1999 Progress Report: St. Louis Bus, Steubenville and Atlanta Studies

EPA Grant Number: R827353C003
Subproject: this is subproject number 003 , established and managed by the Center Director under grant R827353
(EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).

Center: EPA Harvard Center for Ambient Particle Health Effects
Center Director: Koutrakis, Petros
Title: St. Louis Bus, Steubenville and Atlanta Studies
Investigators: Gold, Diane R. , Stone, Peter
Current Investigators: Gold, Diane R. , Adamkiewicz, Gary , Coull, Brent , Dockery, Douglas W. , Dubowsky, S. , Luttmann-Gibson, Heike , Sarnat, Jeremy , Schwartz, Joel , Stone, Peter , Suh, Helen H. , Wheeler, A. , Zanobetti, Antonella
Institution: Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health , Harvard University
EPA Project Officer: Chung, Serena
Project Period: June 1, 1999 through May 31, 2005 (Extended to May 31, 2006)
Project Period Covered by this Report: June 1, 1999 through May 31, 2000
Project Amount: Refer to main center abstract for funding details.
RFA: Airborne Particulate Matter (PM) Centers (1999) RFA Text |  Recipients Lists
Research Category: Air Quality and Air Toxics , Particulate Matter , Air

Objective:

The overall objective of this project is to improve our ability to characterize air pollutant exposures for health effects studies. This project is one of three research studies proposed under Theme I: Assessing Particle Exposures for Health Effects Studies that were based on personal, indoor, and outdoor particulate and gas concentrations that were measured as part of our previous or current exposure studies. This project was intended to address Particulate Matter Research Topics 2 and 8 identified by the National Research Council (NRC)- Exposures of Susceptible Populations and Assessing Effects of Hazardous Particulate Components.

We have conducted several studies of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) living in Nashville, TN, and Boston, MA, and of older adults living in Baltimore, MD. Results from these studies show that personal exposures to particles may be lower or higher than corresponding outdoor concentrations, depending on the sampled cohort. In our study of individuals with COPD living in Nashville, for example, we found mean personal PM2.5 exposures to be lower than ambient concentrations and attributed these lower exposures to the cohort's low activity level (Bahadori, et al., 1999). Similar results were found for our older adult cohort living in Baltimore. It is possible that lower personal exposures for our older adult cohort also are due to lower activity levels. These issues will be examined in a subsequent analysis.

Results from Nashville and Baltimore differ from those reported for our Boston cohort of individuals with COPD, for which median personal PM2.5 and PM10 exposures were higher than corresponding outdoor concentrations. Findings for our Boston cohort were comparable to those observed for healthy individuals.

Progress Summary:

Efforts are underway to characterize personal multi-pollutant exposures and their relationship to corresponding ambient concentrations for different cohorts of sensitive individuals, including individuals with COPD, older adults, children, and individuals with cardiovascular disease (see above). These individuals will live in metropolitan areas characterized by different weather conditions (e.g., hot summers/mild winters and mild summers/harsh winters) so that we can examine the effect of ventilation on observed personal-ambient associations. In total, we will characterize the multi-pollutant exposures for 158 sensitive individuals, including 45 with COPD, 25 with cardiovascular disease, 40 older adults, and 48 children.

In addition to these exposure measurements, we have expanded the scope of two of our studies to include cardiovascular health measurements, as proposed in this third research project of Theme I. In our Atlanta and Steubenville studies, for example, we measured the heart rate variability and ascertained the cardiovascular health status of each participant on each morning following his/her 24-hour exposure monitoring period. We will use these data to examine the association between cardiovascular health and various PM components, including: (1) outdoor PM2.5 concentrations; (2) indoor source-related indoor PM2.5 concentrations; (3) outdoor source-related personal PM2.5; and (4) indoor source-related personal PM2.5. Data collection has recently been completed in Atlanta, GA, and currently is under way in Steubenville, OH.

