continue to process results from the high wood smoke season in the main study.
Journal Articles on this Report : 1 Displayed | Download in RIS Format
|Other subproject views:||All 65 publications||25 publications in selected types||All 25 journal articles|
|Other center views:||All 209 publications||113 publications in selected types||All 109 journal articles|
||Claiborn CS, Finn D, Larson TV, Koenig JQ. Windblown dust contributes to high PM2.5 concentrations. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2000;50(8):1440-1445.||
Supplemental Keywords:ambient particles, fine particles, combustion, health, exposure, biostatistics, susceptibility., RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, Air, Geographic Area, particulate matter, air toxics, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Epidemiology, State, Northwest, Risk Assessments, Susceptibility/Sensitive Population/Genetic Susceptibility, Biochemistry, genetic susceptability, indoor air, Atmospheric Sciences, ambient aerosol, ambient air quality, asthma, biostatistics, health effects, particulates, PM10, sensitive populations, air pollutants, cardiopulmonary responses, fine particles, health risks, human health effects, morbidity, PM 2.5, toxicology, stratospheric ozone, exposure and effects, ambient air, exposure, hazardous air pollutants, animal model, combustion emissions, air pollution, children, Human Health Risk Assessment, particle exposure, cardiopulmonary response, human exposure, inhalation, PAHs, atmospheric aerosols, ambient particle health effects, mortality studies, hydrocarbons, human susceptibility, Seattle, Washington, incineration, indoor air quality, mortality, California (CA), allergens, aerosols, air quality, atmospheric chemistry, cardiovascular disease, exposure assessment, human health risk
Progress and Final Reports:Original Abstract
Main Center Abstract and Reports:R827355 Airborne PM - Northwest Research Center for Particulate Air Pollution and Health
Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
R827355C001 Epidemiologic Study of Particulate Matter and Cardiopulmonary Mortality
R827355C002 Health Effects
R827355C003 Personal PM Exposure Assessment
R827355C004 Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter
R827355C005 Mechanisms of Toxicity of Particulate Matter Using Transgenic Mouse Strains
R827355C006 Toxicology Project -- Controlled Exposure Facility
R827355C007 Health Effects Research Core
R827355C008 Exposure Core
R827355C009 Statistics and Data Core
R827355C010 Biomarker Core
R827355C011 Oxidation Stress Makers