1999 Progress Report: Health Effects

EPA Grant Number: R827355C002
Subproject: this is subproject number 002 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R827355
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: Airborne PM - Northwest Research Center for Particulate Air Pollution and Health
Center Director: Koenig, Jane Q.
Title: Health Effects
Investigators: Koenig, Jane Q. , Jansen, Karen , Kaufman, Joel D. , Larson, Timothy V. , Liu, Sally , Lumley, Thomas , Sheppard, Lianne (Elizabeth) A. , Sullivan, Jeff , Trenga, Carol
Current Investigators: Koenig, Jane Q. , Allen, Ryan , Jansen, Karen , Larson, Timothy V. , Lippmann, Morton , Lumley, Thomas , Mar, Therese , Sheppard, Lianne (Elizabeth) A.
Institution: University of Washington
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: June 1, 1999 through May 31, 2004 (Extended to May 31, 2006)
Project Period Covered by this Report: June 1, 1999 through May 31, 2000
Project Amount: Refer to main center abstract for funding details.
RFA: Airborne Particulate Matter (PM) Centers (1999) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Particulate Matter , Air


This research project is a health effects panel study that involves comprehensive health monitoring of one healthy and three susceptible subpopulations in Seattle, Spokane, and other cities. The susceptible individuals proposed for study are adults who are 65 years of age or older and have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or cardiovascular disease or children with asthma. The health endpoints to be measured in adult subjects are peak flow, pulse rate, pulse oximetry, blood pressure, and heart rate variability. The health endpoints to be measured in the children with asthma are pulmonary function and symptoms. Personal exposure measurements necessary for associating the health effects with air pollutants will be collected on study participants in Project 2b.

Progress Summary:

The Health Effects Study is being conducted simultaneously with the Exposure Assessment Study. The following is a list of cardiorespiratory measurements being recorded.

  1. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) and FEV1, using a computerized instrument, AirWatch (ENACT, Palo Alto, CA). All subjects will measure their PEF and FEV1 once in the morning and once in the evening.

  2. Heart Rate Variability (HRV), using a 5-minute supine, resting paced breathing protocol (Task Force, 1996). HRV is a powerful and independent predictor of mortality after an acute myocardial infarction (Bigger et al. 1992). HRV data will be collected using Holter monitor-type equipment (Del Mar Avionics) and interpreted in both frequency and time domain using a specialized HRV analysis system.

  3. Blood Pressure (BP), using an automated sphygmomanometer (Omron). BP provides information on cardiac function and autonomic activity influenced by both cardiac and vascular components. Systolic and diastolic BP will be measured in a seated position, following at least a 5-minute rest. The same arm and cuff size will be used for each subject.

  4. Oxygen Saturation (O2Sat) and Pulse, using pulse oximetry (Nonin). It is a sensitive measure of respiratory and cardiovascular system compromise. The subjects will rest quietly and place the sensor of a pulse oximeter on the left index finger for 3 minutes.

  5. Urine samples. Subjects are asked to provide a daily urine sample (first void) on each day of the monitoring session. Our research group has developed a urinary biomarker for wood smoke exposure based on the presence of two methoxylated phenols. Selected urine data will be used to test the validity of this biomarker against concentrations of these compounds in ambient air (from the daily filters we are collecting).

The first year of this comprehensive Exposure Assessment/Health Effects study was designed to study 30 subjects with COPD and 24 healthy control subjects. All subjects were 65 years or older. Subjects were to be studied in six groups of nine: five with COPD and four who were healthy. We have finished the first six sessions and also have completed two sessions in the 2nd season. The first session began on October 25, 1999, and continued through February 2000. Thus, our session was conducted during the wood-burning season. In the first session, we completed 22 subjects with COPD and 24 healthy subjects. We are now in the process of determining the best statistical models to use for analyses of preliminary health data: pulse oximetry, BP, and FEV1.

Future Activities:

In June 2000, we will begin compiling lists necessary for recruitment of subjects 65 years of age or older with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and children with asthma. We have access to subjects from several studies of CVD from the Northwest Lipid Center and approval for recruitment from the Puget Sound VA Medical Center and Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound. We are working with Gail G. Shapiro, M.D., of ASTHMA, Inc., the research arm of the Northwest Asthma and Allergy Center, to develop a protocol for recruitment of children with asthma who live in areas impacted by residential wood smoke.

Journal Articles on this Report : 2 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 27 publications 18 publications in selected types All 18 journal articles
Other center views: All 209 publications 113 publications in selected types All 109 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Mar TF, Norris GA, Koenig JQ, Larson TV. Associations between air pollution and mortality in Phoenix, 1995-1997. Environmental Health Perspectives 2000;108(4):347-353. R827355 (2004)
R827355 (Final)
R827355C002 (1999)
R827355C002 (2001)
R827355C002 (Final)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: EHP-Full Text HTML
  • Other: EHP-Full Text PDF
  • Journal Article Norris G, Larson T, Koenig J, Claiborn C, Sheppard L, Finn D. Asthma aggravation, combustion, and stagnant air. Thorax 2000;55(6):466-470. R827355 (2004)
    R827355 (Final)
    R827355C002 (1999)
    R827355C002 (2001)
  • Full-text from PubMed
  • Abstract from PubMed
  • Associated PubMed link
  • Full-text: Thorax-Full Text PDF
  • Abstract: Thorax-Abstract and Full Text HTML
  • Supplemental Keywords:

    ambient particles, fine particles, combustion, health, exposure, biostatistics, susceptibility., RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, Air, Geographic Area, Waste, particulate matter, Toxicology, air toxics, Environmental Chemistry, Health Risk Assessment, Epidemiology, State, Northwest, Risk Assessments, Susceptibility/Sensitive Population/Genetic Susceptibility, Biochemistry, genetic susceptability, indoor air, Incineration/Combustion, ambient aerosol, ambient air quality, asthma, biostatistics, health effects, particulates, risk assessment, sensitive populations, air pollutants, cardiopulmonary responses, health risks, human health effects, morbidity, exposure and effects, airway disease, ambient air, exposure, animal model, combustion emissions, air pollution, children, Human Health Risk Assessment, particle exposure, cardiopulmonary response, human exposure, inhalation, atmospheric aerosols, ambient particle health effects, combustion, elderly, human susceptibility, incineration, indoor air quality, mortality, California (CA), allergens, age dependent response, aerosols, air quality, atmospheric chemistry, cardiovascular disease, combustion contaminants, exposure assessment, human health risk, particle transport, toxics

    Relevant Websites:

    http://depts.washington.edu/pmcenter/Exit EPA icon

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 2000 Progress Report
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • 2004 Progress Report
  • Final Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R827355    Airborne PM - Northwest Research Center for Particulate Air Pollution and Health

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R827355C001 Epidemiologic Study of Particulate Matter and Cardiopulmonary Mortality
    R827355C002 Health Effects
    R827355C003 Personal PM Exposure Assessment
    R827355C004 Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter
    R827355C005 Mechanisms of Toxicity of Particulate Matter Using Transgenic Mouse Strains
    R827355C006 Toxicology Project -- Controlled Exposure Facility
    R827355C007 Health Effects Research Core
    R827355C008 Exposure Core
    R827355C009 Statistics and Data Core
    R827355C010 Biomarker Core
    R827355C011 Oxidation Stress Makers