Future Activities:

We will use the data from Atlanta and Steubenville to examine the association between cardiovascular health and various PM components, including: (1) outdoor PM2.5 concentrations; (2) indoor source-related indoor PM2.5 concentrations; (3) outdoor source-related personal PM2.5; and (4) indoor source-related personal PM2.5. Data collection has recently been completed in Atlanta, GA, and currently is under way in Steubenville, OH. Data analysis will begin later this summer.

Journal Articles:

No journal articles submitted with this report: View all 8 publications for this subproject

Supplemental Keywords:

particulate matter, PM2.5, PM10, air pollutants, particulates, health effects, exposure, ambient particles, susceptibility, metals, public policy, biology, engineering, epidemiology, toxicology, environmental chemistry, monitoring., RFA, Health, Scientific Discipline, Air, particulate matter, Toxicology, air toxics, Environmental Chemistry, Epidemiology, Risk Assessments, Susceptibility/Sensitive Population/Genetic Susceptibility, genetic susceptability, indoor air, tropospheric ozone, Biology, ambient air quality, health effects, monitoring, risk assessment, sensitive populations, particulates, chemical exposure, interindividual variability, molecular epidemiology, air pollutants, exposure and effects, stratospheric ozone, ambient air monitoring, health risks, cardiopulmonary responses, indoor exposure, human health effects, ambient air, developmental effects, epidemelogy, respiratory disease, exposure, pulmonary disease, ambient measurement methods, ambient monitoring, air pollution, particle exposure, biological mechanism , Human Health Risk Assessment, human exposure, inhalation, pulmonary, ambient particle health effects, cardiopulmonary response, particulate exposure, inhaled, inhalation toxicology, human susceptibility, differentiating outdoor and indoor sources, atmospheric monitoring, cardiopulmonary, human health, indoor air quality, inhaled particles, measurement methods , metals, respiratory, genetic susceptibility, air quality, dosimetry, cardiovascular disease, human health risk

Relevant Websites:

http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/epacenter/homeframe.htm Exit EPA icon

Progress and Final Reports:

Original Abstract
  • 2000 Progress Report
  • 2001 Progress Report
  • 2002 Progress Report
  • 2003 Progress Report
  • 2004 Progress Report
  • Final Report

  • Main Center Abstract and Reports:

    R827353    EPA Harvard Center for Ambient Particle Health Effects

    Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or establish subprojects; EPA awards and manages the overall grant for this center).
    R827353C001 Assessing Human Exposures to Particulate and Gaseous Air Pollutants
    R827353C002 Quantifying Exposure Error and its Effect on Epidemiological Studies
    R827353C003 St. Louis Bus, Steubenville and Atlanta Studies
    R827353C004 Examining Conditions That Predispose Towards Acute Adverse Effects of Particulate Exposures
    R827353C005 Assessing Life-Shortening Associated with Exposure to Particulate Matter
    R827353C006 Investigating Chronic Effects of Exposure to Particulate Matter
    R827353C007 Determining the Effects of Particle Characteristics on Respiratory Health of Children
    R827353C008 Differentiating the Roles of Particle Size, Particle Composition, and Gaseous Co-Pollutants on Cardiac Ischemia
    R827353C009 Assessing Deposition of Ambient Particles in the Lung
    R827353C010 Relating Changes in Blood Viscosity, Other Clotting Parameters, Heart Rate, and Heart Rate Variability to Particulate and Criteria Gas Exposures
    R827353C011 Studies of Oxidant Mechanisms
    R827353C012 Modeling Relationships Between Mobile Source Particle Emissions and Population Exposures
    R827353C013 Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions of Source Aerosols (TERESA) Study
    R827353C014 Identifying the Physical and Chemical Properties of Particulate Matter Responsible for the Observed Adverse Health Effects
    R827353C015 Research Coordination Core
    R827353C016 Analytical and Facilities Core
    R827353C017 Technology Development and Transfer Core