2004 Progress Report: Investigating Chronic Effects of Exposure to Particulate Matter

EPA Grant Number: R827353C006
Subproject: this is subproject number 006 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R827353
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: EPA Harvard Center for Ambient Particle Health Effects
Center Director: Koutrakis, Petros
Title: Investigating Chronic Effects of Exposure to Particulate Matter
Investigators: Dockery, Douglas W.
Current Investigators: Dockery, Douglas W. , Laden, Francine , Schwartz, Joel
Institution: Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health , Harvard University
Current Institution: Harvard University , Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: June 1, 1999 through May 31, 2005 (Extended to May 31, 2006)
Project Period Covered by this Report: June 1, 2003 through May 31, 2004
Project Amount: Refer to main center abstract for funding details.
RFA: Airborne Particulate Matter (PM) Centers (1999) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Particulate Matter , Air

Objective:

The objective of this research project is to assess the cumulative effect of long-term exposures to particulate matter (PM).

Progress Summary:

The effect of chronic particulate exposures was examined using the Normative Aging Study cohort. In Year 6, we demonstrated that the effect of PM10 on heart rate variability was enhanced in hypertensive individuals (Park, 2005). A follow-up to that study (Schwartz, et al., 2005) has demonstrated that the effect is also enhanced in the obese, and in persons without the gene to manufacture glutathione S transferase M1. Since obesity increases systemic oxidative stress and GSTM1 is an important part of defenses against oxidative stress, this strongly indicates that oxidative stress is an important pathway for the autonomic effects of PM.

While cohort studies have shown much larger effects of PM on mortality than time series studies, some have argued that these are the results of lifetime or very long term exposure. If so, benefits of reducing air pollution will take a long time to appear. To examine this issue we conducted a further 10-year follow-up of the Six City Study. We compared the covariate adjusted mortality rate in each of the six cities in each of the two follow-up periods to the average exposure in each follow-up period. We found that in cities where exposure fell substantially between the two follow-up periods, the covariate adjusted mortality rate fell substantially, whereas if there was little change in exposure, there was little change in the mortality rate. This indicates that the health improvements from reducing PM exposure should be seen relatively soon after reducing PM concentrations in the air (Laden, et al., 200 6).


Journal Articles on this Report : 1 Displayed | Download in RIS Format

Other subproject views: All 4 publications 4 publications in selected types All 4 journal articles
Other center views: All 200 publications 198 publications in selected types All 197 journal articles
Type Citation Sub Project Document Sources
Journal Article Laden F, Schwartz J, Speizer FE, Dockery DW. Reduction in fine particulate air pollution and mortality:extended follow-up of the Harvard Six Cities Study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2006;173(6):667-672. R827353 (Final)
R827353C006 (2004)
R827353C006 (Final)
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  • Supplemental Keywords:

    exposure, health effects, susceptibility, metals, public policy, biology, engineering, epidemiology, toxicology, environmental chemistry, monitoring, air pollutants, air pollution, air quality, ambient air, ambient air monitoring, ambient air quality, ambient measurement methods, ambient monitoring, ambient particle health effects, ambient particles, animal inhalation study, assessment of exposure, biological mechanism, biological response, cardiopulmonary, cardiopulmonary response, cardiovascular disease, chemical exposure, children, developmental effects, dosimetry, environmental health hazard, exposure and effects, genetic susceptibility, health risks, human exposure, human health, human health effects, human health risk, human susceptibility, indoor air quality, indoor exposure, inhalation, inhalation toxicology, inhaled particles, lead, measurement methods, particle exposure, particulate exposure, particulates, pulmonary, pulmonary disease, respiratory, respiratory disease, risk assessment, sensitive populations, stratospheric ozone,, RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, PHYSICAL ASPECTS, Air, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, particulate matter, Toxicology, air toxics, Environmental Chemistry, Epidemiology, Risk Assessments, Microbiology, Susceptibility/Sensitive Population/Genetic Susceptibility, Environmental Microbiology, Environmental Monitoring, Physical Processes, Children's Health, genetic susceptability, tropospheric ozone, Atmospheric Sciences, Molecular Biology/Genetics, Biology, Environmental Engineering, Risk Assessment, ambient air quality, monitoring, particle size, sensitive populations, chemical exposure, interindividual variability, molecular epidemiology, particulates, health effects, air pollutants, exposure and effects, lung, stratospheric ozone, ambient air monitoring, health risks, cardiopulmonary responses, indoor exposure, human health effects, ambient air, exposure, developmental effects, epidemelogy, respiratory disease, pulmonary disease, biological response, ambient measurement methods, ambient monitoring, children, air pollution, particle exposure, biological mechanism , Human Health Risk Assessment, lung cancer, human exposure, chronic effects, inhalation, pulmonary, ambient particle health effects, cardiopulmonary response, particulate exposure, susceptibility, assessment of exposure, elderly, inhaled, inhalation toxicology, epidemeology, environmental health hazard, human susceptibility, indoor air, atmospheric monitoring, cardiopulmonary, human health, indoor air quality, inhaled particles, measurement methods , measurement methods, respiratory, toxics, exposure assessment, genetic susceptibility, air quality, dosimetry, cardiovascular disease

    Progress and Final Reports:

    Original Abstract
  • 1999
  • 2000 Progress Report
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • Final Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R827353    EPA Harvard Center for Ambient Particle Health Effects

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R827353C001 Assessing Human Exposures to Particulate and Gaseous Air Pollutants
    R827353C002 Quantifying Exposure Error and its Effect on Epidemiological Studies
    R827353C003 St. Louis Bus, Steubenville and Atlanta Studies
    R827353C004 Examining Conditions That Predispose Towards Acute Adverse Effects of Particulate Exposures
    R827353C005 Assessing Life-Shortening Associated with Exposure to Particulate Matter
    R827353C006 Investigating Chronic Effects of Exposure to Particulate Matter
    R827353C007 Determining the Effects of Particle Characteristics on Respiratory Health of Children
    R827353C008 Differentiating the Roles of Particle Size, Particle Composition, and Gaseous Co-Pollutants on Cardiac Ischemia
    R827353C009 Assessing Deposition of Ambient Particles in the Lung
    R827353C010 Relating Changes in Blood Viscosity, Other Clotting Parameters, Heart Rate, and Heart Rate Variability to Particulate and Criteria Gas Exposures
    R827353C011 Studies of Oxidant Mechanisms
    R827353C012 Modeling Relationships Between Mobile Source Particle Emissions and Population Exposures
    R827353C013 Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA) Study
    R827353C014 Identifying the Physical and Chemical Properties of Particulate Matter Responsible for the Observed Adverse Health Effects
    R827353C015 Research Coordination Core
    R827353C016 Analytical and Facilities Core
    R827353C017 Technology Development and Transfer Core