2002 Progress Report: St. Louis Bus, Steubenville and Atlanta Studies

EPA Grant Number: R827353C003
Subproject: this is subproject number 003 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R827353
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: EPA Harvard Center for Ambient Particle Health Effects
Center Director: Koutrakis, Petros
Title: St. Louis Bus, Steubenville and Atlanta Studies
Investigators: Gold, Diane R.
Current Investigators: Gold, Diane R. , Adamkiewicz, Gary , Coull, Brent , Dockery, Douglas W. , Dubowsky, S. , Luttmann-Gibson, Heike , Sarnat, Jeremy , Schwartz, Joel , Stone, Peter , Suh, Helen H. , Wheeler, A. , Zanobetti, Antonella
Institution: Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health , Harvard University
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: June 1, 1999 through May 31, 2005 (Extended to May 31, 2006)
Project Period Covered by this Report: June 1, 2002 through May 31, 2003
Project Amount: Refer to main center abstract for funding details.
RFA: Airborne Particulate Matter (PM) Centers (1999) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Particulate Matter , Air


The main objective of this research project is to investigate the joint and individual effects of outdoor and indoor particles on heart rate and heart rate variability.

Progress Summary:

We have completed data collection for two field studies conducted in Atlanta and Steubenville, both of which have been co-sponsored by the Center. For the Atlanta study, multipollutant exposures and cardiovascular health status were measured repeatedly for two cohorts: individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and recent myocardial infarctions. For the Steubenville study, multipollutant exposures and cardiovascular health status were measured for elderly individuals living in government-subsidized housing complexes. The same health protocol was used for each of these studies, with data on heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and daily symptoms obtained for each participant on at least 7 days. Twenty-four hour indoor, outdoor, and personal measurements of PM, ozone, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide also were measured on each of the monitoring days.

Our analysis of the toxic effects of indoor and outdoor particles using in vitro bioassays was published in Environmental Health Perspectives (Long, et al., 2001). In this study, particle-induced proinflammatory responses were assessed using tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production in the macrophages. TNF production was significantly higher for indoor as compared to outdoor particles, both before and after normalization for endotoxin concentrations. Indoor and outdoor particle samples also were collected in 46 homes in Atlanta, GA, and will undergo a similar analysis to investigate the relative toxicity of indoor and outdoor particles.


Long CM, Suh H, Kobzik L, Catalano PJ, Ning PJ, Koutrakis P. A pilot investigation of the relative toxicity of indoor and outdoor fine particles: in vitro effects of endotoxin and other particulate properties. Environmental Health Perspectives 109(10):1019-1026.

Future Activities:

During the next year, the data analysis from the Atlanta study will be completed, and a paper will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal by the end of this year. Laboratory analysis of the electrocardiogram data from Steubenville currently is ongoing, with data analysis expected to start early next year.

Journal Articles:

No journal articles submitted with this report: View all 8 publications for this subproject

Supplemental Keywords:

ambient particles, particulate matter, PM, outdoor particles, indoor particles, particulates, heart, heart rate, heart rate variability, health effects, Atlanta, Steubenville, cardiovascular health, myocardial infarction, MI, cardiovascular effects, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD, lung disease, respiratory disease, elderly, susceptible populations, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, ozone, O3, carbon monoxide, CO, nitrogen dioxide, NO2, tumor necrosis factor, inflammatory response, airway inflammation., RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, Air, particulate matter, Toxicology, air toxics, Environmental Chemistry, Epidemiology, Risk Assessments, Susceptibility/Sensitive Population/Genetic Susceptibility, genetic susceptability, indoor air, tropospheric ozone, Biology, ambient air quality, health effects, interindividual variability, molecular epidemiology, monitoring, particulates, risk assessment, sensitive populations, chemical exposure, air pollutants, cardiopulmonary responses, health risks, human health effects, indoor exposure, stratospheric ozone, ambient air monitoring, exposure and effects, ambient air, ambient measurement methods, exposure, pulmonary disease, developmental effects, epidemelogy, respiratory disease, air pollution, ambient monitoring, Human Health Risk Assessment, particle exposure, biological mechanism , cardiopulmonary response, human exposure, inhalation, pulmonary, particulate exposure, ambient particle health effects, inhaled, atmospheric monitoring, human susceptibility, inhalation toxicology, differentiating outdoor and indoor sources, cardiopulmonary, indoor air quality, inhaled particles, human health, measurement methods , air quality, cardiovascular disease, dosimetry, human health risk, metals, respiratory, genetic susceptibility

Relevant Websites:

http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/epacenter/ Exit

Progress and Final Reports:

Original Abstract
  • 1999 Progress Report
  • 2000 Progress Report
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • 2004 Progress Report
  • Final Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R827353    EPA Harvard Center for Ambient Particle Health Effects

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R827353C001 Assessing Human Exposures to Particulate and Gaseous Air Pollutants
    R827353C002 Quantifying Exposure Error and its Effect on Epidemiological Studies
    R827353C003 St. Louis Bus, Steubenville and Atlanta Studies
    R827353C004 Examining Conditions That Predispose Towards Acute Adverse Effects of Particulate Exposures
    R827353C005 Assessing Life-Shortening Associated with Exposure to Particulate Matter
    R827353C006 Investigating Chronic Effects of Exposure to Particulate Matter
    R827353C007 Determining the Effects of Particle Characteristics on Respiratory Health of Children
    R827353C008 Differentiating the Roles of Particle Size, Particle Composition, and Gaseous Co-Pollutants on Cardiac Ischemia
    R827353C009 Assessing Deposition of Ambient Particles in the Lung
    R827353C010 Relating Changes in Blood Viscosity, Other Clotting Parameters, Heart Rate, and Heart Rate Variability to Particulate and Criteria Gas Exposures
    R827353C011 Studies of Oxidant Mechanisms
    R827353C012 Modeling Relationships Between Mobile Source Particle Emissions and Population Exposures
    R827353C013 Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA) Study
    R827353C014 Identifying the Physical and Chemical Properties of Particulate Matter Responsible for the Observed Adverse Health Effects
    R827353C015 Research Coordination Core
    R827353C016 Analytical and Facilities Core
    R827353C017 Technology Development and Transfer Core